Cover Image
close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in some Asian Countries (UNEP-IETC, 1998)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
close this folderPart A - Introduction
View the document1. The freshwater imperative
View the document2. Objectives
View the document3. Organisation of the source book
View the document4. Survey methodology
View the document5. Results of the survey
View the document6. Recommendations of the workshop
View the document7. Information sources
close this folderPart B - Technology profiles
close this folder1. Water conservation technologies
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.1 Dual water distribution system
View the document1.2 Evaporation reduction
View the document1.3 Coconut pick-ups
close this folder2. Wastewater treatment and reuse technologies
View the document2.1 Sewage reclamation using conventional wastewater treatment
View the document2.2 Sewage reclamation using reverse osmosis
View the document2.3 Wastewater treatment using wetlands
View the document2.4 Wastewater treatment using duckweed
View the document2.5 Wastewater treatment using lagoons
View the document2.6 Other technologies of wastewater treatment and reuse
close this folder3. Freshwater augmentation
View the document3.1 General rainwater harvesting technologies
View the document3.2 Rainwater harvesting for drinking water supply
View the document3.3 Rooftop rainwater harvesting for domestic water supply
View the document3.4 Rainwater harvesting for agricultural water supply
View the document3.5 Rainwater harvesting for irrigation water supply
View the document3.6 Rainwater harvesting for community water supply
View the document3.7 Rainwater harvesting for multiple purpose use technical description
View the document3.8 Open sky rainwater harvesting technical description
View the document3.9 Rainwater harvesting in ponds
View the document3.10 Artificial recharge of groundwater technical description
View the document3.11 Fog, dew and snow harvesting
View the document3.12 Bamboo pipe water supply system
View the document3.13 Hydraulic ram technical description
View the document3.14 Development and protection of natural springs
View the document3.15 Restoration of traditional stone spouts
close this folder4. Upgrading water quality
View the document4.1 Desalination
View the document4.2 Pond sand filtration
View the document4.3 Biological pretreatment of raw water
close this folderPart C - Case studies
View the document5.1 Water conservation and recycling - Gujarat State fertilizer corporation, India
View the document5.2 Traditional methods of soil and water conservation - coconut pick-ups, India
View the document5.3 Use of reclaimed water - Hindustan petroleum corporation limited, India
View the document5.4 Reclaimed city sewage as industrial water - Madras fertilizers limited, Madras, India
View the document5.5 Rainwater harvesting - the Thai rainwater jar
View the document5.6 Daungha rainwater collection water supply project, Nepal
View the document5.7 Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater - Krishna Delta, India
View the document5.8 Artificial groundwater recharge - India
View the document5.9 Integrated water conservation - Bhilai steel plant, India
View the document5.10 Drip irrigation - India
close this folderPart D - Annexes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Additional references
View the documentAnnex 2 - Table of conversion factors for metric and U.S. customary units
close this folderPart E - Institutional profiles
View the documentThe UNEP water branch
View the documentDanish hydraulic institute (DHI)

6. Recommendations of the workshop

The participants in the Workshop:

· Felt that the source book would be of immense value to policy makers and practitioners in the field, realizing the depletion of water resources now and in the years to come.

· Suggested that the source book should highlight the sensitivity and limitations of the technologies mentioned. Recommended that the cost of the technologies should differentiate the capital and operation and maintenance costs.

· Recommended that the source book be disseminated to existing networks on water, health, and the environment (e.g., ENSICNET, CEHANET, INFORTERRA, etc.) rather than through new networks.

· Recommended that the source book have a specific section on water quality and a discussion of water quality issues related to the various technologies for fresh water augmentation in the Introduction.

· Agreed to recommend that every country introduce and adopt a Ground Water Act if one does not already exist.

TABLE 6. Summary of Freshwater Technologies and Related Issues.

TECHNOLOGY

SOURCE WATER/USE

EXTENT OF USE

EFFECTIVENESS

CAPITAL COST

OPERATING COST

MAINTENANCE COST

SKILLS REQUIRED

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

RAINWATER JARS

Rainwater/domestic use

Extensive

Very high

$16/m3

0

$6/m3/year

Minimal

Small construction equipment

RAINWATER TANKS

Rainwater/domestic use

Less extensive

Medium

$24/m3

0

$8/m3/year

Minimal

Small construction equipment

SHALLOW WELLS

Groundwater/domestic use

Extensive but declining

High

$120/well

0

0

Minimal

Manual tools for digging and concrete work

IMPACT WELLS WITH HANDPUMPS

Groundwater/domestic use

Sporadic

Low

$200/well

0

0

Minimal

Homemade digging equipment and handpump

DEEP WELLS WITH HANDPUMPS

Groundwater/domestic use

Extensive

High

$16000/well

0

$80/year

Minimal

Drilling rig, piping and handpump

DEEP WELLS WITH ELEC. PUMPS

Groundwater/domestic use

Extensive, upgrade of Impact Wells

High

$2 400/well

up to $200/year

$80/year

Minimal

Drilling rig, piping, electric pump and accessories

PONDS

Rainwater/domestic use

Sporadic

Low

$3/m3 of earth moved

0

$20/year

Minimal

Traditional tools for earthwork

SPRINGS

Groundwater/domestic use

Sporadic

Low

$4 000/km of pipe

$1 000/year

$200/year

Medium

Tools for concrete work and piping

PIPED WATER, VILLAGE SUPPLY

Groundwater/domestic use

Extensive, upgrade of Deep Wells

High

$12 000 to $56 000/system

$1 000/year

$1 000/year

Medium

Tools for concrete work, piping, pumps, tanks, valves and other accessories

WEIRS

Streamflow/domestic and agricultural use

Extensive

High

$12 000/unit

$80/year

$80/year

Medium

Tools for wood and concrete work and some earthwork

SMALL RESERVOIRS

Streamflow/domestic and agricultural use

Extensive, but few sites remain

Low

$160 000/unit

$960/year

$80/year

Medium

Tools for woodwork, bamboo, gravel and stone