Cover Image
close this bookWood Harvesting with Hand Tools - An Illustrated Training Manual (ILO, 1989, 128 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folderBASIC WORK AND MAINTENANCE TOOLS
View the documentHAND TOOLS FOR WOOD HARVESTING
View the documentFILES
View the documentGRINDSTONES AND WHETSTONES
View the documentSPLITTING HAMMER AND WEDGES
View the documentMAKING TOOL HANDLES
close this folderAXES
View the documentUSE AND TYPES OF AXES
View the documentMAINTAINING AN AXE
View the documentMAKING AN AXE HANDLE
View the documentSHAFTING AN AXE
close this folderBOW SAWS
View the documentUSE AND TYPES OF BOW SAWS
close this folderCROSS-CUT SAWS
View the documentTYPES OF CROSS-CUT SAWS
View the documentMAINTENANCE TOOLS FOR CROSS-CUT SAWS
View the documentFILING VICES, SELF-MADE
View the documentFILING VICES, COMMERCIALLY-MADE
View the documentMAINTAINING A PEG-TOOTH CROSS-CUT SAW
View the documentTYPES OF RAKER-TOOTH CROSS-CUT SAWS
View the documentMAINTAINING A RAKER-TOOTH CROSS-CUT SAW
View the documentMAJOR OVERHAUL OF CROSS-CUT SAWS
close this folderTHE WORKER
View the documentCLOTHING, PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, FIRST-AID EQUIPMENT
View the documentFOOD, NUTRITION AND REST
View the documentWORKING POSTURES AND MOVEMENTS
View the documentWORK PLANNING AND ORGANISATION
View the documentACCIDENT PREVENTION
close this folderTREE FELLING
View the documentPREPARATION FOR TREE FELLING
View the documentTREE FELLING WITH AXE AND BOW SAW
View the documentTREE FELLING WITH AXE AND CROSS-CUT SAW
View the documentPRECAUTIONS WHEN MAKING THE UNDERCUT AND THE BACK CUT
View the documentFELLING TREES LEANING INTO THE PLANNED FELLING DIRECTION
View the documentFELLING TREES LEANING TO THE SIDE
View the documentTREE FELLING IN DENSE TROPICAL FORESTS
View the documentFELLING OF TREES WITH PLANK BUTTRESSES
View the documentWOOD WASTAGE DUE TO POOR WORKING TECHNIQUES IN FELLING
close this folderRELEASING LODGED TREES
View the documentRELEASING LODGED TREES WITH SIMPLE TOOLS
View the documentRELEASING LODGED TREES WITH SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND MACHINES
close this folderDEBRANCHING AND DEBARKING
View the documentDEBRANCHING
View the documentDEBARKING
close this folderCROSS-CUTTING
View the documentGENERAL RULES FOR CROSS-CUTTING
View the documentTOOLS FOR CROSS-CUTTING
View the documentSUPPORTS AND TRESTLES
View the documentCROSS-CUTTING OF TREES UNDER TENSION
View the documentWOOD WASTAGE IN CROSS-CUTTING
View the documentCUTTING WINDFALLS
View the documentWOOD SPLITTING
close this folderWOOD HANDLING AND TRANSPORT
View the documentHANDLING BILLETS AND LOGS
View the documentMANUAL TRANSPORT OF SMALLER-SIZED WOOD
View the documentUSE OF SKIDDING SULKIES
View the documentSLIDING WOOD DOWNHILL
View the documentSTACKING AND STORING OF WOOD
View the documentPIT-SAWING
View the documentTRAINING IN WOOD HARVESTING
View the documentOTHER ILO PUBLICATIONS
View the documentBACK COVER

MAINTAINING A RAKER-TOOTH CROSS-CUT SAW

Maintenance work follows the same pattern as for peg-tooth saws except that, additionally, raker adjustment is needed. The saw is held at all times in a vertical position during maintenance work.

Jointing is done in exactly the same way as for peg-tooth saws (1).

Raker adjustment. The raker adjuster, correctly set, is placed over a raker (2). Holding the tool firmly against the saw, the raker is filed flush with the tool guide plate (2a). The raker depth should be 0.2-0.5 mm for hard wood and 0.6-1.0 mm for soft wood (2b). The correct depth must be found under working conditions and will be indicated by properly-shaped saw chips.

Raker filing is done after adjusting the raker height (3). It is continued until the flat is as small as possible. Horizontal file strokes are used (3a). The raker angle should be 90°. It can be checked easily during filing with the top end of the mill-saw file (3b).

Cutter teeth filing is done with the saw in the oblique position (4). A top angle of 70 and a side angle of 35 must be produced. Filing strokes should not exceed 60 per minute. The full length of the file is used and an even pressure put on the file. Check the angles with the gauge frequently and when the flat almost disappears, tap the top of the tooth with the file handle or small piece of wood. This gives a true picture of how much flat is left. The last strokes with the file must be very gentle. Sharpening is finished when the flat is just about to disappear.


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Deburring. Put the saw in a vertical position. The fine side of the whetstone is run along both sides of the saw to remove burrs (1). Be careful not to touch the sharp teeth with the fingers.

Setting (2). Check that the saw is held very firmly in the vice. For a right-handed man, the left arm is put over the saw, taking care not to catch the saw with the arm or body, and the anvil held in the left hand. Those teeth with the bevels towards the body are set first. The anvil is placed against the back of the cutter. The cutter is set with short and firm strokes of the setting hammer held in the right hand (2a, 2b).

The setting indicator is used to check the set of each tooth (3). The correct saw set for hard wood is 0.1-0.2 mm, for soft wood 0.2-0.4 mm (4). Insufficient set is corrected at once by further hammer strokes. If the set is too great it is removed with the setting hammer after the position of the anvil has been changed (5). After setting one side, the saw is turned round and the other side is set.

Note: The first six teeth on either end of the saw need no setting.

Setting normally follows cutter teeth filing but the order can also be reversed.

Deepening of gullets. At intervals of about four weeks, it is necessary to deepen the gullets on the cutters (6a) and the gullets between the rakers (6b) with the millsaw file and the big gullets between the rakers and the cutters (6c) with the round file.


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