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close this bookLeadership and Influence - Student Manual (FEMA-EMI, 1991, 208 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentTarget Audience
View the documentGoal and Objectives
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentSample Agenda
close this folderLESSON PLANS
View the documentUnit I Introduction
View the documentUnit II Personal Values
View the documentUnit III Personal Styles
View the documentUnit IV Conflict Management Styles
View the documentUnit V The Impact of Different Influence Styles
View the documentUnit VI Exercising Leadership
View the documentUnit VII Exercising Power
View the documentUnit VIII Motivation
View the documentUnit IX Group Dynamics
View the documentUnit X Tying the Concepts Together: Course Integration & Application
View the documentUnit XI Presentation of Influence Plans
View the documentUnit XII Conclusion
close this folderAppendix
View the documentAppendix A - Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Unit VI Exercising Leadership



At the conclusion of this unit, you will be able to:

1. Define the term situational leadership;
2. Describe the relationship between leadership style and follower development level;
3. Identify the leadership styles he or she tends to use most often; and
4. Explain how each of the four leadership styles applies to various emergency management situations.

Leadership is providing direction, coordination, and motivation toward emergency management goals.

You are leading when:


1. Before World War II, Great Man theory was dominant:

Leaders are born, not made:

2. Leaders had to be trained during World War II:

Leaders could be trained:

Leadership = Concern about task and concern about people

3. Situational leadership - today's thinking

Leaders are most effective when they vary their leadership style in response to the needs of the people they are trying to influence.


1. Flexibility - the ability to use all of the following four leadership styles

- Directing:

providing specific instructions and supervising task accomplishment

- Coaching:

providing less direction and supervision and more explanation of decisions and support about progress

- Supporting:

providing facilitation and support toward another's efforts and sharing responsibility for decision making

- Delegating:

providing a task but giving another person responsibility for decision making and problem solving

2. Diagnosis - the ability to determine the development level of other people and match with the correct leadership style.

The follower's development level is based on his or her:

- Competence: skills/job knowledge

Commitment: motivation/confidence

3. Contracting - the ability to agree with your employees about how you are going to work with them to best advantage for all. Contracting involves five steps:

- Agree on goals with person performing the task

- Diagnose development level

- Agree on the appropriate leadership style with person performing the task

- Plan for how you are going to work together

- Follow through with the appropriate


The LBA II instrument is based on the situational leadership concept.

Directing (S1):

High directive/low supportive behavior: Leader provides specific instructions (roles and goals) for follower(s) and closely supervises task accomplishment.

Coaching (S2):

High directive/high supportive behavior: Leader explains decisions and solicits suggestions from follower(s) but continues to direct task accomplishment.

Supporting (S3):

High supportive/low directive behavior: Leader makes decisions together with the follower(s) and supports efforts toward task accomplishment.

Delegating (S4):

Low supportive/low directive behavior: Leader turns over decisions and responsibility for implementation to follower(s).

Consider your position in the local emergency management system and guess what your leadership style hierarchy is. Identify your primary style (the one you tend to use most) and your most subordinate style (the one you tend to use least), labeling them "1" and "4," respectively in the "Guessed Style" column below. Then identify styles "2" and "3."

Guessed Styles

Computed Styles

1. _________________

1. __________________

2. _________________

2. __________________

3. _________________

3. __________________

4. _________________

4. __________________

The LBA II questionnaire provides you with 20 hypothetical situations with which to identify your preferred leadership styles. After scoring the questionnaire, record your actual scores in the "Computed Styles" column above.


Supposed to reflect your flexibility in shifting styles

But it is according to the authors' definition of "right"

There are no correct or incorrect answers since effectiveness depends on the situation

But your results may reflect a need to consider alternative leadership styles!


1. What are the three skills of a situation leader?

a. _________________________
b. _________________________
c. _________________________

2. From Directing to Coaching to Supporting, managers __________ the amount of support they provide.

3. As managers change their leadership style from Directing to Coaching to Supporting to Delegating, the amount of follower involvement in decision making .

4. What are the three ways in which the four leadership styles vary?

a. _________________________
b. _________________________
c. _________________________



Work with members of your group to determine the development level illustrated in the scenarios assigned to your group and which leadership style is needed - Action a, b, c, or d? Be able to explain why your group made the choices it did.

1. As the Emergency Program Manager, you have noticed that your administrative assistant and word processor are working together efficiently with encouragement from you. Lately, however, conflicts between them have caused delayed correspondence and wasted time. You would...

a. Get them together and tell them how they can resolve their conflict and see that they do it.

b. Talk to them separately about the problem, then get them together to discuss the problem. Encourage them to get along together and support their efforts at cooperation.

c. Talk to them separately to get their ideas, then bring them together and show them how to work out the conflict using their ideas.

d. Tell them you are concerned about the problem, but give them time to work it out by themselves.

Development Level:______ Action:______

2. For the last few months, you have been working with some members of a team designing training and writing manuals to familiarize members of the local emergency management community with the Incident Command System. During that time, you have found that one member has taken the lead when problems arise. She gets along well with the others on the team and is recognized as having the capability to oversee the completion of the project. Because of time constraints, you must move on to other duties. You have asked her to take charge of the project. Others on the team are pleased with your decision. You would...

a. Involve her in thinking out the problems she may encounter and support her efforts to take charge of the project.

b. Let the group work on its own under her leadership.

c. Talk with her and set goals for the project, but listen to and consider her suggestions.

d. Stay in close contact with her so you can direct and closely supervise her efforts to complete the project.

Development Level:________ Action:___________

3. You have asked one of your employees to take on a new assignment. In her other responsibilities, she has performed well with direction and support from you. The job you have asked her to do is important to the future of your local emergency management community. She is enthused about the new challenge. She may not have all the skills. You would...

a. Give her the assignment and let her determine how to do it.

b. Define the activities necessary to successfully complete the assignment and supervise her work closely.

c. Listen to her concerns, but encourage her to take on the new assignment and support her efforts.

d. Direct her efforts, but solicit any ideas she may have.

Development Level:________ Action:___________

4. You have recently been appointed emergency program manager in a jurisdiction that is new to you. In getting to know your people, you have found that one of your workers is particularly capable and innovative. She has made a number of suggestions that have facilitated communication among local agencies responsible for emergency response. At first you give her a great deal of encouragement and support for her work, but little direction. You would...

a. Begin to be more specific about what you want her to do, but make sure you consider any creative suggestions she may have.

b. Continue to work with her in a supportive way and encourage her innovative ideas.

c. Look for new ways for her to make a contribution and begin to let her work more on her own.

d. Begin to channel her creative abilities into some very specific responsibilities and make sure she spends time on those activities.

Development Level:______ Action:______

5. Since your group has been given an increased work load, you have asked one of your people to take charge of a new responsibility. You have worked with him before and know that he has the knowledge and experience to be successful in the assignment. However, he seems insecure about his ability to do the job. You would...

a. Assign the new responsibility to him and let him do it on his own.

b. Tell him what you expect him to do, but consider his suggestions.

c. Listen to his concerns about his abilities, but assure him he can handle the new responsibility.

d. Tell him exactly what the new responsibility involves, and then work with him closely.

Development Level:______ Action:_____________


Leaders must have good communications skills.

Four important characteristics of effective communication:

- Accuracy in transmission and reception

- Communicate at the appropriate developmental level

- Open communication encourages feedback

- Be able to perceive any hidden messages

Influence Plan Update: Return to page II-15 and make some notes on the development level of the person you are trying to influence.