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close this bookThe Intensive Poultry Farming Industry in the Sahelian Zone (CDI, 1996, 56 p.)
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Open this folder and view contents1. INTENSIVE POULTRY FARMING IN THE SAHELIAN ZONE
Open this folder and view contents2. SUB-SETS OF INTENSIVE POULTRY FARMING
Open this folder and view contents3. QUESTIONNAIRE
Open this folder and view contents4. SUPPLIERS TO THE POULTRY FARMING INDUSTRY
View the document5. WORKS CONSULTED
View the document6. A TOOL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN ACP COUNTRIES
View the documentFACILITIES IN SUPPORT OF THE CREATION, EXPANSION, DIVERSIFICATION, REHABILITATION OR PRIVATISATION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES
View the documentTHE CDI'S ACP ANTENNAE NETWORK
View the documentBACK COVER

(introduction...)

GUIDE

SERIES TECHNOLOGIES No. 7

This document was originally prepared on the basis of information provided by the institutions and the companies profiled. Despite alt efforts made for updating and verification, the Centre for the Development of Industry does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information. The inclusion of any institution or company in this document does not imply any commitment on the part of that institution or company to provide any of the services described.


CDI
Centre for the Development of Industry
52 avenue Herrmann Debroux
B-1160 BRUSSELS
BELGIUM
Tel. +32 2 679 18 11
Fax +32 2 675 26 03
Telex 61427 cdi b

Since it was founded in 1977, the Centre for the Development of Industry (CDI) has acquired extensive technical and commercial know-how in the creation, development and rehabilitation of small and medium-sized industries in the ACP countries (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific), particularly through the establishment of lasting partnerships with companies in the European Union.

In publishing this collection of “Practical Guides”, the CDI is meeting a clearly expressed need by ACP promoters and companies in the EU wishing to lay the foundations for industrial co-operation. The purpose of these guides is to enable them to adapt to the technical, commercial, financial, administrative and legal environment of the different countries. Designed to ease their task by providing detailed information - in simple practical terms - on a specific aspect or field of their activities, these guides are intended above all to be effective tools which managers can use on a day-to-day basis.

To prepare the guides, the CDI calls upon the services of consultants, researchers and businessmen - in both the ACP countries and the European Union - with extensive experience in the field concerned, in the practical problems actually encountered by entrepreneurs and in the solutions to be applied. Whenever circumstances allow, the CDI cooperates with partners (consultancy bureau, research body, specialised institution, etc.) to ensure that the guides are as widely circulated as possible.

This guide was compiled by Jean Fraiture, agronomist (FSAGx), in collaboration with CDI experts.

© 1996 CDI, Brussels, 2nd edition.

This volume of CDI Guides is published by the CDI.

May not be sold by persons or organisations other than the CDI and its official distributors.

Price: 20 ecus.

Reproduction authorised with indication of the source, except for commercial purposes.

THIS GUIDE IS NOT A POULTRY MANUAL IT IS INTENDED FOR:

· PROMOTERS OF POULTRY FARMING PROJECTS
· PROFESSIONAL POULTRY FARMERS

1.1. Introduction

The aim of this guide is to promote the development of intensive poultry farming and related activities in the Western Sahelian area. It follows on from the first meetings for professionals in the poultry and livestock feed industries organized by the CDI in Saly-Portudal (Senegal) in November 1993.

Intensive poultry farming is a quick and effective means of supplying African communities with animal protein of high nutritional quality at an extremely competitive price.

However, the exchange of views between ACP and EU operators taking part in these meetings showed that, alongside some very successful poultry farms, many others were suffering from insufficient mastery of production parameters. It turned out that the failures in this sector could be put down to a lack of technical information for farmers, inadequate structuring of the production phases (inadequacy or lack of hatcheries, abattoirs, egg tray production), frequently deficient feed quality, precarious husbandry conditions, lack of training of husbandry staff or inappropriate production tools.

This guide seeks to remedy that situation by providing readers, whether they be managers of poultry-keeping projects or professional poultry farmers, with a set of useful and realistic information which will enable them to avoid the many pitfalls which await them along the way. The CDI is not presenting a poultry farming manual, but a set of recommendations drawn from both African and European professionals who have acquired, through experience, know-how in the field of intensive poultry farming which can be of benefit to everyone involved in this activity.

In this guide, the reader will find diagrams, advice, a technological profile of poultry farming from primary production through to marketing, recommendations for designing a poultry farming project, a hatchery, an abattoir or even a compound feed production unit, relating in all cases to small units. It is easier to start on a modest scale than to manage a major enterprise in which neither production techniques nor management have been fully mastered, while making plans from the outset for possible future expansion.

The CDI's strategy is to support small, well-structured projects which have the greatest chance of success because the rigorous design process means that they are adapted to African socio-economic structural contingencies.

1.2.1. What is intensive poultry farming?

Unlike small-scale poultry-rearing to meet family needs in rural areas, intensive poultry units are located close to urban centres. Potential consumers of the products of intensive poultry farming are urban populations, local authorities and the hotel industry. Export outlets in some countries of the sub-region may also come up.

Like any other industrial activity, intensive poultry farming implies: capital investment, technical skills, know-how, permanent supervision, rigorous management and commercial ability.

We deliberately limit ourselves in this guide to egg production (for hatching and consumption) and broiler chickens, as these farming activities are far more widespread in the Sahelian region than the production of other poultry (turkeys, guinea fowl, quail, etc).

Other activities take place upstream and downstream of intensive poultry farming:

- The hatchery: produces day-old chicks from hatching eggs, which are either imported or produced in local breeding stock farms;

- The factory manufacturing compound feed for poultry units;

- The factory producing egg trays for egg transportation;

- The abattoir with coldroom for the slaughter of chickens and storage of the carcasses.

Finally, we should mention gathering, transport and packing (eggs, ready-to-roast chickens) operations as well as distribution to the consumer via wholesalers and retailers.

1.2.2. Poultry - a living machine

In intensive poultry farming, the production tool is living matter: poultry.

- It consumes air, drinking water and feed.
- It produces eggs and meat.
- It is sensitive to environmental conditions, stress and diseases.
- It pollutes due to emissions of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and faecal and urinary waste.

1.2.3. Choice of breed

Small-scale poultry farms use breeds known as “rustic”, which are characterized by low performance (50/60 eggs per hen per year), low growth, good adaptation to climatic and sanitary conditions and low feed requirements.

Intensive poultry farming uses selected breeds (hybrids) obtained by specialists in avian genetics. These breeds are high-yielding (300 eggs per hen per year) and grow quickly; they are sensitive to stress and diseases and demand a healthy balanced diet and a comfortable environment.

In the Sahelian context, bearing in mind the specific constraints - extreme heat, low level of feeding, limited financial resources - it can sometimes be more advantageous to use breeds which are a little less productive than others but are more resistant to the environmental conditions prevailing in that region.

Advice in choosing a breed

- Approach local hatchers or, failing this, representatives of breed suppliers in order to obtain precise information about technical performance, sensitivity to disease, ability to adapt, price and delivery periods.

- Make sure that the local hatchery supplying day-old chicks from the breed you consider most attractive has a good reputation.

The reliability and knowhow of the parent-stock breeder and the hatcher are more important than the breed in ensuring excellent quality chicks.

- If you are considering importing day-old chicks, find out beforehand all the sanitary and administrative requirements which must be fulfilled. When the chicks arrive, make arrangements to forward them in good order and as quickly as possible to the rearing site.

Consult the travelling technicians employed by breed suppliers, who can give you wise counsel about the most appropriate breed for your circumstances. We should point out that most breed suppliers publish manuals on poultry rearing and feeding which they kindly make available to farmers. These manuals are a mine of practical information which is essential to the proper running of a poultry farm.

CHOICE OF BREED OF CHICK

· BROILER OR LAYER
· FOR BROILER PRODUCERS: PERFORMANCE, CI
· FOR HATCHERY OWNERS: FERTILITY, HATCHABILITY


INTENSIVE POULTRY FARMING

1.3. Criteria for assessing productivity in poultry farming

Intensive poultry farming uses different criteria for assessing productivity.

Growth

This may be expressed in average weight at a given age (in days or weeks), e.g. 1,700g at 63 days or 9 weeks.

Example: if average weight at 50 days is 1565g the ADG is 1565/50 or 31.3g per day (ADG = average daily gain).

Laying rate

Equals the number of eggs gathered per 100 laying hens.

Example: lot of 200 laying hens. 146 eggs gathered: laying rate is: 146 x 200/100 i.e. 73%.

Mortality rate

Equals the number of individuals dying when starting with 100 individuals.

Example: lot starting with 450 individuals, 400 remaining at 21 weeks. Mortality at 21 weeks is thus: (450-400) x 100/450 i.e. 11.1%.

The feed conversion rate (FCR for short)

- During the growth period (broiler or pullet).

This may be expressed in total amount of food consumed divided by the total weight of the stock, e.g.: a lot of 2,000 pullets consumes 7,300 kg of feed to reach a total weight of 3080 kg. The FCR is thus 7300/3080 i.e. 2.37.

It may be expressed by average feed consumption divided by the average weight of the stock, e.g. taking the preceding data, one may obtain 7300/2000 i.e. 3.65 kg average consumption and 3080/2000, i.e. 1.54 average weight. The FCR is thus 3.65/1.54 i.e. 2.37.

- During the laying period (layer or breeding stock).

This is expressed in quantity of feed consumed divided per dozen eggs gathered, e.g.: a lot of 450 hens lays 320 eggs and consumes 56 kg of feed. The FCR is 56/26.6 i.e. 2.1.

Fertility and hatching rates

These two parameters only apply to the rearing of breeding stock.

The fertility rate represents the number of fertile eggs per 100 eggs gathered. It gives an indication of the fertility of the breeding stock.

The hatching rate represents the number of chicks hatching per 100 eggs incubated. It gives an indication of the performance of the hatchery.

(introduction...)

The development of intensive poultry farming in the Sahelian zone does not necessarily follow the logical sequence described in the preceding outline of the poultry industry. Generally speaking, the intensification of poultry farming begins with the production of broilers, since rearing these presents fewer technical and financial constraints. In comparison with other types of poultry farm, investment in terms of buildings and equipment is lower. Intensification of poultry farming proceeds through the development of compound feeds followed by the production of day-old chicks of broiler stock from imported hatchery eggs through to the production of eggs for consumption and hatching from parent stock (broilers and layers). For obvious health reasons, it is necessary to set up small abattoirs in countries in the region, as well as production of egg trays.

2.1.1. Housing

Choice of site

An open, well-ventilated area, where the wind blows moderately but continuously. Avoid places liable to flooding. Availability of drinking water and electricity. A place accessible to motorized vehicles (feed, chicks, litter, hens, eggs, etc)

Avoid areas where there is a heavy concentration of livestock activity. If this is not possible, choose a place swept by the prevailing winds before the latter reach other farms, or an abattoir, hatchery or feed factory.

The best locations are reserved in descending order for: layer breeding stock, future laying pullets, layers, broilers.

Buildings

In the Sahelian zone, poultry houses will be open and placed so that their axis is perpendicular to the prevailing winds and facing East-West. The roof will have a large overhang to prevent penetration by the rays of the sun. (See diagram).

The lay-out of the houses must be such that the winds which have swept one building cannot sweep others. The houses will be surrounded by open, preferably grassy spaces, planted with trees with nothing to obstruct the passage of the wind (hedges, mounds, other buildings and so on).

The houses will not be more than 10 metres wide in order to ensure that the poultry have the most effective natural ventilation.

The litter will preferably be composed of dried grass or waste paper, about 5 cm thick. It will be spread over a concrete screed 5-6 cm thick (see diagram). Do not forget the drainage channels under the slope of the roof to carry away run-off water in the event of heavy rain. The roof should preferably be made of white painted steel sheeting to reflect the sun's rays. Inside the building, insulation of the roof with local materials such as those used for housing will help to reduce the inside temperature by a few degrees.


Figure

Spacing between buildings: 30 to 50 m for buildings housing similar birds and a minimum of 500 m for buildings housing different birds.

Building lay-out: so that prevailing winds sweep all of them together and not one after another.

Capacity: for a building 10 m width:

1) Broilers: maximum 10 fully grown individuals per sq metre; a 30 m long house may contain 10 x 30 x 10 = 3,000 individuals 8 to 9 weeks old, which is a reasonable number for a poultryman to care for;

2) Layers (“heavies” and “middleweights”): maximum 3 individuals per sq metre; a 30 m long house may contain 3 x 30 x 10 = 900 heavies and maximum 4 individuals per sq metre for lights, i.e. 1,200 individuals per 30 m long house.

2.1.2. Environmental requirements

Temperature

Hens can tolerate hot climates (25°C and over) and their productivity is barely affected in such conditions. The danger in such climates is “heatstroke” when the normal temperature increases by 5 to 10°C or more over 24 or 48 hours. In such conditions, the organism is taken unawares and cannot become acclimatized so quickly, leading to:

- Reduced feed consumption
- Increased water consumption
- Loss of productivity (growth, laying)
- Fragile eggshells (breakage)
- Increased mortality

The temperature in a poultry house is measured by placing the bulb of the thermometer at the same height as the backs of the poultry.

How to combat excess heat

There is no miracle solution, but various ways of controlling the situation can be tried:

- Distributing feed during the cool part of the day, perhaps in the evening, although in this case artificial lighting (electric or otherwise) should be provided above the feeders.

- A sufficient number of feeders and drinkers is more important than ever.

- Check that stocking density is not excessive (follow the instructions of the breed producer); if necessary reduce it by 25%.

- Water supply pipes should be buried and not placed on the ground, while water tanks must be insulated from the blazing sun by means of straw, reeds etc.

- Natural ventilation is inadequate to eliminate excess ambient heat in the buildings and supplementary electric ventilation can be very beneficial (the only drawback is energy consumption).

- Adopting high energy (using fats) and high nutritional density feed to offset the negative effects of under consumption of feed on the birds' performance.

Hygrometry

The degree of relative humidity (RH for short, measurements of water vapour in the air) should ideally be between 55 and 75%. Below that, the air is too dry and irritates the mucous membranes. Above that level, humid air, especially in the event of extreme heat, hinders the lung function of the poultry in eliminating excess calories. Moreover, in such conditions, the litter becomes wetter due to increased water consumption by the birds and lack of evaporation, resulting in increased development of coccids in the litter and fermentation within the latter.

Ventilation

Ventilation consists of renewing the ambient air by bringing oxygen to the birds, eliminating deleterious gasses (carbon anhydride, ammonia, sulphur anhydride, methane, etc) as well as dust.

Ventilation must be effective but not excessive in order to avoid draughts. Air speed should be 0.2- 0.3 m/second but may reach 1 m/second if temperature is 30°C which allows the temperature perceived by the bird to be reduced by about 3°C.

Light

In the brooder, lighting will be permanent for the first 48 hours. Subsequently, darkness must not exceed 10 hours in 24.

Laying begins earlier as the days lengthen. Conversely, it is delayed by decreasing day length. In most poultry houses in the Sahelian zone, dependence on the natural cycle of days is total and sexual maturity can only be controlled by means of rationing the feed of the pullets.

During the laying season, the period of lighting cannot be reduced as this would have a physiological effect inhibiting laying.

Readers should refer to the instructions of the breed supplier for more details on the recommended lighting programmes.

Litter

Litter must be made of absorbent materials and not be dusty, since dust irritates the birds' respiratory system, thus contributing towards the development of respiratory diseases. Materials which can be used for making litter are: wood shavings (with little sawdust), chopped straw, groundnut shells, fragments of sugar cane waste, rice husks and waste paper.

The litter must not be too thick (risk of fermentation) but adequate, 4 to 5 cm. It must be neither damp (maximum 25 to 30% water) nor dusty

In laying houses, litter must be added regularly and this may be as much as 30 to 35 cm thick at the end of the cycle.

2.1.3. Poultry farming equipment

Equipment for the brooder for 1,000 individuals

The brooder house requires: 1 gas heater for 500 to 1,000 chicks; 15 to 20 plastic starter drinkers; 15 to 20 starter feeders; 6 strips of hardboard (3 m long x 0.5 m wide); bottles of gas (8 to 10) depending on season, 2 x 60 watt lamps 2 metres high with their own reflectors. Follow the advice of your chick supplier in respect of husbandry practice during the first two weeks.

Equipment for 1,000 individuals

The height of the feeders will be set so that the upper edge of the feeder is at the level of the birds' backs. Feeders should be only one third full to prevent wastage of feed. By following this advice, the feed conversion rate may be reduced by 15%.

Equipment needed for 1,000 hens or pullets

Age of birds

Feeders

Drinkers 20 L


Dual access continuous or

25 L hoppers


2-4 weeks

30 m

20

10

4-8/9 weeks

40 m

25

20

9-16 weeks

50 m

30

30

16-20 weeks

60 m

30

30

Equipment required for 500 layers


60 m

30

30

Where possible, it is desirable to adopt an automatic watering system.

Egg collectors

Allow one egg collector for 4 to 5 hens. The collectors will be placed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the hen house 50 to 60 cm above the litter. Refer to the type of egg collector advocated by the breed supplier.

2.1.4. Biosecurity

Biosecurity refers to all the measures which must be taken to avoid any contamination of an intensive poultry farm from local farms and animals external to the farm (wild birds, rodents, etc). It makes a great contribution towards the productivity of poultry farms and those who apply the strict rules of hygiene and care for their birds know to what extent their efforts in this regard reap their just reward.

Biosecurity demands:

- Isolation of the production site.

- Wire netting over open buildings with mesh large enough to prevent the penetration of birds and large insects into the house but without obstructing the passage of the wind (ventilation).

- Not mixing birds of different ages in the same house.

- Assigning one poultryman per building, the only one authorised to enter.

- Educating staff regarding hygiene rules to be observed in the unit.

- Cleaning and disinfecting, using the cleaning and disinfection agents recommended in poultry guides and manuals, all buildings, feeders, drinkers, lamps, wire-netting and heating apparatus (brooder) and regular cleaning of vehicles.

- Using foot baths of disinfectant solution placed at the entrance of each building, dip tank for vehicle wheels at the site entrance.

- Disease-prevention interval of two weeks (minimum ten days) between batches, this being counted from the moment when the building has been completely cleaned and disinfected.

- Rapid elimination of corpses which will be incinerated.

- Houses with two doors, one at each end. One will be in the clean area (entrance for living birds and feed) and the other in the dirty area (removal of corpses and litter).

- Never going from a dirty area to a clean area without prior cleaning and disinfection.

- Carefully following a vaccination programme appropriate to the risks identified by the local veterinary services.

- Never vaccinating in the event of an outbreak of disease or even in the event of stress.

- Giving vitamin boosters after vaccination or any other stress.

Biosecurity is a form of insurance which minimizes most of the threats which permanently hang over any poultry farm at the expense of its productivity. Stress factors, briefly described in the next diagram, are obstacles to productivity due to their negative impact on the well-being of the stock.

2.1.5. Staff training

Intensive poultry farming and related industries require both skilled and unskilled staff. Skilled staff must have the necessary knowledge and aptitude to handle the many techniques specific to the activity in question: poultry farming, feed milling, hatchery, abattoir.

It is obvious that the skills of a foreman in a feed milling unit are different from those of a head poultryman. In the same way, managing a broiler breeding farm requires more qualifications and experience than a layer or broiler unit. Professional training centres for the staff needed in the industry are found in several countries. The addresses of some training centres can be found at the end of this guide. Staff training costs should not be overlooked when drawing up a poultry farming project.


STRESS FACTORS

2.2. The production of broilers

Production levels

- Growth (males and females)

Age

Weight

FCR

Consumption

4 weeks

750 g

1.4

1.050 kg

6 weeks

1,200 g

1.8

2.160 kg

7 weeks

1,500 g

2.0

3.000 kg

8 weeks

1,800 g

2.1

3.780 kg

9 weeks

1,950 g

2.2

4.290 kg

These values may be achieved in the Sahelian area when the ambient temperature does not exceed 25°C. Beyond that, due to reduced food consumption and increased mortality, growth is seriously reduced and the feed conversion rate greatly increased.

- Mortality: this should be under 5% but, in the event of extreme heat, may reach 10% or more.

- dressing-out percentage: this will be 75% fora chicken of 1,500 g live weight, equivalent to 1,130 g slaughtered and eviscerated, which gives about 800 g of edible meat.

- Feed represents 60 to 65% of production costs, with purchase of chicks accounting for a further 20 to 25%. Other costs relate to depreciation of buildings and equipment (4 to 6%) and about 10% miscellaneous expenses (staff, litter, heating, veterinary charges, etc).

PRODUCTION OF BROILERS

· VIGOROUS CHICK, VACCINATED AGAINST LOCAL DISEASES
· OBJECTIVES: GROWTH, FCR, MORTALITY
· QUALITY OF FEED AND DRINKING WATER
· ENVIRONMENT: TEMPERATURE, VENTILATION, STOCKING DENSITY

Example:

A broiler producer wishes to produce 200 chickens per week with an average weight of 1.6 kg at 50 days. How should he go about it?

1. Calculate the number of chickens permanently on site. The duration of a cycle should be counted as follows: seven weeks growing plus two weeks disease-prevention interval between batches = 9 weeks, thus 9 houses which will be occupied at a rate of 2,000 chicks one week apart. In this way, after the 9th house is started up there will be (9 - 2) x 2,000 = 14,000 chickens permanently occupying 7 houses of which 2 will be empty for disease prevention purposes.

2. Allowing for an average mortality rate of 5%, the producer will order 2,000 + (5 x 2,000/ (100 - 5) = 2,105 day-old chicks per week from his supplier.

2.3.1. Balanced feeding

In view of the fact that feed accounts for more than 60% of poultry production costs, birds should be provided with high quality feed.

Purposes of feeding

- Covering the maintenance and production requirements of birds in energy, protein (amino acids: lysine, methionine and threonine), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium), vitamins and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, iodine, selenium) so as to optimize production levels at the lowest possible cost.

- The smaller the feed conversion rate (FCR), the more effective the feed.

- Balanced feeding not only makes it possible to achieve high performance in production, it also makes a great contribution to the health of the birds enabling them to better defend themselves naturally against diseases and aggression of all types, especially heat stroke.

Recommendations

It is always more advantageous to pay more for quality feed than to devote one's financial resources to pharmaceutical remedies to help the stock to combat diseases which they might not have contracted if they had been well nourished.

- Eliminate the causes of under-feeding as much as possible, as they reduce birds performance.

· Poultryman forgetting to fill feeders and/or drinkers.
· Inadequate numbers of feeders and/or drinkers.
· Heat stroke
· Defective environmental conditions (insufficient ventilation, excessive birds density)
· Diseases
· During vaccination.

- Do not order your feed at the last minute.

- Keep a record of the date of order, the quantity and type of feed ordered as well as the delivery date and price.

- Check that the type and quantity of feed is what you ordered.

- If you have poultry of different ages in your unit, make sure that the feed is correctly distributed, with no mix-up.

- Feeds should be kept in a safe place under cover; do not pile up new lots on old, as the latter might get out of date. The maximum storage period is two months from the date of manufacture.

- Watch out for rodents and other pests which are not only responsible for wastage but can also contaminate your unit with their droppings.

- Watch out also for theft of feed which will greatly depress your feed conversion rate and your profitability.


Figure

PRODUCTION OF COMPOUND FEED

· QUALITY OF RAW MATERIALS (ANALYSES)
· BALANCED FEED FORMULATION
· PRECISION OF WEIGHING OPERATION
· HOMOGENEOUS MIXING
· STORAGE IN GOOD CONDITIONS

Buying or preparing feed

Poultry farmers have two options: either they buy feed from a local manufacturer (or dealer) or they prepare it themselves. The ideal solution is the first insofar as the farmer is able to get supplies from a manufacturer (or dealer) enjoying a reputation for quality and reliability amongst farmers.

Enquiries with a few other poultry farmers operating on a reasonably large scale will usually establish the reputation of any given manufacturer.

It can happen that the farmer has to make up feed for his birds himself, such as when there is no reliable manufacturer in the region or the manufacturer is reliable but, holding a monopoly, he sells his feed at a price the farmer considers prohibitive in relation to the cost of raw materials.

Expected Feed consumption Table

Stock

Age

Feed

Consumption

- Broiler

0-2 weeks

starter

0.350 kg


3-4 weeks

grower

0.850 kg


5-8 weeks

finisher

3.010 kg

Total consumption at 56 days (about 2 kg live weight)

4.210 kg

- Pullet

0-8 weeks

starter

1.800 kg


9-20 weeks

grower

6.100 kg

Total consumption at 20 weeks


7.900 kg

- Layers (52 week laying cycle)




· Light layer


40.000 kg


· Middleweight layer


44.000 kg


· Heavy layer breeder


50.000 kg

These figures are likely to vary depending on the composition of the feed and environmental conditions.

In practice it will be noted that to finish a broiler, 4 kg of feed and 7-9 litres of water will be required; to finish a pullet, the requirement will be 8 kg of feed and 18 to 20 litres of water; finally, a layer's intake will be about 40 kg of feed and 100 to 115 litres of water.

We should remember that manuals published by breed producers provide tables giving the average daily water and feed consumption depending on the age of the poultry. These tables are very useful for the purpose of mass medication, such treatment usually being given in drinking water over a period of several days, as advised by the vet.

Drinking water

Vital to the bird's metabolism, drinking water must be of good quality. It must meet physical, chemical and bacteriological requirements. Water distributed to poultry must be fresh and not stagnate for hours in dirty, overheated drinkers. This is why distribution of running water with the addition of a nipple system is the most effective method of supplying drinking water. Water consumption rises with ambient temperature; it may be double or triple that of feed, depending on ambient temperature.

The chemical composition of drinking water must meet standard criteria. Water may be brackish (with plenty of chlorides), sulphurous (plenty of sulphate ions), hard (plenty of calcium and magnesium ions), etc. In some cases, the animal nutritionist must bear in mind the particularities of the drinking water when considering mineral supplementation.

The water must be clean in bacteriological terms. Wells are frequently contaminated by bacterial agents of the colon bacillus, salmonella or other type coming from the underground infiltration of animal or human excreta and this can mean that some units are doomed to permanent failure simply because the drinking water is unfit for consumption.

Before setting up a poultry unit on a site supplied by one or several wells, it is advisable to have the water analyzed by a laboratory competent to conduct this type of analysis. A favourable report does not obviate the need for regular testing (perhaps once a year) to check water quality.

DRINKING WATER

· AD LIB
· CLEAN
· FRESH

2.3.2. Raw materials

More than 90% of the raw materials used in manufacturing compound feed are of plant or animal origin. Amongst these are maize, sorghum, millet, wheat or rice bran, groundnut or cottonseed cake, molasses, etc. which are of vegetable origin and fish meal, meat meal, bone meal, etc. which are of animal origin.

The remaining 10% are raw materials of mineral origin (salt, limestone, calcium phosphate, trace elements) or organic origin (vitamins, methionine, lysine and other synthetic amino acids, antibiotics, coccidiostats, anti-oxidants, etc).

The main characteristic of compound feed is its relatively constant humidity (between 9 and 12% maximum) content, with the exception of molasses. The compound feed industry therefore uses so-called “dry” constituents. Fresh products with a humidity content over 15%, such as the residues of various industries; brewer's grains, brewer's or distiller's yeast, waste from the citrus extraction industry, residues of industrial tomato processing, fish or abattoir waste, etc cannot be used without prior dehydration.

It must be borne in mind that the composition of these raw materials, i.e. their nutritional content such as: protein, fat, carbohydrate, cellulose, mineral substances, etc, is essentially variable. It must be remembered that any product of biological origin will not be standard as a manufactured product might be.

The composition of maize is different from that of wheat or millet. Maize composition may vary in the same production region depending on the variety grown and, with the same variety, from one region to another, depending on climatic conditions, type of soil and subsoil, fertilizing, harvesting and storage conditions, etc.

Mention should be made of premixes and mineral/vitamin concentrate. The latter contain premixes and mineral substances such as salt, limestone and calcium phosphate, while premixes contain vitamins, trace elements, anti-oxidants and sometimes prophylactic doses of medication (antibiotics, coccidiostats) and sometimes growth factors, anti-fungal agents and synthetic amino-acids.

Depending on their composition, premixes are used in feed at doses varying between 0.25 and 2%, while vitamin/mineral concentrates are used in proportions between 2 and 5%. Each premix or vitamin/mineral concentrate pack must bear a label indicating: the date of manufacture or use-by date, the nature of the ingredients and the proportion to be used in feed. The desired results will only be obtained by keeping strictly to the proportions recommended by the supplier. Responsible suppliers will provide feed manufacturers and users with effective technical assistance (analysis, formulation, feeding programmes, husbandry advice etc).

It may be worth mentioning that very strict rules must be observed by the supplier in relation to the composition of premixes or vitamin/mineral concentrates, in terms of the nature and quantity of ingredients; there are European regulations on the subject which are constantly updated by special commissions.

2.3.3. The feed milling plant

Feed milling comprises the following phases:

Receipt of raw materials

This operation consists of receiving the raw materials in bags or bulk. Bulk materials will be stored in silos which must be cleaned before filling. Storage in silos means that the materials can be kept for a long time (several months). For shorter periods, bulk materials may be stored in hangars on the ground in the absence of storage units, avoiding waste and contamination. In tropical regions, silos must be ventilated effectively to avoid fermentation causing degradation of the stored material and even explosions.

Raw materials received in bags will be stored in clean hangars. The bags will not be put on the ground but on openwork floors; they will be piled up properly at a reasonable height in order to avoid collapses causing bursting and wastage. In order to avoid confusion, lots of raw materials will be separated by access corridors which are sufficiently wide to allow handling equipment to .pass. Each lot must bear a sign indicating its nature, origin and date of receipt.

PREMIXES AND/OR VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONCENTRATES

· ATTENTION TO USE-BY DATE (3 TO 6 MONTHS DEPENDING ON COMPOSITION)
· TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FROM SUPPLIER
· USING THE RIGHT PROPORTION (NOT LESS THAN 0.2% FOR PREMIXES AND 2% FOR VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONCENTRATES)

Care will be taken to respect the “first in, first out” principle, which means using the materials in the order that they came in; keeping the raw materials away from adverse weather conditions, sun, pests etc.

Measuring out may be done before or after grinding.

This operation consists of measuring out the quantities of each ingredient according to a formula established by a nutritionist, in accordance with the nutritional requirements of the birds for which the feed is destined.

Weighing in bags is not advised: this is a slow operation with much room for error and wastage.

A metering hopper (mechanical or electronic) is a simple, reliable system enabling bags and bulk materials to be combined; errors are limited and the system is suitable for small units (maximum 5 tonnes/hour).

Grinding

This operation consists of reducing coarse materials to finer fragments with the aid of a grinder. The output of a production unit is often determined by that of the grinder. The output of the grinder depends on the nature (hardness) of the raw materials to be crushed and the diameter of the perforations of the sieve.

Before grinding, cereals collected in the field must be cleaned to remove foreign grains, some of which could be harmful to the health of the stock.

Before going to the grinder, all materials must go through the magnetic separator to eliminate any ferrous elements which could damage the crusher.

Mixing

This operation consists of mixing all the ingredients in the formula: meal and ground ingredients for varying periods as recommended by the supplier of the mixer. A mixture should ideally be homogeneous so that each feed intake by the birds contains all the necessary nutrients. As the size of the particles and the density of the different ingredients is far from identical, the mixing process must be long enough to make the mixture as homogenous as possible.

There are vertical and horizontal mixers. The mixing period varies from 20 to 30 minutes with a vertical mixing screw turning in a shaft; 10 to 15 minutes with a conical screw turning freely; and 5 to 10 minutes with a double action mixing screw (rotary and circular). The duration of mixing for a horizontal mixer with one or two double belt screws is from 3 to 10 minutes.

Extending the mixing period beyond the limits recommended by the builder causes demixing, i.e. the mixture becomes heterogeneous again, separating out according to the density and size of the particles.

The interior of mixers must have easy access (manhole) for regular cleaning. Premixes, vitamin/mineral concentrate and any other additives in powder form will be added directly to the mixer using a hopper designed for the purpose.

An injection of molasses (maximum 6%) or fats may be made into the mixer with appropriate equipment (tank, heater, pump, flow metre, distribution ramp).

Packing

This operation consists of weighing and bagging feed into specially designed 3 or 4 ply paper bags. For long distance transport, new jute bags are stronger. Reusing bags is proscribed for hygiene reasons (transmitting disease from one unit to another).

The feed may also be stored in silos awaiting delivery by bulk lorry. Requires weighbridge to weigh lorries before and after loading.

Pelleting

This operation consists of passing a mealy mixture through an extrusion plate to obtain pellets of variable diameter according to the diameter of the exit holes. Pelleting is done after mixing and requires a range of very expensive equipment (feeder hopper, conditioning tank, press, cooler).

Apart from the high initial investment (almost as much as all the other equipment of the feed factory together), pelleting involves high energy costs, skilled operators and expensive maintenance.

It does have advantages as well. It allows more homogeneous feeding of birds (no selective feeding), reduces wastage, slightly increases the digestibility of the feed, allows healthier feed to be manufactured (reducing the number of germs present) and looks more attractive to buyers.

Choice of site

Usually, choice of the site for a feed factory depends on a balance between raw material supply (areas for producing or storing cereals or cake, closeness of ports, etc) and feed outlets (poultry farming areas). Access routes (roads, railway, rivers) must be taken into consideration when choosing a site.

Production capacity

Units produce anything from 1 ton per day to 15/20 tons per hour.

In the Sahelian zone, depending on circumstances, 2 to 4 tons per hour units producing 400 to 800 tons per month seem more than adequate. Such units can be containerized and easily connected to the electricity grid.

Recommendations

- The production unit must be adapted to the desired objects and not the other way around. Short and medium term needs must be met (3 to 5 years).

- Depreciation of production equipment only represents a very small part of the cost price of the feed, hence the frequent error of focusing attention on the cost of the equipment alone.

- Never lose sight of the fact that the more complete and accurate the data supplied to the builder of the equipment, the more appropriate the plant will be and hence the more profitable the investment.

The choice of a manufacturing design is always a compromise between simple, robust, unsophisticated, easy maintenance equipment with which human errors are common and more sophisticated, more costly, more fragile equipment which is more delicate to maintain but with which the risk of error is almost nil.

2.3.4. Quality Control

The enormous variation in the composition of raw materials requires quality control

- on receipt of raw materials;
- on manufacture of the feed.

Quality control of raw materials received

Quality control of materials is necessary in order to calculate precisely the properties of the feed which must satisfy the nutritional requirements of the stock to ensure optimum productivity. Such control is effected by means of a laboratory with the appropriate equipment and reagents for analysis. The latter is conducted in accordance with internationally recognised methods so that the results of one laboratory may, if necessary (for instance in the event of a dispute), be checked by another; this would make no sense if the methods used were not strictly identical. There are EU regulations covering methods of analysis for animal feedstuffs.

Analytic procedures may be divided into four categories:

- Routine analysis: humidity crude protein fats, cellulose, mineral substances, insoluble in HCl.

- Conventional analysis: calcium, phosphorous, chlorides.

- Special analysis: magnesium, sodium, potassium, oxidation of fats, cell-wall components, trace elements (iron, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iodine), aflatoxins, gossypol, cyanides, available lysine, etc.

- Investigation tests: amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, toxins, etc.

These are in fact chemical tests requiring specific techniques in which the complexity of the equipment and the necessary skill level increase as one moves from routine to investigation tests.

This is why, in practice, a regional or sub-regional laboratory which can legitimately conduct quality control through routine analysis is a very important first step in improving feed quality. Near infra-red spectrometry is a recent technique which enables the composition of raw materials and finished products to be determined precisely in a few minutes.

As the analysis is conducted only on a sample of a few dozen grams, the latter must be representative of the lot from which it comes. This is why sampling must be conducted with care. One should preferably use a probe to take samples from various places in the lot; these will then be mixed together roughly and a sample taken for the laboratory.

The laboratory results will be sent to the nutritionist responsible for formulation, who will use them to establish the various formulas to be manufactured. Software is currently available to calculate feed formulas, bearing in mind the individual characteristics of each of the raw materials and their cost, as well as the nutritional constraints imposed by the nutritionist.

CHOICE OF FEED MILL

· DEFINING THE TONNAGE TO BE PRODUCED

· SIMPLE, ROBUST EQUIPMENT

· VARIOUS OPTIONS: ADDITION OF MOLASSES, PELLETING, ETC TO BE LOOKED AT CAREFULLY

· ASSISTANCE FROM SUPPLIER (ASSEMBLY, COMMISSIONING, SPARE PARTS ETC)

It goes without saying that this most valuable and efficient tool will not provide useful solutions unless the information provided is itself reliable, hence the necessity for continuous verification of the data used in calculating the formulas.

Quality control of manufactured feed

The manufactured feed is checked to ensure that its properties are in accordance with those calculated by the nutritionist. Manufacturing errors can thus be detected if there are inadmissible discrepancies. The manufacturer will have a record of the analyses of the manufactured feed which he can go through in the event of a dispute.

It is worth pointing out that while chemical analysis is a precious aid in manufacturing quality feed, it is no less true that it is not sufficient in itself. The appearance of the raw material also plays an important part in appreciating quality.

Sometimes, a simple visual, olfactory or organoleptic examination suffices to assess the sanitary status of a raw material (presence of weevils, cockroaches, worms, putrid or fetid smells, musty, sulphurous or rancid smells, abnormal colouring and so on are all indicators which might lead to a suspicion of defective quality).

The preliminary examinations can then be confirmed by microscopic, bacteriological or even chemical examination by a specialist external laboratory.

2.4. The hatchery

The hatchery comprises:

- An egg reception room where the eggs are placed in drawers.

- An egg storage room (see storage conditions page 33)

- A disinfection room

- An incubator (incubation period 18 days) whose capacity must be three times that of the hatcher.

- A hatching room (duration: 3 days)

- A chick packing room

- A drawer washing room

- A storage room for packing and shipping materials

- A shower, office and canteen block.

The main hatchery equipment comprises: the incubator, hatcher and ventilation system to extract polluted air.

Choice of site

The hatchery will be located close to the breeder unit for frequent harvesting and controlled storage of hatching eggs.

CHOICE OF HATCHERY

· DEFINING CAPACITY
· INCUBATION CAPACITY TRIPLE HATCHING CAPACITY
· TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FROM SUPPLIER

When the hatchery is an integral part of a breeder unit, care must be taken to locate it after the prevailing winds have swept over the breeder houses.

Production capacity

Production capacity of around 10,000 to 20,000 chicks per week is equivalent to the smallest size of industrial unit which is perfectly suitable for the markets of the Sahelian zone. Such production requires three incubators and one hatcher able to contain 12,500 to 25,000 eggs with a hatching rate of 80%.

It will be noted that up to 2 hatchings per week are possible with the same hatcher, if there are six incubators.

Recommendations

- For hygiene reasons, do not exceed two hatchings per week.

- Do not produce broilers and layers at the same time, as the latter, having a long biological cycle, should not be contaminated by birds with a short biological cycle.

- Prohibit all movement of staff and materials from the dirty area (hatcher) to the clean area (incubator).

- Follow the temperature and hygrometry standards required for the proper operation of the machines which have to work at a constant temperature: incubator 37/38°C and hatcher 37.4°C which requires room temperature of 23 to 25°C and relative humidity of 50 to 60%.

- With ambient temperatures which can sometimes reach 40°C, every effort must be made to lower the temperature by 16°C by: insulating roofs using local housing insulation techniques the houses (straw, reeds), producing iced water from a coldroom compressor and a copper coil placed in an insulated tank, allowing recycling of cooling water in the event of a break in water supply.

- Check the security arrangements with a 24 hour, manual reset alarm system. A generator with a permanent stock of diesel is essential.

- Installing a hatchery is a matter for a specialist. Find one who has experience of hot climates.

2.5. Production of eggs for consumption

Consumer preference in the matter of egg shell colour varies from country to country and sometimes from region to region in the same country.

In Senegal and Mauritania, white shelled eggs are preferred whereas other countries do not care about eggshell colouring (Mali, Burkina Faso).

PRODUCTION OF DAY-OLD CHICKS

· COLLECTION AND STORAGE OF HATCHING EGGS
· CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY, COOLING SYSTEM
· HYGIENE RULES

From day-old chick to laying hen

One must never lose sight of the fact that the period (about 20 weeks) before the day-old chick starts to lay is decisive for the longevity and productivity of the pullet. One can never stress enough the importance of this pullet-rearing period, as it prepares the bird for its future laying function.

Characteristics of a good pullet

When they start to lay, pullets should:

- Be in good health

- Be of a weight approximating to that recommended by the breed supplier (adequate bodily development)

- Be immunized against the diseases to which they are likely to be exposed.

Recommendations

- If you rear your pullets yourself, which is highly recommended, follow carefully the advice given by your supplier of day-old chicks. Weigh your pullets regularly. Keep to the sanitary programme advised by the supplier (preventive treatment, vaccinations). Make sure that feeding is adequate to reach the weight standards laid down by the breed supplier around . 17 to 18 weeks of age.

- If you have to buy pullets which are ready to lay, choose a reliable supplier with a good reputation in the profession. Place your order when he is starting off a batch of day-old chicks. In this way, you will know the real age of your pullets when they take their place in your hen house. Check on delivery that their weight corresponds to the standard recommended by the breed producer.

- If the weight of the pullets is lower than that recommended by the breed supplier when they start to lay, which most often happens in the Sahelian zone, one can never obtain a very high laying peak as the hen is still immature and the food ingested at the beginning of egg-laying will serve to cover growth requirements at the expense of egg production. This negative effect on productivity is compounded by the risk of oviduct reversal (prolapse) with increased mortality and loss of profit.

- Specialists in poultry farming estimate that 85% of the success of a farm is acquired when the birds reach the age of 17 to 18 weeks.

- Egg collection: three times per day minimum.

PRODUCING EGGS FOR CONSUMPTION

· CHOICE OF BREED
· CAREFUL PREPARATION OF PULLETS
· OBJECTIVES: GROWTH, MORTALITY, LAYING RATE
· QUALITY OF FEED AND DRINKING WATER
· ENVIRONMENT: TEMPERATURE, VENTILATION, STOCKING DENSITY

Production levels

Level

Eggs/hen/year

laying %

Excellent

300

90 et +

Very good

280

85 0

Good

260

80 5

Average

250

75 0

Generally speaking, peak laying occurs between the 28th and 32nd week of age and the higher and more sustained the laying peak, the greater total productivity will be.

Mortality

This should not exceed 10% during the pullet rearing period, including the elimination of pullets which do not meet the standard.

It should not exceed 0.5-1% per month during the laying cycle (52 weeks) in relation to the number of hens which have begun to lay.

Example:

Purchase of pullets

A producer of eggs for consumption wishes to sell an average of 4,000 eggs per week. What quantity of pullets should he order?

Let us assume production of 270 eggs/hen/year over a laying cycle of 52 weeks and monthly mortality of 0.7%.

1. Calculation of the production of one hen per week: 270/52 = 5 eggs per week.
2. The number of hens needed is therefore 4,000/5 = 800 hens.
3. Estimated total mortality is 0.7% x 12 = 8.4%.
4. The number of pullets to start laying is 800 + (8.4 x 800)/(100-8.4), i.e. 874 pullets

Production of pullets

How many day-old chicks must be purchased to raise 1,000 pullets over 20 weeks if mortality during the rearing phase is 10%, including pullets to be eliminated from the flock?

As the chicks have been sexed: the producer will theoretically only sell female chicks; in this case, you have to order 1,000 + (10 x 1,000)/(100- 10) i.e. about 1,110 day-old chicks.

2.6. The production of eggs for hatching

The production of eggs for hatching is a matter for breeders (parent stock).

The eggs supplied to the hatchery are of two types:

- Eggs from heavy breeds whose chicks, male and female, are destined for the production of broilers.

- Eggs from light and middle weight breeds whose female chicks (pullets) are reared to the age of 20 weeks to become hens producing eggs for consumption.

It should be noted that a breeder of broilers or egg layers is looking for high-yielding birds (growth, laying rate) with as low as possible a consumption index. A producer of breeding hens must also be concerned with the acclimatization and reproduction (fertility, hatching rate) capacity of the breed in Sahelian environmental conditions.

For example, in Europe, the production of broilers is currently dominated by the demand for well-developed pectoral muscles from the abattoirs which cut up the carcasses. This leads to the selection of very heavy type breeds and the management of the parent stock is a very delicate operation.

Choice of broiler parent stock

There are many breeds whose performance (growth, consumption index, carcass quality) is about the same. These are very heavy breeds which can be difficult to raise in Africa (laying rate, male fertility, hatchability) if husbandry and feeding conditions are not perfect. Amongst these breeds we may mention: Cobb, Hybro G, Ross.

This is why selective breeders suggest breeds which are less high-yielding but also less delicate and more suitable for the Sahelian environment: Arbor Acres, Hybro N, Shaver, Vedette.

Ask the breed producers about the strength and weaknesses of their products. It is recommended that producers of parent stock should work with two or more breeds at the same time and spread their orders of parent stock over the year.

Choice of layer parent stock

Light layers are characterized by: white shelled eggs - adult body weight of about 2 kilos - high laying performance - low feed consumption (110-115 g per day) - sensitivity to feeding balance and environmental conditions. The producer of light breeding stock will look for breeds in which the sexes are clearly distinguished (difference in the arrangement of wing feathers in males and females), as the cost of sexing by experienced chick-sexers is very high. Such breeds include Babcock 300 Isa - Lohmann SL - HyLine W77.

Light layers mature earlier than middleweights, but at the beginning of laying, their eggs are smaller.

Middleweight layers are characterized by: brown shelled eggs - adult body weight of 2.3 kilos - laying performance slightly below that of light breeds -feed consumption of 120 -125 g per day - a slightly higher degree of hardiness than light breeds - visible differences between the sexes. Types of breed: Isa Brown - Lohmann Brown - Hisex Brown - HyLine Brown.

PRODUCTION OF HATCHING EGGS

· CHOICE OF PARENT STOCK: BROILER OR LAYER

· FOR MEAT, VERY HEAVY BREEDS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED IN THE SAHELIAN ZONE

· FOR LAYING, CHOOSE WHITES WITH VISIBLE SEX DIFFERENCES OR BROWNS

· OBJECTIVES, LAYING RATE, MORTALITY, FERTILITY, HATCHABILITY

· QUALITY OF FEED AND DRINKING WATER

· ENVIRONMENT: TEMPERATURE, VENTILATION, STOCKING DENSITY

Eggs for hatching must:

- Be harvested at least four times per day.

- Be clean, possibly brushed with a soft brush.

- Weigh more than 50 g (this weight is usually obtained when the hens reach about 28 weeks of age).

- Be stored under specific conditions: optimum temperature 12°C (between 10 and 15°C) -relative humidity: 70 to 85% - duration of storage varying depending on breed, with an average loss of hatchability of 1 to 1.4% per day of storage.

Heavy breeds: maximum one week's storage

Light and middleweight breeds: hatchability is slightly reduced in the first weeks of storage, more in the second and by 15% in the third week.

Recommendations

- Scrupulously follow the feeding and management instructions in the manual for the breeding question.

- Points to watch

· rearing weight of pullets and cockerel chicks
· weight at 5% laying (optimum age 24 weeks) of layers and cockerels
· homogeneousness of the lots

Production levels

- Normal period: 125-140 eggs per laying hen
- Very hot period: 110 eggs per laying hen
- The hatchability of the eggs is around 80% when the hen is 28 weeks of age, reaches 88% around the 40th week and slowly decreases to reach 70% around the 70th week. This data is valid at normal ambient temperatures. It must be borne in mind that at temperatures over 25°C, the fertility of the cockerels decreases sharply as the temperature rises.

The production of heavy breeding stock is 170 eggs per laying hen, of which 160 are sent for hatching, supplying 135 day-old chicks per laying hen, in European conditions.

Poultry farming specialists estimate that in good conditions in Africa, the target should be 112 (between 110 and 115) day-old chicks per laying hen or 140 hatching eggs per laying hen (hatchability 80%).

Example:

A hatchery owner has to supply 6,000 day-old chicks per week. He must therefore place 6,000/ 0.8 = 7,500 eggs per week in incubation.

How many breeding hens will he need to supply these 7,500 eggs per week? Rearing of breeding stock must start with 6,000/112 i.e. 54 hens per week, i.e. for a laying season of 42 weeks: 42 x 54 = 2,270 hens.

Qualities of a good chick

It should be remembered that the qualities of a chick are above all a reflection on the quality of the parent stock and the hatchery which produced it. These qualities are in practice more important than the breed itself. Hatcheries usually supply 2% additional chicks free to compensate for losses during transport which should not last more than 30 hours.

One-day-old chicks should weigh at least 35g (below this, mortality rates are high); they should be healthy and vigorous and should have no deformity of the beak or feet.

2.7. The poultry abattoir

A poultry slaughterhouse includes:

- A reception room for live animals (chickens, spent hens, etc)

- A slaughter room equipped with stunner, bleeding funnels, scalding tank, plucker, finishing rack (evisceration), trolleys.

- A storage (coldrooms), packing and shipment room.

Various other utensils are required: knives and scissors for sticking and bleeding, shackles, knife sharpeners, small utensils for evisceration, plastic crates for transporting the birds, cleaning equipment.

Choice of site

The supply of clean water should be guaranteed.

It should be located in a poultry production area (chickens, spent hens) so that live animals do not have to be transported over long distances. Refrigerated vehicles will be used to transport fresh produce over long distances. Access should be easy. The location should be such that once the prevailing winds have swept over it, they do not then reach the poultry houses.

Production capacity

Slaughter may be manual (units handling 50 to 80 chickens per hour) or semi-automatic handling 250 to 500 chickens per hour or automated, producing 5,000 chickens per hour. In the Sahelian zone, manual or semi-automatic abattoirs with a low throughput are advisable.

It should be noted that a poultry abattoir consumes about 1.2 to 1.5 litres of clean water per chicken per hour, i.e. 300 to 375 litres per hour for an hourly production of 250 chickens.

The abattoir will not slaughter birds for more than 4 to 5 hours per day, the remaining time being needed to clean and disinfect the utensils and rooms and to organize the work.

Capacity of coldrooms

Ready-to-roast chickens weighing about 1.2 kilos: about 200 kilos/sq m/m height

Boned chicken flesh: about 250 kilos/sq m/m height.

With these dimensions, the ground area includes the space set aside for storage and for access. It is advisable not to store in piles higher than 4 m.

CHOICE OF AN INDUSTRIAL POULTRY ABATTOIR

· DEFINING HOURLY CAPACITY
· CLEAN WATER AVAILABLE IN LARGE QUANTITIES
· SEMI-AUTOMATIC ROBUST EQUIPMENT
· COLDROOMS FOR STORAGE

Maximum duration of storage in coldrooms (temperature 2-4°C):

- drawn chicken (intestines extracted) 72 hours;
- eviscerated chicken (intestines, crop, gizzard, oesophagus, head and feet removed): 7 days.

The best deep-freezing technique is the quick method reaching -40°C which allows the product to be stored for several months at a temperature of -20-25°C provided that the cold chain is not broken. Arrange for a back-up generator.

Recovering slaughterhouse waste

When properly processed and dried, slaughterhouse waste, feathers, blood, heads and feet, lights) can be reused for animal feed, but processing equipment is only available for large industrial units. Moreover, these processing plants consume an enormous amount of thermic energy. It is estimated that daily waste production must reach 1 ton per day to justify a plant to process feathers, which must be hydrolysed under controlled pressure, and waste to be converted into poultry by-product meal.

2.8. Integration of the poultry industry

Poultry production is a risky operation, dependent on supply and demand.

Demand is determined by the number of potential consumers, their purchasing power and their propensity to purchase the products of the poultry industry rather than fish or other animal products.

Supply has to cover production, transport and distribution costs. In comparison with the producer's margin, those of the wholesaler and retailer are sometimes double. Nevertheless, the price paid by consumers must be sufficiently attractive to encourage them to consume this product rather than another and stimulate them to consume more and, on the other hand, be sufficiently lucrative for producers to encourage them to produce.

Price fluctuations, which are often seasonal but sometimes unpredictable, resulting from the imbalance of supply and demand, can cause the market to collapse which is potentially fatal for small producers. On the other hand, the converse can happen: if demand is very strong (religious festivals, New Year, holiday periods, etc), prices can go up to the detriment of the consumer.

The partial or total vertical integration of the industry is an effective way of modulating the effects of considerable fluctuations in the market for poultry products, providing the producer and consumer with constant prices.

The most classic type of vertical integration brings together the farmer, feed producer and hatchery owner. The latter two guarantee to the first a contractually-determined price for chicks and feed. The farmer brings into the balance his knowhow and buildings and establishes his operating costs in advance. On the basis of this data, the contracting parties share the profits or losses after the sale of the birds or eggs.

This type of integration is not appreciated by all farmers. Many of them, often the best, prefer to retain a degree of freedom of action in relation to their suppliers, accepting the drawbacks of autonomy.

The poultry industry lends itself perfectly to total integration from the breeding of parent stock to the distribution of fresh or deep-frozen products and sometimes beyond (fast food outlets, restaurants, hotel chains, etc) through poultry and egg by-products (delicatessen products, soups, ready-prepared meals, etc). Overall control is usually exercised by a company which hold all decision-making power at each stage of the production and marketing process. Such integrated operations have production, marketing and advertising capacity (branded products, seal of quality) commensurate with the market share they covet.

Grouping poultry farmers together in a co-operative is a form of horizontal integration which makes it possible to influence the main production costs by exerting pressure on the feed manufacturer, hatchery owner and abattoir. Downstream, the co-operative can conclude important deals, at prices set in advance, in poultry and eggs with supermarkets, local authorities, restaurants, etc. thus short-circuiting the traditional distribution network (wholesaler/retailer).

There are some co-operatives which have achieved almost total vertical integration of all stages of production, selling their products under their own label.

2.9. The production of egg trays

The production of egg trays, although important in terms of transporting and packing eggs, should not be seen exclusively in relation to intensive poultry farming. It should be pointed out that re-using egg trays, a very common procedure in Sahelian regions, must be banned, as it is a vector of certain contamination for poultry farms.

Local production of egg trays from recycled paper should make it possible to reduce the unit cost and encourage one-off use, which would be beneficial for all farms in terms of disease prevention.

The smallest egg tray production units produce 360 trays holding 30 eggs per hour, but there are some which produce 1,200 trays per hour. A 30-egg tray weighs about 60 g and requires 70 to 75 g of recycled paper and 150/200 g of water to manufacture. In Africa, drying can be done in the open air, thus avoiding the investment and running costs needed for an industrial dryer.

We think that the production of egg trays should be part of a project to manufacture special packaging such as fruit trays, seeding pots, platters for ready-to-roast chicken and meat in general, which can afford the quite considerable investment in the necessary equipment.

3.1. Evaluation indicators

On reading this guide, it is clear that poultry farming requires varying degrees of technical expertise. Managing broiler type breeding stock is a much more delicate matter than managing a flock of laying hens, which is itself more difficult to handle than a broiler unit.

Every activity in the poultry farming industry has its own specific technical features which the manager must be on top of and appropriately qualified staff are essential.

For guidance, some indicators for the summary evaluation of projects are given below.

Poultry farms

PRODUCTION

CYCLE

TURNROUND

MANAGEMENT

QUANTITY OF FEED

Broilers

7 weeks

Quick

Easy

4 kg/bird

Pullets

18 0 weeks

Slow

Delicate

8 kg/bird

Layers of eggs for consumption

52 weeks

Quick

Delicate

40 5 kg/bird

Layer breeding stock

72 weeks

Slow

Very Delicate

50 kg/bird

Operating costs and parameters according to capacity in the industry

Unit

Capacity

Approximate initial
cost in FCFA

Electricity
Kw/hour

Water
Litre/hour

Feed factory

1 tons/hour

30,000,000

27


Hatchery

8 400 eggs/weeks

24,000,000

2.5

75

Abattoir

50 0 chickens/h

2,000,000

5

450


300 00 chickens/h

20,000,000

30

500


500 00 chickens/h

43,000,000

50

700

Egg trays

360 trays/hour

40,000,000

12

55

Poultry houses


10 a 20,000 FCFA/M2 (local construction)

With the aid of the above indicators and answers to the questions posed in the following pages, promoters of poultry farming projects or an activity in the industry will be able to assess the economic viability of their plans.

3.2. Market information

Whether the project deals with hatching eggs, day-old chicks, eggs for consumption, broilers, replacement stock for egg production, slaughter of chickens or manufacture of compound feed, it is essential to collect a certain amount of information to assess its relevance. This may be obtained partly from official bodies, but direct interviews of operators at various stages of the production process importers, distributors or even consumers can be excellent sources of information.

Quantitative aspects (per product)

LOCAL PRODUCTION

NO



YES


OVERALL PRODUCTION
INCLUDING MAIN PRODUCERS:

QUANTITY/YEAR (1) ..................................

..................................

..................................

QUANTITY/YEAR

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................


TOTAL/YEAR (2)

..................................


Market share (%):

100x(2)/(1) ...............................................

IMPORT

NO



YES


OVERALL PRODUCTION
INCLUDING MAIN PRODUCERS:

QUANTITY/YEAR (3) ...................................


QUANTITY/YEAR

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................

..................................


TOTAL/YEAR (4)

..................................


Market share (%):

100 x(4)/(3)...............................................

Qualitative aspects

Discussions will be held with distributors and consumers to find out their requirements in terms of product characteristics (pigmented flesh yes/no, yellow feet yes/no, white or brown egg shells. Live, drawn or eviscerated chicken, fresh or frozen, pre-packed or not, etc.).

Economic aspects

Economic aspects should not be overlooked. It is useful to get an idea of some of the costs and prices current in the industry.

COSTS


PRODUCTION




TRANSPORT

..................................



DISTRIBUTION

..................................

PRICE

paid to the

PRODUCER

..................................


paid to the

IMPORTER

..................................


paid by

WHOLESALER

..................................


paid by

RETAILER

..................................


paid by

CONSUMER

..................................

BEFORE LAUNCHING INTO A POULTRY FARMING PROJECT IT IS IMPERATIVE TO CHECK ON THE

· OUTLETS OFFERED BY THE MARKET AS WELL AS ITS SOLVENCY
· HENCE THE NEED FOR CAREFUL DESIGNING

3.3. Assessing raw material requirements

This means assessing the quantity, sources of supply (local or imported) and costs of raw materials, energy, water and labour without forgetting fiscal obligations.

Raw material

Quantity/year

Unit price

Total

Purchase hatching eggs

..................................

..................................

..................................

Purchase chicks

..................................

..................................

..................................

Purchase pullets

..................................

..................................

..................................

Purchase feed

..................................

..................................

..................................

Production factors

..................................

..................................

..................................

Prophylaxis

..................................

..................................

..................................

Energy

..................................

..................................

..................................

Water

..................................

..................................

..................................

Staff training

..................................

..................................

..................................

Skilled labour

..................................

..................................

..................................

Unskilled labour

..................................

..................................

..................................

Fiscal obligations

..................................

..................................

..................................

Total



..................................

3.4. Investment required


Payable in local currency

To be funded in foreign currency

TOTAL

Land and buildings

..................................

..................................

..................................

Machines and equipment

..................................

..................................

..................................

Other

..................................

..................................

..................................

Working capital

..................................

..................................

..................................

TOTAL

..................................

..................................

..................................

1. EQUITY:

..................................

2. BORROWED FUNDS:

..................................

3. TOTAL:

..................................

3.5. Assessing the competition

It is desirable to know who one's direct competitors are in the zone or region in which one wishes to operate. Maintaining relationships with competitors is an asset which makes it possible to discover their strengths and weaknesses. It is a way of getting to know the tricks of the trade, its advantages and drawbacks, difficulties and obstacles to its development.

Such information will help you to place yourself in relation to your competitors and see how you can provide that something extra they do not have.

3.6. Integration in the poultry farming industry

It can be useful and profitable to consider integration in the industry through agreements to cooperate with other operators, in order to guarantee outlets for your products and provide you with regularity in your various supplies and a degree of price stability.

4.1. Breed suppliers

EURIBRID. BV.

POB 30
NL-5830 AA BOXMEER
Tel. : +31 885 58 99 22
Fax : +31 885 57 52 05

ISA

119 Avenue Maral de Saxe
F-69427 LYON
Tel. : +33 72 61 02 20
Fax : +33 72 61 92 55

LOHMANN GmbH

POB 446
D-27454 CUXHAVEN
Tel. : +49 47 21 55 02 51
Fax : +49 47 21 55 02 92

4.2. Suppliers of hatcheries

FUNKI INCUBATOR

DSI KIRKEVAENGET 5
GJELLERUP
DK-7400 HERMING
Tel. : +45 97 11 96 00
Fax : +45 97 11 96 77

PAS REFORM

POB 2
NL-7038 ZG ZEDDAM
Tel. : +31 83 45 91 11
Fax : +31 83 45 25 75

PETERSIME NV

Centrumstraat 125
B-9870 ZULTE
Tel. : +32 93 88 96 11
Fax : +32 93 88 84 58

4.3. Suppliers of abattoirs

ETS. J.P. BAYLE

BP 5 LE VORZELAT
F-42480 LA FOUILLOUSE
Tel. : +33 77 30 10 19
Fax : +33 77 30 59 10

POULTRYMAN (Machines Ltd)

Unit 11 Solent Industrial Estate
Shamblehurst Lane, Hedge end
SOUTHAMPTON
UK HAMPSHIRE SO32FX
Tel. : +44 1489 78 34 27
Fax : +44 1489 78 86 72

SYSTEMATE HOLLAND BV

POB 7261
NL-33280 AB NUMANSDORP
Tel. : +31 18 65 22 22
Fax : +31 18 65 10 65

4.4. Suppliers of feed manufacturing plants

ATELIERS ALBERT & Cie SA

Rue Riverre 4
B-5150 FLOREFFE
Tel. : +32 81 44 00 35
Fax : +32 81 44 17 08

ROBINSON MILLING SYSTEM

2 Mail des Cerclades
BP 206
F-95024 CERGY CEDEX
Tel.: +33 134 24 87 77
Fax: +33 130 30 40 54

VAN AARSEN BV

POB 5010
NL-6097 ZG PAN HEEL
Tel.: +31 97 11 96 00
Fax: +31 97 11 96 77

4.5. Suppliers of premixes and/or vit/min concentrates

CENTRAL SOYA FRANCE

Division PROTECTOR
9-11 Avenue Arago
BP 108
F-78191 TRAPPES CEDEX
Tel. : +33 134 82 23 00
Fax : +33 130 66 13 84

GROUPE SANDERS

Division Internationale
17 Quai de l'Industrie
F-91200 ATHIS-MONS
Tel. : +33 169 38 79 80
Fax : +33 169 38 38 11

VDS

Paanderstraat 40
B-8540 DEERLIJK
Tel.: +32 56 71 91 68
Fax : +32 56 70 50 47

4.6. Suppliers of poultry farming equipment

JOURDAIN DISTRIBUTION

BP 45
F-77521 COULOMMIERS CEDEX
Tel. : +33 164 03 08 93
Fax : +33 164 20 61 12

SAVIMAT FRANCE

BP 42
F-77169 CHAUFFRY
Tel. : +33 164 04 49 10
Fax : +33 164 04 43 44

SOPRODA

Z.I. rue de l'Industrie, 3
BP 7
F-77510 REBAIS
Tel. : +33 1 64 20 94 40
Fax : +33 1 64 20 91 23

4.7. Suppliers of equipment for egg trays

BELOVO ENGINEERING

B-6650 BASTOGNE
Tel. : +32 61 21 18 61
Fax : +32 61 21 55 63
+32 61 21 57 32

EMERY INTERNATIONAL
DEVELOPMENTS Ltd.

35 Station Road
Broadley Whitworth Rochdale
England OL12 8RT
Tel. : +44 117 06 30 700
Fax : +44 117 06 35 08 24

MARKHORST HOLLAND BV

Lage Inkweg 4
NL-7772 BA HARDENBERG
Tel. : +31 523 26 18 41
Fax : +31 523 26 36 99

SILFURTUN H/F

Lyngas 20
210 GARDABAER
Islande
Tel. : +354 565 88 11
Fax : +354 565 87 11

4.8. Poultry farming fairs

EUROTIER Deutsche Landwirtschafts Gesellschaft
(DLG) HANNOVER
Show in November

For information:
Eschborner Landstrasse 122
D-60489 FRANKFURT/MAIN
Tel. : +49 69 24 78 80
Fax : +49 69 24 78 81 13

EXPOAVIGA Fira de Barcelone
Show in November

For information:
Avenida Reina Maria Christina
SP-08004 BARCELONA
Tel.: +39 934 23 31 01
Fax : +39 933 25 82 02

EXPOSIMA
Show in February

For information:
1 Rue du Parc
F-92593 LEVALLOIS-PERRET
Tel. : +33 149 68 51 00
Fax : +33 147 37 74 47

SPACE
Show in September

For information:
111 Bld. du Maral-de-Lattre de-Tassigny
BP 1339
F-35013 RENNES Cedex
Tel. : +33 99 33 81 10
Fax : +33 99 33 81 09

VIV EUROPE
Show in November

For information:
POB 8500
NL-3503 RM UTRECHT
Tel. : +31 30 95 59 11
Fax : +31 30 94 03 79

4.9. Professional training centres

BARNEVELD COLLEGE

POB. 64
NL-3770 AB BARNEVELD
Tel.: +31 34 20 148 81
Fax: +31 34 20 928 13

I.T.A.V.I. (Institut technique de l'aviculture et des petits vages)

28 rue du Rocher
F-75008 PARIS
Tel.: +31 1 45 22 62 40
Fax: +31 1 43 87 46 13

5. WORKS CONSULTED

BRES P. & Coll., Prs du petit vage, Institut d'vage et de Mcine Vrinaire des pays tropicaux, 1973.

ERIKSEN P.J., Abattoirs et postes d'abattoirs - Dessins & Constructions, FAO, Rome 1962.

EUROPEAN PRODUCTIVITY AGENCY, The production and marketing of eggs and poultry, 1954.

JOURDAIN R., L'aviculture en milieu tropical, 1980.

I.S.A., Manuel d'aviculture en Afrique, 1991.

LAURENT Cl., Conservation des produits d'origine animale en pays chauds, P.U.F., 1974.

MEMENTO de l'AGRONOME, Techniques rurales en Afrique, Minist de la Cooption et du Dloppement, France, 1991.

N.R.A. (National Renderers Association), Pocket information manual, 1993.

PROTECTOR, Memento avicole, (1965, out of print).

SANOFI, Guide de l'aviculture tropicale, Santutrition Animale, 1993.

SAUVEUR B., Reproduction des volailles et production d'œufs, INRA 1988.

STEWART G.F & Coll., Commercialisation des œufs et de la volaille, FAO, Rome, 1962.

WERNER THOMANN, L'aviculture dans les rons tropicales, FAO, Rome, 1969.

WOOLLEN A.H., Food industries manual, 20th Edition, 1969.

6. A TOOL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN ACP COUNTRIES


CDI

CENTRE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY

The Centre for the Development of Industry (CDI) is an ACP-EU institution financed by the European Development Fund (EDF) under the Lomonvention bringing together the European Union and the 70 ACP countries (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific). Its objective is to encourage and support the creation, expansion and restructuring of industrial companies (mainly in manufacturing and agro-industry) in the ACP countries. To this effect, it promotes partnerships between ACP and European companies which may take various forms: financial, technical or commercial partnership, management contract, licensing or franchise agreement, subcontract, etc.

The CDI's services are easily accessible and are subdivided into four facilities (see table) to support the different stages in the creation, expansion and rehabilitation of industrial companies. In this framework, the CDI intervenes, free of charge, providing its own expertise, or makes a non-reimbursible financial contribution. The CDI does not finance the investment of the project but helps to seek out and put together a financing package.

The requests for assistance submitted to the CDI are evaluated on the basis of the financial and technical viability of the projects and their contribution as regards the development of the country concerned. Information submitted to CDI will be treated in complete confidentiality. The total amount invested in these projects, or the value of the assets in the case of existing companies, must be between 200,000 and 10 million ECU. Smaller companies may be accepted in certain cases: pilot projects, regrouping of several companies with a view to joint assistance, priority industrial sectors, etc.

By “project”, CDI means an industrial unit or group of units in the process of being created or undergoing expansion, diversification, rehabilitation or privatisation.

CDI - CENTRE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY-ACP-EU LOMCONVENTION
Avenue Herrmann Debroux 52, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium -Tel.: +32 2 679 1811 - Fax: +32 2 675 26 03

ACP Group

European Union

FACILITIES IN SUPPORT OF THE CREATION, EXPANSION, DIVERSIFICATION, REHABILITATION OR PRIVATISATION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES


FACILITY 1

FACILITY 2

FACILITY 3

FACILITY 4

TYPE OF OPERATION

Programme of identification of projects and potential partners

(Opportunity studies per country or per sector, business contacts)

Operations prior to implementation of a project

(Search for partners, feasibility studies, market surveys, diagnostics, expertise; rehabilitation, diversification, privatisation or expansion studies, advice on the purchase of equipment)

Financial and legal structuring of the project

(Assistance in assembling the financial and legal package, search for financing and support in contacts with finance institutions)

Project start-up and development

(Advice on inspection and reception of new or second-hand equipment, supervision of installation, technical assistance, assistance in start-up, management and marketing, training)

BENEFICIARIES

Development, promotion and finance institutions

Promoters and/or companies of an ACP country or a European Union member country, acting either individually or jointly, wishing to undertake an industrial project in an ACP country

ACCESS

Applicants may approach the CDI directly or contact one of the members of the CDI's ACP network or European Union network

TYPE OF CONTRIBUTION

Advice, technical assistance or subsidy

AMOUNT

Case by case

Max. 150,000 ECU per project and per year

(The cumulated amount of all contributions to the same project/company must not exceed 300,000 ECU and must be less than 20% of the total investment, except in the case of pilot projects)

LIMITES OF CDI CONTRIBUTION

Maximum 50% of the total cost

Maximum 2/3 of the total cost per project and per year

(Beneficiary promoters/companies must contribute at least one third of the cost)

HOW TO PRESENT YOUR REQUEST

Applicants may approach the CDI directly or contact one of the members of the CDI's ACP or European Union networks, the names of which you will find in this leaflet.

SUBSTANCE OF THE REQUEST

A clear description of the assistance requested from CDI is essential in every case.

In general, the information to be provided is as follows:

Identification of industrial projects and potential partners (facility I)

· description of the organisation putting forward the proposal and, if applicable, the companies on whose behalf this; identification process is being conducted;

· description of and reasons for the proposed activity;

· detailed timetable for execution of the specific operations;

· detailed budget proposal.

Operations prior to implementation of a project (facility 2)

· description of the company or promoter presenting a proposal, including information on their financial situation;

· description of the project under consideration;

· preliminary financing plan for the investment or development project;

· work plan covering the operations to be carried out;

· breakdown of the budget for the proposed operation.

Financial and legal structuring of the project (facility 3)

· description of the existing enterprise and/or investment envisaged (sector, size, financial projections, etc.);

· project feasibility study covering the technical, economic and financial aspects;

· description of the proposed financial and legal structure;

· work programme and detailed budget proposal.

Project start-up and development (facility 4)

· description of the company, including its financial position;
· description of the technical assistance and training programme;
· work programme, main assistance objectives;
· detailed budget proposal.

THE CDI'S ACP ANTENNAE NETWORK

WEST AFRICA REGION

BENIN

· Centre de promotion pour l'emploi et la petite et moyenne entreprise (CEPEPE)
T: +229 31 44 47 Fax: +229 31 59 50

BURKINA FASO

· Minist de l'industrie, du commerce et des mines
T: +226 307305 Fax: +226 307305

CAPE VERDE

· I.A.D.E.
T: +238 61 4444 Fax: +238 61 24 34

CE D'IVOIRE

· Chambre de commerce et de l'industrie de Cd'Ivoire
T: +225 324700 Fax: +225 272117

GAMBIA

· Mass
T: +220 229 848 Fax: +220 229 024

GHANA

· Ghana Investments Promotion Centre (G.I.P.C.)
T: +233 21 665 125 Fax: +233 21 663 801

GUINEA

· Office de promotion des investissements priv(O.P.I.P)
T: +224 444985 Fax: +224 413161

GUINEA BISSAU

· Ministerio dos Recursos Naturais e da Industria
T: +245 215659 Fax: +245 221050

LIBERIA

· Subah-Belleh Associates
T: +231 221519 Fax: +231 226262

· Venture Development Incorporated
T: +231 225229 Fax: +231 225217

MALI

· Centre d'assistance aux projets, entreprises et socis (CAPES)
T: +223 222259 Fax: +223 228085

MAURITANIA

· Fration des industries et des mines (FIM)
T: +222 2 595 83 Fax: +222 2 595 83

· Association professionnelle promotion de la pe artisanale et du crt maritime mutuel en Mauritanie
T: +222 2 451 44 Fax: +222 2 450 46

NIGER

· Minist de l'industrie et de l'artisanat
T: +227 733783 Fax: +227 733783

· Afelen
T: +227 741821 Fax: +227 741812

NIGERIA

· N.I.D.B. Ltd.
Tel: +234 1 663470

· New Nigeria Development Co. Ltd. (N.N.D.C.)
T: +234 62 200250 fax: +234 62 35482

· G. Odia and Associates
T: +234 1 822712 Fax: +234 1 2662315

· Mitecs Ltd.
T: +234 1 834 108 Fax: +234 1 261 44 96

· Grid Consulting
T: +234 1 266 5657 Fax: +234 1 266 7905

SENEGAL

· Sonepi
T: +221 25 51 80 Fax: +221 24 65 65

SIERRA LEONE

· Ajua Consultants Ltd.
T: +232 22 229028 Fax: +232 22 229680

TOGO

· Chambre de commerce, d'agriculture & d'Industrie du Togo (CCAI)
T: +228 212065 Fax: +228 214730

CENTRAL AFRICA REGION

BURUNDI

· B.N.D.E
T: +257 222888 Fax: +257 223775

CAMEROON

· BETA Conseil
T: +237 432585 Fax: +237 431691

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

· C.C.I.M.A
T: +236 611668 Fax: +236 613561

· Kode Conseil, sarl
T: +236 610035 Fax: +236 610035

CHAD

· O.P.I.T.
T: +235 515364 Fax: +235 515884

CONGO

· B.D.E.A.C.
T: +242 830212 Fax: +242 830266

· CODIS Consult
T: +242 837135 Fax: +242 836199

GABON

· ASIAFCO Gabon, Sarl
T: +241 724061 Fax: +241 724061

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

· Ministerio de Industria, Comercio y Promocimpresarial
T: +240 9 2586 Fax: +240 9 3339

RWANDA

Minist de l'industrie et de l'artisanat
T: +250 76715

SAO TOME E PRINCIPE

· Ministerio de Economia e Finan
T: +239 1222747 Fax: +239 1222182

ZAIRE

· SOFIDE
T: +243 12 25619

EAST AFRICA REGION

COMOROS

· Banque de dloppement des Comores
T: +269 73 08 18

· Centre d'appui au secteur privCASP)
T: +269 73 03 38 Fax: +269 73 03 13

ERITREA

· Asmara Chamber of Commerce
T: +291 1 121 388 Fax: +291 1 120 138

ETHIOPIA

· M. Ashenafi Shifferaw
T: +251 1 553330 Fax: +251 1 553330

KENYA

· 4M Enterprises
T: +254 2 744955 Fax: +254 2 750396

MADAGASCAR

· Soci d'des et de risations pour le dloppement (SERDI)
T: +261 2 21335 Fax: +261 2 29669

· Association thoni commission de l'oc indien
T: +261 2 32183 Fax: +261 2 32184

MAURITIUS

· Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Maurice (CCIM)
T: +230 208 3301 Fax: +230 208 0076

SEYCHELLES

· Development Bank of Seychelles
T: +248 224471 Fax: +248 224274

SUDAN

· Sudan Development Corporation
T: +249 11 452151 Fax: +249 11 452148

TANZANIA

· International Services & Supplies Ltd. (ISS)
T: +255 51 21401 Fax: +255 51 32895

· Small Industries Development Organization (SIDO)
T: +255 51 27691 Fax: +255 51 21011

· Tanzania Development Finance Company Ltd.
T: +255 51 46 144

UGANDA

· Centre for Trade Promotion Ltd.
T: +256 41 24 29 62 Fax: +256 41 24 55 97

SOUTHERN AFRICAN REGION

ANGOLA

· Ministerio da Industria
T: +244 2 33 70 55 Fax: +244 2 39 2400

BOTSWANA

· Economic Consultancy (PTY) Ltd.
T: +267 31 31 31 Fax: +267 31 20 90

LESOTHO

· Lesotho National Development Corporation (LNDC)
T: +266 32 20 12 Fax: +266 31 00 38

MALAWI

· Investment and Development Bank of Malawi Ltd. (INDEBANK)
T: +265 62 00 55 Fax: +265 63 57 03

MOZAMBIQUE

· Instituto Nacional de Desenvolvimiento da Industria Local (IDIL)
T: +258 1 42 21 79 Fax: +258 1 43 02 26

NAMIBIA

· Investment Centre
T: +264 61 22 99 33 Fax: +264 61 22 02 78

· Chamber of Commerce & Industry
T: +264 22 20 00 Fax: +264 33 690

SWAZILAND

· Swaziland Industrial Development Company
T: +268 433 91 Fax: +268 45 619

ZAMBIA

· Small Industries Development Organisation (SIDO)
T: +260 1 22 42 84 Fax: +260 1 22 25 68

ZIMBABWE

· Zimbabwe Investment Centre
T: +263 4 75 79 31 Fax: +263 4 75 79 37

CARIBBEAN REGION

ANTIGUA and BARBUDA

BAHAMAS

· Bahamas Chamber of Commerce
T: +1 809 3222145 Fax: +1 809 3224649

BARBADOS

· Barbados Investment and Development Corporation (BIDC)
T: +1 809 4275350 Fax: +1 809 4267802

BELIZE

· Belize Chamber of commerce & Industry
T: +501 275108 Fax: +501 2274984

DOMINICA (COM)

· Insurance Marketing & Promotion Services Ltd.
T: +1 809 4485392 Fax: +1 809 4485592

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

· DOMINEX
T: +1 809 5355540 Fax: +1 809 5333215

GRENADA

· Grenade Industrial Development Corporation (IDC)
T: +1 809 4441035 Fax: +1 809 4444828

GUYANA

· The (private) Sector Commission of Guyana Ltd.
T: +592 257170 Fax: +592 270725

JAMAICA

· JAMPRO Ltd.
T: +1 809 9297190 Fax: +1 809 9249650

ST CHRISTOPHER and NEVIS

· Chamber of Commerce and Industry
T: +1 809 4652980 Fax: +1809 4654490

ST LUCIA

· St. Lucia National Development Corporation
T: +1 809 4523074 Fax: +1 809 4521841

ST VINCENT and GRENADINES

· St. Vincent Development Corporation
T: +1 809 4571358 Fax: +1 809 4572838

SURINAME

· Chamber of Commerce and Industry
T: +597 473527 Fax: +597 474779

TRINIDAD and TOBAGO

· Caribbean Business Services Ltd.
T: +1 809 633 2103 Fax: +1 809 633 2103

PACIFIC REGION

FIJI

· Fiji Trade and Investment Board
T: +679 31 59 88 Fax: +679 30 1783

KIRIBATI

· Ministry of Natural Resources Development
T: +686 21099 Fax: +686 21120

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

· Department of Trade and Industry Central Government Offices
T: +675 27 11 15 Fax: +675 25 2403

SOLOMON ISLANDS

· Ministry of Commerce & Primary Industry
T: +677 262 30 Fax: +677 250 84

TONGA

· Tonga Development Bank
T: +676 213 33 Fax: +676 22 755

TUVALU

· Development Bank of Tuvalu
T: +688 20 850 Fax: +488 20 850

WESTERN SAMOA

· Development Bank of Western Samoa
T: +685 228 61 Fax: +685 23 888

VANUATU

· Ministry of Economic Affairs
T: +678 22770 Fax: +678 25640

THE CDI'S EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONAL NETWORK

AUSTRIA

· Wirtschaftskammer terreich Aussenwirtschaftsorganisation
T: +43 1 50105 4403 Fax: +43 1 50206 255

BELGIUM

· Administration grale de la cooption au dloppement - AGCD
Tel.: +32 2 519 02 11 Fax: +32 2 500 65 85

· Minist de la Ron Wallonne - DARE
Tel.: +32 2 211 55 11 Fax: +32 2 211 55 37

· Minist de la Ron Bruxelles-Capitale
Tel.: +32 2 513 97 00 Fax: +32 2 511 52 55

DENMARK

· The Industrialization Fund for Developing Countries - IFU
Tel.: +45 33 14 25 75 Fax: +45 33 32 25 24

FINLAND

· Finnfund
Tel.: +358 0 348 434 Fax: +358 0 348 433 46

· Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department for Development Cooperation
Tel.: +358 0 134 151 Fax: +358 0 134 162 09

FRANCE

· Assembldes chambres franses de commerce et d'industrie - ACFCI
Tel.: +33 1 40693700 Fax: +33 1 472061 28

· Association ronale pour le dloppement et la cooption Industrielle internationale - ADECI
Tel.: +33 91 14 42 28 Fax: +33 91 91 85 37

· INTERCO Aquitaine - Agence de cooption Internationale
Tel.: +33 56 51 20 92 Fax: +33 56 48 28 19

· Institut ronal de dloppement - IRCOD
Tel.: +33 26 70 31 31 Fax: +33 26 64 10 95

· Caisse franse de dloppement - CFD
Tel.: +33 1 40 06 31 31 Fax: +33 1 47 42 75 14

· ERAI - Entreprise RhAlpes international
Tel.: +33 78 34 83 48 Fax: +33 78 34 59 85

GERMANY

· Deutsche Investitions und Entwicklungsgesellschaft - D.E.G.
Tel.: +49 221 498 63 81 Fax: +49 221 498 61 11

GREECE

· Organization for the Development of Small and Medium Sized Industries and Handicrafts - EOMMEX
Tel.: +30 1 77 00 654 Fax: +30 1 77 78 694

IRELAND

· Irish Trade Board - ITB
T: +353 1 269 50 11 Fax: +353 1 269 58 20

ITALY

· Ente Regionale per la Valorizzazione Economica del Territorio - ERVET
Tel.: +39 51 23 05 67 Fax: +39 51 22 23 52

· Istituto Nazionale per il Commercio Estero - ICE
Tel.: +39 6 59 921 Fax: +39 6 59 926 899

GRAND-DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG

· Minist des Affaires angs Direction des Relations nomiques internationales et de la Cooption
Tel.: +352 478 23 62 Fax: +352 22 20 48

· Lux-Development s.a.r.l.
Tel.: +352 43 39 68 Fax: +352 43 38 08

PORTUGAL

· Banco de Fomento e Exterior - BFE
Tel.: +351 1 356 1071 Fax: +351 1 3522758

· Banco Portugudo Atlico - BPA
Tel.: +351 1 346 33 52 Fax: +351 1 342 32 94

· Fundo Para a Coopera Economica - FCE
Tel.: +351 13520607 Fax: +351 1 315 85 43

· Investimentos, Comercio e Turismo de Portugal - ICEP
Tel.: +351 1 793 01 03 Fax: +351 17940826

SPAIN

· COPCA
Tel.: +34 3 48 49 605 Fax: +34 3 48 49 666

· Instituto Espade Comercio Exterior - ICEX
Tel.: +34 1 34961 00 Fax: +34 1 431 61 28

· Sociedad para la Promoci Reconversindustrial - SPRI
Tel.: +34 4 47 97 000 Fax: +34 4 47 97 023

· Instituto de Fomento de Andaluc- IFA
Tel.: +34 5 490 00 16 Fax: +34 5 490 63 00

· Promociones Exteriores de Canarias - PROEXCA
Tel.: +34 28 41 1434 Fax: +34 28 41 43 04

SWEDEN

· Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Business and Enterprise Development Division - Sida.
Tel.: +46 8 698509 Fax: +46 8 249290

· Swedfund International - AB
Tel.: +46 8 7259400 Fax: +46 8 203093

UNITED KINGDOM

· Commonwealth Development Corporation - CDC
Tel.: +44 171 828 44 88 Fax: +44 171 828 65 05

· Department of Trade and Industry - DTI
Tel.: +44 171 2155750 Fax: +44 171 21557 12

These lists of the CDI's ACP and European Union networks, published in November 1995, are regularly updated. If you would like to receive the most recent lists, together with the names and references of the people to contact, please send your request to:

CDI
Avenue Herrmann Debroux 52, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium
Tel.: +32 2 679 18 11 - Fax: +32 2 675 26 03
November 1995

BACK COVER

Many companies in the European Community envisage setting up in an ACP country (Africa, Caribbean and Pacific). However, the success of such a venture depends on a thorough knowledge of all the local factors and, therefore, detailed, methodical and pragmatic preparation of the dossier. Insufficient awareness of local regulations and practices in the legal, fiscal and customs fields or with regard to foreign exchange controls, employment, communications or insurance, can lead to some serious disappointment. This guide, presented in the form of highly detailed check lists, will enable interested entrepreneurs to identify and avoid the different obstacles that can jeopardise their plans to set up abroad. It also provides a framework to analyse the comparative advantages of target countries, an important operation that is far too often neglected.

OTHER TITLES

“Technologies”

· 1 - Briquetting of vegetal residues
· 2 - Valorisation of phosphate in Africa

volume 1: phosphate fertiliser production
volume 2: phosphoric acid production

· 3 - Soap production
· 4 - Paint production
· 5 - Compressed earth blocks: production equipment
· 6 - Flexible polyurethane foam discontinuous process
· 7 - The intensive poultry farming industry in the Sahelian zone
· 8 - Flexible polyurethane foam

“Contracts and partnerships”

· 1 - Purchasing industrial equipment
· 2 - Setting up in ACP countries

“Tax and business”

· 1 - Zimbabwe

“Project evaluation and financing”

· 1 - Financial resources for industrial projects in ACP countries
· 2 - FINAN Manual
· 3 - Facilities and instruments for industrial cooperation

“Export development”

· 1 - Exporting sea products