|Biodiversity in the Western Ghats: An Information Kit (IIRR, 1994, 224 p.)|
|1. Front matter|
|1.1 About this information kit|
|1.2 Workshop participants|
|1.3 Introduction to biodiversity|
|1.4 User survey|
|1.5 Biodiversity: A synthesis|
|2.1 Biodiversity of the Western Ghats|
|2.2 Threats to biodiversity|
|2.3 Urbanization and biodiversity|
|2.4 Population and biodiversity in the Western Ghats|
|2.5 Pollution in Goa's rivers and estuaries|
|2.6 Atmospheric pollution and biodiversity|
|2.7 Managing solid waste|
|2.8 Traffic in wildlife products|
|2.9 Effect of tobacco growing on biodiversity|
|2.10 For those vanishing species|
|3.1 Biodiversity of the Arabian Sea|
|3.3 O verexploitation of of marine living resources|
|3.4 Small-sector coastal fisheries along the Kerala coast|
|3.5 Coral reefs|
|3.7 Estuarine shellfish|
|3.9 Coastal ecosystems|
|3.10 Coastal sand dune vegetation|
|3.11 Fish breeding and habitat|
|4. Fresh- and brackishwater|
|4.1 Estuarine ecosystems|
|4.3 Mangrove communities|
|4.5 Freshwater wetlands: Carambolim Lake|
|4.6 Freshwater algae|
|5.1 Rice diversity and conservation in the Konkan|
|5.2 Conservation of traditional vegetables in the backyard|
|5.3 Genetic diversity in mango and cashew|
|5.4 Floriculture and arboriculture|
|5.5 Enriched biodiversity by plant introductions|
|5.6 Impact of introduced plants|
|5.7 Effects of pesticides on biodiversity|
|5.8 Khazan (saline) lands|
|6. Plants, fungi and bacteria|
|6.1 Plant associations of the central Western Ghats|
|6.2 Rare and endangered flowering plants|
|6.3 Medicinal resources from the forest and sea|
|6.4 Poisonous plants|
|6.5 Fungi: Biodiversity, ecology and use|
|6.6 Conserving fungi|
|6.7 Edible mushrooms|
|6.8 Microbial biodiversity of salt pans|
|7.2 Honeybees to conserve biodiversity|
|7.3 Mulberry silkworms|
|7.5 Conserving natural enemies of mosquitoes|
|8. Reptiles, birds and mammals|
|8.5 Animal diversity in prehistoric rock-art|
|9. Appreciating and conserving biodiversity|
|9.1 Biodiversity and the media|
|9.2 Role of non-government organizations in conservation|
|9.3 Watershed management|
|9.4 Energy conservation and alternatives|
|9.5 Nature trails|
|9.6 Sacred groves|
|9.7 Rehabilitation of iron ore mine wasteland in Goa|
|9.8 Reforestation to restore mining areas|
|9.9 Mining: Social and environmental impacts|
|9.10 Resource utilization in Uttar Kannada district|
|9.11 Biodiversity of Dudhsagar valley|
|10.1 National parks and sanctuaries in the Western Ghats|
|10.3 NGOs in the Western Ghats states|
The concept of "plant association" is used in ecology in two ways:
· As a measure of similarity of occurrence of two species.
· As an assemblage of species comparable to a community. This is the meaning used in this sheet.
Plant associations can act as indicators of site quality. For example, the occurrence of Calmus pseudotenuis, Murraya paniculata and Ardisia solanea in primary forest indicates a very good soil. On the other hand, Calotropis gigantea, Trema orientalis and Lantana camara indicate poor soil.
Studies show that Goa, in the central Western Ghats, has lost 2% of its forest cover annually in the last thirty years. Of the original forest, 55% has disappeared through conversion to arable land, mining, human settlement or illicit clearing for fuel and timber.
Of an area of 3701 km², 55% of Goa is now non-forested; 42% constitutes dense primary forest, and 3% is secondary forest. Forest degradation is thought to be accelerating at the alarming rate of 2.4% per year.
Setbacks Mangrove, riverbank and sandy area associations should be protected by setbacks which limit land use for a certain distance from the mean high water mark.
Protected areas Representative samples of these ecosystems should be preserved in protected areas.
Land use zoning Land use activities which could have negative impacts on various plant associations should be sited accordingly.
Use of indigenous species Land use development should use indigenous spicies adapted to specific sites rather than introduced species. For example, sandy associations could use Ipornoea rather than Casuarina.
Human modifications of plant associations
· Development of hotels and other allied activities has led to the destruction of the sandy area association.
· Firewood collection in the rocky plateau association is resulting in laterization.
· Deliberate burning of grass results in the selection of fire-resistant varieties, which are often unpalatable and of low protein content.
· Humans have created various new associations, for instance in monocropped fields.
Major plant associations of Goa