Cover Image
close this bookGuide to Developing Training Strategies (DHA/UNDRO - DMTP - UNDP, 55 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folder1. Introduction
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View the document1.1 Learning objectives
View the document1.2 Why is training in disaster management necessary?
View the document1.3 What can be achieved by training?
View the document1.4 Who is to be trained?
close this folder2. Objectives of training programmes
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View the document2.1 General objectives of training programmes
View the document2.2 What resources are necessary to achieve the objectives?
close this folder3. Formulating training programmes
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View the documentPre-training
View the documentTraining
View the documentPost-training
close this folder4. Identifying needs
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View the document4.1 Why do we need to assess needs?
close this folder4.2 What do we assess?
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View the document4.2.1 At the national level
View the document4.2.2 At the organisational level (multi-sectoral)
View the document4.2.3 At the departmental level
View the document4.2.4 At the team level
View the document4.2.5 At the job level
View the document4.2.6. At the individual level
View the document4.3 How are needs assessed?
View the document4.4 List of general statements for classifying performance discrepancies
View the document4.5 Other types of needs assessment
View the document5. Formulating Objectives
close this folder6. Preparing training strategies
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View the document6.1 Training framework
View the document6.2 Other training alternatives
close this folder7. Sustainability of training programmes
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View the document7.1 Institutional Base for Training:
View the document8. Resistance to training in disaster management
close this folder9. Do’s and don’ts in establishing a disaster management strategy
View the document9.1 Do’s
View the document9.2 Don’ts
View the document10. Conclusions
View the document11. Bibliography
View the documentAppendix 1. Structures of national disaster management administration
View the documentAppendix 2. Case Study

2.2 What resources are necessary to achieve the objectives?

Developing realistic and achievable training objectives requires an understanding of the resources that are available or that can be created. Each objective has to be checked against what it involves to implement them. The most fundamental requirements are:

· financial support
· organisational capacities
· leadership capabilities
· qualified resource staff and an institutional base in training and disaster management
· appropriate teaching materials

Financial support - An organised training activity requires financial support for the trainers, participants, administration and management, training material, venue etc. Although support in training for disaster management is now more available than before it still has to compete with many other priority areas in a country or an organisation for resources. Initial financial support has been available for several programmes (e.g. Philippines case study in Appendix 2) from international agencies, donor countries and other sources. However, many such programmes may be unsuccessful because they lack internal financial (as well as other) commitments to training. In the long run, self-reliance should be envisaged as a programme objective. Thus, the priority for the international community should be to help strengthen national capabilities.

Integrating training into a wider disaster management package, such as part of a preparedness or mitigation plan, may also be more likely to attract funding, since the benefits will seem to be in more than one (and perhaps in more visible) areas. Another alternative might be to begin with a low budget and small-scale training. By setting an example of achieved improvement targets that can be publicised widely, it may be possible to move into full scale programmes.

Organisational capacities - A body or bodies need to create a small organisation to mount a training programme. If a number of Government Ministries or departments and sharing in the overall responsibility they may need to provide a secretariat to undertake the following tasks:

· identify trainees and trainers

· select a training venue

· organise work programme

· organise training materials

· acquire the necessary training equipment - photocopies/audio visual aids/reference books for participants, etc.

· build up a data - base of participants

The organisation needs several characteristics to act effectively:

· clear authority
· adequate resources
· agreed aims
· good leadership

Leadership capabilities - Many successful training activities result from committed and skilled leadership. This role may be undertaken by an individual, a group, a department, an organisation or an agency depending on the nature of objectives and, of course, on who is committed to them. Often the leadership may not come from the targeted change area. This may create conflict and a lack of commitment to the activity as an ‘outsider’ group, individual or an organisation claims responsibility to achieve the training objectives set for another group.

One alternative can be to start with activities where leadership is strong to set an example. A more laborious, but perhaps more successful way of achieving long-term objectives can be to team up individual groups, institutions or agencies with the leadership capability with those where this capacity is needed. Departing with the ‘leadership’ role to empower those others who ultimately will ‘own’ the training activities should be a programme objective.

Qualified resource staff and an institutional base - Training objectives are often set only by focusing upon what to train and who to train. The question of who trains comes into consideration after several decisions are taken and sometimes only when the actual programming of training begins.

Qualified resource staff are fundamental to all training activities whether it is on-the-job training or a comprehensive training programme. Often these training areas which need the most attention are the weakest in terms of qualified resource staff.

Several training programmes have in the past and still do rely heavily on international expertise, which is an expensive solution and creates dependency. Where resources are available, external expertise can be sought, especially on subjects which cannot be covered by in-house or in-country persons. Also, in situations where training is not envisaged as a continuous activity, external institutions and resource staff may be a more feasible alternative to creating an in-house capacity. National programmes in the long run, however, require availability of this capacity and an institutional base for training for self-reliance. It should be remembered that this may be a long process to achieve, as knowledgeable staff are not always good trainers and good trainers may not always be experienced in the disaster management field (see the Guidelines for Trainers Leading Disaster Management Workshops for the selection of trainers and training institutions). There may be a need for investing in training the trainers as a parallel activity.

One alternative might be to seek resource staff from ‘outside’ (regional, international or other organisations) to run training activities alongside the identified ‘internal’ resource staff. This will initiate training rapidly and support resource staff development Another alternative might be to begin with objectives where there are qualified resource people and gradually create capabilities. Supporting the training of resource staff should be a programme objective from the start

Appropriate training materials - While there is considerable accumulation of knowledge in the field of disaster management through research, very lime of it is put into a practical format. Sectoral material, such as in the health field, through PAHO and CRED publications are more readily available and a number of UNDRO publications and the University of Wisconsin self study course materials address more general disaster management issues. The current DMTP modules attempt to fill the gaps and will make the state of the art knowledge available in a practical format While these documents will be useful as general course material to begin with, each country or organisation eventually needs to adapt existing material, develop its own case studies, exercises etc. appropriate to its own needs.

One rule of the thumb to remember is that all training material should be as close to the needs, realities and level of the target group(s) as possible.

Exercise:

Review the fire topics listed above and relative to the available resources in your situation, which do you currently possess, which could you acquire and which would be very difficult to obtain? - Who could assist you in this task?