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close this bookEcotourism and other Services Derived from Forests in the Asia- Pacific Region: Outlook to 2010. (FAO - Forestry, 1997)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINFORMATION NOTE ON ASIA-PACIFIC FORESTRY SECTOR OUTLOOK STUDY
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentA NOTE ON LANGUAGE
View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. SERVICES PROVIDED BY FORESTS
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close this folder2.1 Categories Of Services
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View the documentEcological services
View the documentEconomic services
View the documentSociocultural services
View the documentScenic and landscape services and values
View the documentThe relative importance of the various services
View the document2.2 Relationship Between Services of Forests and Forest Production
View the document2.3 Institutional and Policy Environment
View the document2.4 Issues In Maintenance of Services of Forests
View the document2.5 Summary of Issues Related to Services Provided by Forests
close this folder3. ECOTOURISM
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View the document3.1 Ecotourism, Definitions, Concepts and Visitor Types
View the document3.2 Actors in the Ecotourism “System”
close this folder3.3 Overview of Tourism and Ecotourism in the Asia-Pacific Region
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View the documentTourism in the Region
View the documentFuture Growth in Tourism in the Region
View the documentEcotourism in the Region
View the documentPast and Future Ecotourism Growth in the Region
close this folder3.4 The Dimensions of Ecotourism
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View the documentEnvironmental Dimension
View the documentExperiential Dimension
View the documentSociocultural Dimension
View the documentEconomic Dimension
close this folder4. OUTLOOK: ISSUES, TRENDS, IMPLICATIONS, AND OPTIONS
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close this folder4.1 Preserving Services Derived from the Forest: Protected Area and Social Forestry Approaches
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View the documentProtected areas and their management
View the documentMovements towards a community/social forestry approach
View the document4.2 Need for Increased Research and Utilization of Results
View the document4.3 Importance of Social Issues in Management
View the document4.4 Continued Funding Difficulties in Natural Areas
View the document4.5 Ecotourism Management: Low Level of Funding and Reliance on Simplistic Strategies Like Carrying Capacity
View the document4.6 Growth in International and Domestic Visitation
View the document4.7 Change in the Visitor Market
View the document4.8 Continued or Increased Competition, Particularly for International Visitors
View the document4.9 Importance of Interpretation
View the document4.10 Importance of Partnerships Among Ecotourism Actors
View the document4.11 Greater Private Sector Roles in Management of Natural Areas
View the document4.12 Pressure to Use Natural Areas for Activities that are Not Nature-Dependent
View the document4.13 Professionalization of Operators and Desire to Exclude Those Not Meeting Professional Criteria
View the document4.14 Tendency for Dominance by Larger Operators and Those Located in Regional or National Centres
View the document4.15 Summary of Issues, Trends, Implications, and Options
View the documentREFERENCES
close this folderANNEX - COUNTRY ECOTOURISM NOTES
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View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: AUSTRALIA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: CHINA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: INDIA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: INDONESIA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: MALAYSIA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: NEPAL
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: POHNPEI
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: THAILAND

The relative importance of the various services

It is extremely difficult to compare the importance of the various services provided by forests. In part, this is due to the fact that there is no universally accepted common metric that can be used in such measurement. However, economists and others have tried to measure various services, economic and otherwise, using the metric of economic value. It should be stressed that non-economists often oppose the use of this metric and that the metric requires strong assumptions. Nonetheless, estimates of the economic value of various services of forests does provide one indication of their importance relative to each other and to timber production and non-timber forest products.

Recently, Costanza et al. (1997) estimated the economic value of various services of forests at the global level. These values should be considered extremely rough estimates 1) because of the assumptions involved in their calculation and 2) because they are based on global, rather than regional, evaluations. Their estimates of annual economic value for services of the forest are:

Service

Value (1994 US$ ha-1 yr-1)

Nutrient cycling

361

Climate regulation

141

Raw materials

138

Erosion control

96

Waste treatment

87

Recreation

66

Food production

43

Genetic resources

16

Soil formation

10

Water supply

3

Disturbance regulation

2

Water regulation

2

Biological control

2

Cultural

2

Total value ($ ha-1 yr-1)

969

Though these estimates should be treated with caution and represent value that partly accrues to people living outside the region, they indicate the significant importance of services of forests.