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close this bookOperation and Maintenance of Water and Sewerage Systems (Ministry of Water - Tanzania - Rwegarulila Water Resources Institute, 1999, 90 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderA. Maintenance of Water Supply Units Principles and General Procedures
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Operation and maintenance
View the document3. Inspections
View the document4. Inspections made before putting the unit into operation for first time
View the document5. Periodic inspections made normally without interrupting the operation
View the document6. Periodic inspections made by interrupting the operations
View the document7. Remedial measures
View the document8. Records
View the document9. Maintenance programmes
close this folderB. Operation and Maintenance in Tanzania
View the document1. What is operation and maintenance
View the document2. Constraints of operation and maintenance
View the document3. Strategies for operation and maintenance on sustainable basis
View the document4. Operational problems
close this folderC. General Guide Lines in Construction of Water Structure
View the document1. Intake structures
View the document2. Pumping stations
View the document3. Rising main
View the document4. Water treatment
View the document5. Gravity main
View the document6. Water tanks
View the document7. Distribution system
View the document8. The design of the sewerage system
close this folderD. Operation and Maintenance Tasks and Their Frequencies
View the document1. Water Supply
View the document2. Sanitation
close this folderANNEXES
View the document1. Class Test (in Swahili)
View the document2. Evaluation Form (in Swahili)
close this folder3. Group work - Operation and Maintenance of the following:
View the document- Intake structure
View the document- Pumping station
View the document- Water treatment unit
View the document- Water mains
View the document- Water tanks
View the document- Sewerage systems

8. Records

Records are required to provide information on which future actions can be based.

8.1 Records of the system and extensions

These would include records (such as as-built drawings) of the various units of the waterworks. Instances are not uncommon, where the position of some valve or pipe is known only by one or two persons, usually the oldest employees. Such situations must be corrected.

Each water supply plant should have an up-to-date layout plan of the waterworks. Or units of which the line of every pipe and the location of every valve are clearly marked. Each valve on the plan should be numbered and the number painted on or near the actual valve. Such a plan is particularly useful whenever there is a change of attendant or in cases of emergency. Any extension work is done to the system it should be recorded, preferably with a sketch. These records, if kept in a systematic manner, will provide ease of reference to any portion of the system. Alterations to all works should be recorded also.

8.2 Records of Maintenance

Records of maintenance are very important. They should clearly describe the deficiencies and the remedial measures that have been carried out. Whenever possible, the written descriptions ought to be supplemented with clear sketches.

All happenings affecting the works; actual works carried out, routine or unusual, (occasioned by accidents, breakdowns or other conditions), should be recorded as they occur. Copies of log sheets should be forwarded to the head office.

At least a simple log book or log sheet should be kept at even the smallest works. Any troubles that occur and the date when they are put right should be recorded also. Any sign of wear or damage should be noted in a diary and reported so that spare parts may be obtained on time. Records should also be kept of repairs that are required. The maintenance jobs that must be done at infrequent intervals should be marked in a diary in advance so that they are not forgotten.

From these records isolated and frequent troubles can be pinpointed, an efficient schedule for personnel planned, and estimates for operation and maintenance made with reasonable accuracy.

Further maintenance records will facilitate evaluation and monitoring as well as planned maintenance including the improvement of future design and construction.

8.3 Recording of Information

Any modification, change or improvement in the system, unit, etc., is to be incorporated in the records as it occurs. Information should be recorded as soon as it is obtained and should not be allowed to accumulate. Such accumulation will deter a start. And when a start is made at last, it will prevent a good progress; as there will always be something which is more important or more urgent. Experience shows that recording of accumulated data is doomed to contain mistakes.

8.4 Keeping of Records

An annual report summarizes the records for each water supply system. It helps to assess future maintenance requirements, warns of possible extensions that may be required.

It is also most important to prepare certain special reports which are then distributed to those concerned.