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close this bookThe Courier N 145 - May - June 1994- Dossier : European Union: the Way forward - Country Report: Ethiopia (EC Courier, 1994, 104 p.)
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View the documentThe convention at work
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The convention at work

EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT FUND

Following, where required, favourable opinions from the EDF Committee, the Commission has decided to provide grants and special loans from the 5th, 6th and 7th EDFs to finance the following operations (grants unless otherwise stated):

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Cape Verde: ECU 1.29 million to render viable a zone designated for industrial use in Praia. Madagascar: ECU 16.4 million to rehabilitate 12 provincial airports. Madagascar: ECU 1.9 million, in the form of equipment and technical assistance, to support the revival of agriculture and fishing in the extreme south of the island. Fiji: ECU 10.24 million for the building of two bridges together with related road and structural works at Ba and Sigatoka. Papua New Guinea: ECU 20 million for improvements to the Ramu highway linking Pompaquato to the Gogol River. Solomon Islands: ECU 6 million for road building and the construction of quays in Malaita Province. All ACPs: ECU 30 million for multi-annual microproject programmes with an economic or social impact.

TRADE PROMOTION/ STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT

Central African Republic: ECU 10 million from the structural adjustment facility to support a general import programme.

ENTERPRISE

Member States of the West African Monetary Union (WAMU): ECU 512 000 for the West African Development Bank to support the promotion and financing of the private sector in the countries in question.

EDUCATION

Niger: ECU 3.15 million for a professional and technical training programme for entrepreneurs and trained workers in the formal and informal sectors. Zimbabwe and SADC Member States: ECU 9.1 million towards a training and education programme aimed at reinforcing the personnel of the University of Zimbabwe's Veterinary Science Faculty and of the public and private veterinary services in the region. SADC: ECU 8 million towards a regional training project for the management of fauna in the southern African Development Community. All ACPs: ECU 9.65 million for a programme to support training in statistics (COMSTAT).

ENVIRONMENT

Papua New Guinea: ECU 1.6 million for training of mining teams in environmental protection.

MISCELLANEOUS

Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda: ECU 1.95 million to support a five-year programme aimed at improving cereal cultivation and for research in agropathology. Countries of East Africa: ECU 1.95 million towards the second phase of a research and training programme designed to improve livestock. Solomon Islands: ECU 1.5 million towards phase 11 of an artisanal fisheries project. All ACPs and OCTs: ECU 40 million (global engagement) for financing of technical cooperation, trade promotion and tourism.

EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK

Loans

Cote d'Ivoire: ECU 4.2 million to finance the drilling of a confirmation oil well dose to the Belier oil field some 15 km off Grand-Bassam. The drilling will be undertaken by Petroci (the Cote d'Ivoire national oil company). Lesotho: ECU 20 million, consisting of a direct loan of ECU 5m to the Lesotho Highlands Development Authority (LHDA) and a risk capital loan of ECU 15m to the government of Lesotho, towards the reconstruction of the Muela hydroelectric power station. This forms an integral part of a 30-year project and should allow for the export of water to South Africa as well as providing Lesotho itself with an independent source of renewable energy.

MISCELLANEOUS

Support for structural adjustment in Ethiopia stepped up

During the recent meeting in Paris of the World Bank's consultative group on Ethiopia's reform programme, donors declared themselves ready to provide $1.1 billion in 1994-1995 in support of the programme. They also recognised that supplementary aid might be needed to tackle the food shortages in the country. At the meeting, the representative of the European Commission reported that Ethiopia has a financial allocation of ECU 265m for the first five-year period of LomV and that the EU has contributed ECU 75m to the structural adjustment programme. He added that the promptness with which support was given was in line with the wish expressed by the World Bank in its document. The Commission, he said, was currently examining the possibility of providing Ethiopia with aid for rapid disbursement from Stabex resources.

European Union

New member of the European Commission appointed

The former Spanish Foreign Minister Marcelino Oreja Aguirre has been appointed a member of the Commission of the European Communities.

The announcement was made at a meeting of the Permanent Representatives of the Member States in Brussels on 27 April. Mr Oreja, who has also served as Secretary-General of the Council of Europe and held a seat in the European Parliament, succeeds the outgoing Spanish Commissioner Abel Matutes, who is retiring after eight years in the post to contest the forthcoming European elections. The new Commissioner will take over his predecessor's responsibilities for Transport and Energy.

Report on cooperation with the development NGOs

The Commission recently published its annual report (for 1992) on its cooperation with European nongovernmental development organisations in areas of interest to developing countries.

Established 18 years ago, cooperation between the NGOs and the European Union is a practical manifestation of the Union's involvement in the solidarity of Europe's citizens with the least-favoured peoples of the Third World. In 1992, the amount provided under this heading reached ECU 634m, 32% more than in 1991 (ECU 480m) and 99% more than in 1990 (ECU 318.5m).

Most of the funds were directed towards development activities in developing countries (ECU 98m), informing the European public about development problems (ECU 11.4m), food aid (ECU 255.7m) and emergency aid (ECU 110.3m). It has been possible, however, thanks to the opening of new budget lines, to diversify adivities as well as to increase the resources available.

In this context, 1992 saw the allocation of ECU 39.3m for refugees and displaced persons, ECU 4.5m for NGOs involved in supporting the democratic process and economic cooperation in Chile, ECU 4.2m for the campaign against chugs, ECU 80m for the victims of apartheid, ECU 11.5m for the people of the frontline states of Southern Africa (aimed at counteracting the destabilisation activities of South Africa in these countries), ECU 17m for NGOs working in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, ECU 1.5m for NGOs involved in Vietnam and ECU 0.5m for those engaged in work in Cambodia.

As is indicated in the introduction to the report, this diversification underlines the capacity of NGOs to be involved in a wide range of areas, and in particular, in situations where the EU's official cooperation programmes are sometimes unable to function. This is not to mention the important role NGOs play in following up humanitarian actions financed by the EU as regards reconstruction/rehabilitation and the promotion of democracy and human rights.

Human rights, democracy and development

The Commission has approved a report on the implementation during 1993 of the resolution on human rights, democracy and development which was adopted by the Council and the Member States at a meeting on 28 November 1991.

The Report emphasises the interdependence between development on the one hand and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, together with democracy, on the other. It describes the positive actions supported by the Commission in favour of developing countries as well as the measures taken by the EU and its Member States in cases where there have been serious human rights violations and/or an interruption of the democratic process.

It is reported that 143 operations were either financed or co-financed by the Community during the year in question, representing a financial commitment of ECU 39.2m. The breakdown was as follows:

ACP

38.6%

Asia/Mediterranean

6.1 %

Latin America

51.7%

Other developing countries

3.6%

The report also contains:

- a restatement of the criteria applied by the Commission in implementing positive actions;

- a succinct description of the actions concerned;

- a description of the measures taken by the EU and its Member States following serious human rights violations or an interruption of the democratic process;

- the guidelines that the Commission would like to adopt as regards possible future initiatives in this area.

Equal rights for immigrants

Some ten million immigrants will shortly have the right to live and move freely within the territory of the European Union. This was the message delivered by Padraig Flynn, the European Commissioner with responsibility for social affairs and immigration, when he recently presented a plan for the integration of immigrants. Mr Flynn believes that all foreign nationals who are legally settled in any of the Member States should be treated in the same way as citizens of the EU, thereby conferring on them the same rights.

In a statement to the press, Mr Flynn underlined the fad that the plan was an example of the political progress made possible by the Maastricht Treaty, which gives competence to the EU in the fields of immigration, justice and police cooperation. Confirming the intention of the Commission to work on the basis that there is only one category of citizen, and to extend the same rights to all, Mr Flynn also recognised that a gradual approach would have to be adopted when it came to immigration questions.

Resolution of banana dispute with Latin American countries

On 29 March, the Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development, Rene Steichen, announced an agreement with four of the five countries involved in the GATT panel on bananas (Columbia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Venezuela). In his announcement, Mr Steichen said that he was satisfied with the agreement as it resolves a long-running dispute with these countries. At the same time, it ensures that the objedives of the Community's regime for bananas - namely, protection of ACP banana producer interests and of Community producer and consumer interests, as well as respect for the Community's international obligations - will continue to be maintained. The agreement involves an increase in the tariff quota to 2.1m tonnes in 1994 and to 2.2m tonees in 1995. A share of this quota will be allocated to each of the countries in question on the basis of their past exports to the EC and the national authorities will be entitled to export licences for 70% of these exports. The in-quota tariff will be reduced from ECU 100 per tonne to ECU 75 per tonne on the full tariff quota. It has therefore been agreed that Columbia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Venezuela and the EC will not seek the adoption of the GATT panel report. Furthermore, the four countries concerned will not initiate GATT dispute settlement procedures against the EU's regime for the duration of this agreement (which is valid until 31 December 2002).

Future relations with South Africa

The Commission foresees the establishment of future relations between the EU and South Africa falling into two phases: a package of initial measures to be presented to the incoming South African government following the election, which should include an immediate offer to negotiate an interim agreement, and then an offer to begin negotiations on a more comprehensive, longer-term agreement. With this in mind, the Commission has decided to submit to the Council a proposal for drawing up a first package of measures to meet the immediate needs of South Africa and without prejudice to a longer-term global arrangement to be put in place at a later stage. For the initial package, the measures currently proposed are as follows: Better market access: South Africa already has most favoured nation (MFN) status but the Commission is proposing to grant the benefits of the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) on top of this. Regional economic cooperation: In order to encourage intra-regional trade in Southern Africa, it might be useful to explore the possibilities and conditions for 'origin cumulation' within the region in order to stimulate the use of inputs from neighbouring countries. Investment promotion: To encourage investment in South Africa, it would be useful to offer the benefits of the European Community Investment Partners (ECIP) financial instrument. This enables grants and loans to be made to small firms and public organisations in both the EU and the eligible countries, for joint ventures. It would also be advisable to extend the Business Cooperation Network (BCNET) to South Africa and finally, the EIB will be consulted as to whether, and on what terms, it could consider expanding its activities to South Africa. Other areas of cooperation: In a number of areas, including education and training, industry, telecommunications, and science and technology, closer cooperation between the EU and South Africa is both feasible and desirable. Development cooperation (special programme): The election of the new South African government will, for the first time, enable a proper dialogue on future development assistance to take place. This will cover both the areas for assistance and the channels for implementation. lifting cd sanctions: In parallel with a decision to that effect to be taken by the United Nations, the Commission proposes the lifting of those sanctions that remain in force, namely the ban on arms exports and imports and the refusal to cooperate in the military sphere. To embody these measures, the Commission proposes that an interim agreement with the new South African Government, once it has been elected, be concluded without delay. Such an agreement should serve as a legal basis for future cooperation between the EU and South Africa. The agreement, while including financial provisions relating to the EU budget, will entail, among other things, a solid human rights clause designed to underline the fact that respect for democracy and human rights constitutes a fundamental element of future relations between the parties. The new relationship between the EU and South Africa should be tied in with the development of a political dialogue to be strengthened further in the longer term. At the initial stage, this dialogue should focus on support for democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights, and the promotion of social justice, as well as on working together to combat poverty and all forms of racial, political, religious and cultural discrimination. The dialogue should also include the regional dimension.

Joint EU embassy building in Nigeria

Ten Member States of the European Union, and the European Commission, are going to have their missions to Nigeria housed in a joint embassy building, Europa House, in the new capital, Abuja. This will be the outcome of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOW) signed by ministers from the ten participating Member States and the Commissioner responsible for external political relations, Hans van den Broek, at a meeting held alongside the General Affairs Council in Luxembourg on 19 April. (The United Kingdom has already established an embassy in Abuja, and Luxembourg does not have a mission to Nigeria.) The legal basis for the Memorandum is Article J.6 of the Treaty on European Union, and the move is a consequence of the decision by the Nigerian government to transfer its seat from Lagos to Abuja. The next step in the process will be the launching of a competition for the design of the embassy building among 15 architects from the Member States with proven experience in designing for tropical climates. An independent panel of representatives of the Member States will judge the entries and rank them in order of merit. As a precursor to the permanent joint embassy in Abuja, the same Member States and the Commission already operate a provisional arrangement of a similar nature which was inaugurated on 28 October 1992 (see issue No 137 of the Courier, page 14). This was a 'first' in the history of the Community and probably also in diplomatic history.

COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY

The European Union has, within the framework of its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), recently issued the following statements on events of international interest:

Statement on Sudan 21 February 1994

The European Union remains deeply concerned at the suffering being inflicted on the Sudanese people by the continuing civil war and the ever worsening human rights situation in Sudan. The Union therefore condemns the current bombings by the Sudanese air force, which are hamming the civilian population and causing a mass exodus to neighbouring countries. Consequently, the EU would urge the parties to implement an immediate ceasefire as the first step towards a negotiated overall settlement. Such military action against a population already sorely tried by the conflict in Southern Sudan is unacceptable, particularly since it constitutes an inadmissible obstacle to humanitarian aid. The EU has frequently impressed on all part)es to the conflict the negative effects of their military activities and the fact that they are therefore primarily responsible for the fate of the Sudanese people. The Union stressed the major effort which the international community, including the EU, has been making for a long time to assist those sections of the population which are victims of the violence. The EU remains prepared to hold a hank dialogue with the Sudanese authorities on all the political and humanitarian concerns of the international community. K also intends to continue its talks with the factions in the south of the country in the interests of peace. The EU strongly urges the Sudanese Government and all part)es involved to make a serious effort to achieve a negotiated solution to the conflict between them. In this connection, it is fully backing the diplomatic efforts being made under the aegis of the IGADD by the four Heads of State in the region.

Statement on Namibia 22 February 1994

The European Union warmly congratulates the government and the people of Namibia on the occasion of the reintegration of the enclave of Walvis Bay into Namibia, thereby achieving its territorial integrity through peaceful negotiation and dialogue. The international community has long supported the integration of Walvis say into Namibia and the European Union is delighted to witness this historic event.

Statement on Togo 28 February 1994

The European Union welcomes the maturity shown by the Togolese people in accomplishing their civic duty by participating in large numbers in the parliamentary elections on 6 and 20 February 1994. K notes that the elections have enabled the Togolese people to express their will democratically, despite difficult institutional and political conditions, and calls upon the main parties involved to abide strictly by the results of the vote.

Statement on Nigeria and Cameroon 3 March 1994

The European Union expresses its grave concern at the skirmishes taking place in the border region between Nigeria and Cameroon. K strongly believes that there is only one way of resolving disputes, namely through peaceful settlement. To this end, the European Union urges the governments of Nigeria and Cameroon to seek a solution to the dispute, through arbitration or mediation of any regional or international organisation, and consequently to refrain from any military anion which might aggravate the situation. Recent information indicates that there is concentration of troops on one side of the frontier line and therefore the European Union requests their immediate withdrawal.

Statement on Somalia 4 March 1994

The European Union has welcomed the adoption by the United Nations Security Council of Resolution 897 and reaffirms its full support for the work of the United Nations in furtherance of its revised mandate to encourage the process of political reconciliation, rehabilitation and reconstruction in Somalia which could otherwise be jeopardised. The European Union continues to follow closely the situation in Somalia. Of particular concern is the increasing banditry and violence throughout the country which threatens the efforts of the organisations and personnel engaged in relief operations. The European Union supports the efforts by the Somalis to reorganise the Somali police as an important element in restoring order. The European Union believes that the Somali people bear the ultimate responsibility for setting up viable national political institutions. In this regard, the European Union welcomes the ongoing consultations and contacts among Somali clans and factions aimed at reaching a political settlement acceptable to all the parties concerned. Progress on political reconciliation is essential if the risk of renewed armed confrontation and further human suffering is to be avoided. In addition, the European Union commends and supports the regional organisations and countries in their efforts to expedite dialogue and negotiations among Somali leaders on the future of their country. The European Union is ready to contribute actively to the rehabilitation and reconstruction process, in accordance with the Addis Ababa Declaration, where prospects for reconciliation and security conditions make possible effective international assistance for economic and social recovery.

Statement on Liberia 22 March 1994

The European Union welcomes the establishment, on 7 March, of the Council of State. It expresses its strong wish to see the transitional government quickly established and functioning and looks forward to the implementation of other elements in the Cotonou Agreement. The European Union welcomes such substantial progress on the road to peace and stability and underlines its strong wish that the disarmament and demobilisation process be carried out in a genuine and timely fashion, paving the way to the electoral consultation aimed at founding the new democratic and peaceful Liberia which would enable the European Union to continue its support.

Statement on Togo 23 March 1994

The European Union notes with satisfaction the announcement of the results of the parliamentary elections in Togo, which strictly respects the votes cast and democratic rules. The time has come for the people of Togo to commit themselves to national reconciliation and respect for the institutions, development and economic revival of their country. The European Union expresses the wish that the next stages in the reinstatement of Togo's democratic institutions will take place peacefully and it calls on the principal participants to continue in this way with the meeting of the elected National Assembly and the establishment of a government representing the choice of the Togolese people.

Statement on Burundi 25 March 1994

The European Union notes that the situation is deteriorating in Bujumbura, where repeated confrontations between civilian militias and the forces of order are causing many victims, especially among the unarmed and innocent people of the two ethnic groups. The European Union condemns this violence which, sustained by extremist elements among those in power and among the members of the opposition and the forces of order, is endangering the institutions of law and order in Burundi, so patiently and courageously set up by the democratic forces of the country. The European Union appeals urgently to all members of Burundi society to end this violence and make every effort to achieve the necessary national reconciliation and the preservation of the safety of all Burundi's people under democratic law.

Statement on South Africa 7 April 1994

The European Union is deeply concerned by the continuing bloodshed in South Africa. K urges all South Africans to refrain from violence and to work together for a peaceful transition to the new South Africa. It strongly hopes that the summit of 8 April will produce a solution enabling all parties to participate in elections later in the month. As previously announced, the European Union is firmly committed to assisting the transition to democracy and remains ready to help South Africa's economic reconstruction and development after the elections.

Statement on Rwanda and Burundi 12 April 1994

The European Union is deeply concerned to learn of the tragedy which has led to the death in Kigali of the Heads of State of Rwanda and Burundi together with members of their entourage. It wants an international commission of inquiry to investigate fully the causes of the destruction of the presidential aircraft and urges all Rwandese authorities to safeguard the achievements of the Arusha Agreement. The European Union is also deeply saddened by the deaths of a number of Belgian citizens in Rwanda, both civilian and military. It strongly condemns these appalling assassinations and hopes that justice will be done as quickly as possible. The European Union appeals in the strongest terms for the lives of Rwandese and foreign nationals to be protected as they work together within Rwanda to safeguard its internal peace and its prosperity.

Statement on Rwanda 18 April 1994

The European Union notes with dismay that the widespread violence and atrocities are continuing and extending in Rwanda, where very many lives have been lost since 6 April.

The violence and the resulting chaos prompted the forced evacuation of virtually all nationals of the international community present in Rwanda. As a result of the solidarity shown by Member States, it was possible to rescue those nationals in a satisfactory manner. The European Union repeats its pressing call for Rwandese lives to be protected and urgently appeals to the opposing forces to bring the violence to an end and to resume negotiations on the basis of the principles of the Arusha Agreement. It wishes to see appropriate humanitarian action organised in response to the human tragedy unfolding in the region and undertakes to play its part in such action.

General information

DAC Annual Report

The annual report of the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) for 1993, entitled 'Development Cooperation: Aid in Transition', has recently been published. In the first part of the report, given over to a global analysis, the director of the DAC sees the new international context as a source of hope but also one which poses significant new threats. On the one hand, the end of the East-West conflict and the democratisation that is under way in many Third World countries offer an opportunity to rationalise the criteria for development assistance and, in particular, to limit the scope of purely political motivations. On the other hand, the proliferation of conflicts and the growing problems associated with refugees, population movements and peace-keeping operations threaten to divert attention away from long-term development objectives towards more immediate crises requiring aid operations. All this is taking place at a time when economic recession in the industrialised countries is making it increasingly difficult to mobilise aid for development purposes. According to the DAC, in the face of the current global challenges, the donor countries should introduce new priorities into their aid policies. The first of these should be to increase the resources allocated for development purposes. While one might not perhaps expect ODA (Official Development Assistance) to rise, it ought to be possible to rely on growth in private capital flows such as has been seen in Asia and certain Latin American countries. At the same time, it needs to be recognised that a number of developing countries, notably in sub-Saharan Africa, remain dependent on ODA, given the continuing absence of growth and economic stability. An increase in the resources of developing countries could be achieved by giving priority to their exports, by developing their private sectors and by persuading them to reduce their military spending.

A second priority should be to look again at the way in which aid is allocated and used. K should be shared out between the East and the South in such a way as to avoid one losing out at the expense of the other, and a distinction should be drawn between those countries that are in a position to attract private investment and those that are wholly dependent on aid. In any case, there should be an emphasis on human development and participation while at the same time avoiding the situation whereby the countries in question find themselves ever-more dependent on aid.

Improvement of aid efficiency should be the third priority. Faced with increasing demands for assistance without an increase in the resources allocated for development, donor countries need to make an effort in such' areas as technology transfer and the untying of aid. There also need to be improvements in respect of parliamentary accountability in the donor countries, and in information to the public, with a view to broadening understanding about the aims and achievements of development policy. As far as recipient countries are concerned, making institutions more democratic and improving the management of public affairs are prerequisites for more efficient aid.

Following this general analysis, the report looks at the major challenges associated with development - population growth, urbanisation, migration, drug-abuse, AIDS and political, ethnic and regional conflicts. It then goes on to review development priorities region by region, in which context it underlines the need for two complementary approaches: a thematic one, which is needed to tackle the growing number of transnational problems, and a regional one, which must take account of regional specificities and focus on establishing suitable priorities at this lower level.

The second part of the report gives an account of the development policies currently pursued by the DAC member countries and provides figures on financial transfers, debt levels, ODA volumes and the way in which the aid is divided up. The third section takes the form of a statistical annex containing all the basic facts and figures that are available on development assistance.

20th NGO General Assembly looks at the role of NGOs in conflict situations

The annual General Assembly of the European development NGOs, which is organised by the NGO Liaison Committee, was held in Brussels from 7 to 9 April. The Committee, which is the body that represents the NGOs before the European Commission, consists of members of national organisations from all the countries of the EU. Its main functions are to ensure ongoing consultation and cooperation between the Commission and the NGOs which receive EU funds to cofinance various operations. The role of the Liaison Committee as the political 'spokesperson' for more than 700 NGOs is increasing in importance. The 20th Assembly, whose central feature was the presentation of the Liaison Committee's activity report and its programme for 1994, highlighted the growing focus on emergency aid at the expense of long-term development assistance. There was also an emphasis on the need for NGOs to maintain their identity and autonomy and to avoid becoming merely the instruments of government policy. The Assembly was followed by a conference on 'Conflict, Development and Military Intervention' which focused on the experiences, role and position of development NGOs in these areas. The theme reflected current concerns and attracted a good attendance from interested parties. It has become necessary for NGOs dearly to define the scope and limits of possible action that they can undertake in countries suffering from internal conflicts, the frequency of such conflicts having increased since the end of the Cold War. After a general presentation of the problem, a closer look at four specific cases (Somalia, Haiti, Cambodia and the former Yugoslavia) and more detailed discussion by the participants, a number of principles and proposals were set out by the conference. These will form the basis of future representations by the Liaison Committee to the European Parliament, the Commission and the Council of the EU, and can be summarised as follows: - Much greater efforts must be made to prevent conflicts breaking out, and NGOs should put pressure on governments to take positions and act before a crisis blows up. In order to do this, sufficient financial resources must be made available to provide for the implementation of a systematic policy aimed at both conflict prevention and the stabilisation of countries that have suffered wars. More generally, it is stressed that although conflicts exacerbate the problems of under-development, development nevertheless remains the best way of combating the causes of conflict.

- When a conflict does break out, international military action should only be considered as a last resort (this is not the same as taking such action 'at the last minute') where the population is under threat. The forces intervening must be given a mandate and objectives that are clearly defined and they must remain impartial from the humanitarian standpoint.

- In certain cases, NGOs may have to have recourse to military protection in order to carry out their work, but they must always make sure that their functions and those of the military remain distinct from each other.

- Military intervention should not be limited to preventing war but should also contribute to achieving peace and to re-establishing a process of sustainable development.

- Due to their strong links in the field and their profound knowledge of the people concerned, the NGOs have a particular experience which must be brought into play at all stages in the prevention, tackling or resolution of conflicts.

- Finally, the NGOs take the view that an effort must be made by the 'West' in the area of international arms control. They seek, in particular. a prohibition on the production, trade and use of anti-personnel mines as well as the establishment of an international fund, managed by the United Nations, for demining operations and the destruction of mines. The resources for this purpose should come from those states where the mines are manufactured.

HUMANITARIAN AID

Aid decisions

The Commission has recently taken the following decisions to provide humanitarian aid (including emergency and food aid):

ACP countries

Burundi: ECU 13.5 million as the second tranche of a wider aid package for the refugee camps.

Burundi: ECU 14 million as a contribution to the aid programmes carried out by humanitarian organisations to help victims of the conflict. Liberia: ECU 995 000 in food aid for populations that have fled to the Gbarnga region as a result of the recent fighting south-east of Buchanan. Liberia: ECU 1 million for a supplementary food programme for 125 000 people living in the counties of Bong and Grand Bassa and in the Upper Marghibi region. Madagascar: ECU 670 000 for basic essentials and medicines for people affected by the floods and other damage caused by the cyclones which struck the east coast of the country. Mauritania: ECU 400 000, of which ECU 300 000 is for the transport of essential goods and medicines from Nouakchott to the southeast of the country where 60 000 Tuareg refugees are currently living. The remaining ECU 100 000 is for medical/nutritional assistance to very young children in Nouakchott itself. Mozambique: ECU 860 000 in the form of medicines and basic materials for a number of health centres which have recently become accessible for the delivery of humanitarian assistance. Rwanda: ECU 500 000 for victims of the latest wave of interethnic violence. Somalia: ECU 1 051 million for four medical projects to bring hospitals back into use, produce artifical limbs (including associated retraining of the disabled) and provide vaccinations, as well as to cover the costs of transporting personnel and medicines from Djibouti to various de*inations in the north of the country. Sudan: ECU 17 million as a contribution to a global humanitarian aid scheme for victims of the conflict, with particular emphasis on people in the south of the country. Sudan: ECU 490 000 for three months' worth of medical/nutritional aid for displaced people in the Mundi and Marindi regions. Haiti: ECU 850 000: ECU 500 000 for the purchase of fuel and ECU 350 000 for an urgent vaccination programme against measles. Mayotte: ECU 500 000 for initial help to the population affected by the earthquake which has struck both the south and the north of the island.

Non-ACP countries

Bolivia: ECU 410 000 for the purification and deepening of wells providing drinking water, as part of measures to combat the cholera epidemic in the province of Cordillera. Peru: ECU 500 000 to provide basic essentials for victims of the floods in a huge area of the country covering the cities of Lima, El Callao, Pucallpa and Cuzco. Mexico: ECU 360 000 in the form of food and medical aid, and basic equipment, to help Guatemalans who fled the civil war in the El Quiche district of their own country resettle. Ex-Yugoslavia: ECU 24.15 million to cover the food needs (from March to June) of refugees, displaced persons and other disadvantaged groups in Croatia. Azerbaijan: ECU 850 000 in the form of basic essentials for the functioning of hospitals, to help the people of Nagorny Karabakh, following the upsurge of fighting between Armenians and Azeris. The Caucasus region: ECU 9.5 million for refugees and displaced people, notably in Georgia, in the form of bulk food supplies and family food parcels. Ukraine and Belarus: ECU 1.3 million to help victims of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, through the supply to hospitals in Kiev and Minsk of the equipment needed for the detection and treatment of thyroid cancers, from which some 400 children currently suffer. Afghanistan: ECU 1.985 million, in addition to the aid previously granted in January, in the form of medical and nutritional assistance to dispossessed people in the capital and to refugees on the recently dosed Pakistan frontier. Palestine (the Occupied Territories): ECU 2.3 million to purchase 8500 tonnes of flour for Palestinians suffering from a shortage of basic foodstuffs in the aftermath of the Hebron massacre. Cambodia: ECU 1 million to continue demining activities in the Angkor region for a further six months. Philippines: ECU 200 000 for the provision of food aid and other basic essentials to the victims of four cyclones which struck during December and January.