Cover Image
close this bookBetter Farming Series 30 - Better Freshwater Fish Farming: the Fish (FAO, 1981, 48 p.)
close this folderIntroduction
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFilling your pond with water
View the documentFertilizing the water In your pond
View the documentPutting fertilizer Into the crib
View the documentWhen is your pond ready?
View the documentTaking care of your pond

(introduction...)

1. You have built the new bigger pond described in Booklet No. 29, Better freshwater fish farming: the pond.


The pond

2. Before you let the water into your new pond, there are a few things that you must do.

3. Make sure that the screens on the inlet, outlet and overflow are in place and tight.


Screens

4. Make sure that the outlet is tightly closed. To do this, wrap a wood plug with old cloth, put it in the outlet pipe on the outside of the pond and tap it lightly with a hammer so that it will stay in the pipe when the pond fills with water.


Wrap a wood plug with cloth

5. If you have built a better outlet with a T or an L piece (see Booklet No. 29, Items 97 to 101), turn it to the upright position.


Figure Turn the L or T piece in the upright position

6. Put rocks on the bottom of your pond under the inlet where the water will fall when it begins to come into the pond.


Rocks

7. This will keep the bottom from washing away. It will keep the water from getting too muddy. It will make the water splash when it first comes into the pond and bring air for the fish to breathe.

8. Now you are ready to fill your pond.

Filling your pond with water

9. Dig a small ditch from the water source to the inlet to bring the water to your new pond.


Dig a small ditch

10. Let the water run into the pond until it reaches the level of the overflow pipe on the inside of the pond.


Overflow level

11. If your inlet pipe is about 10 centimetres in diameter, you will need about half a day to fill your pond.

12. When the water reaches the level of the overflow pipe it will be about 60 centimetres deep at the shallow upper part of the pond and about 90 centimetres deep at the deepest part.


Overflow pipe level

13. Now you are ready to fertilize the water in your pond.

14. Build a crib from bamboo or wood to held the fertilizer as you did with your first small pond. Build it in one corner in the shallow part of the pond. The drawing below will show you how.


Build a crib from bamboo

Fertilizing the water In your pond

15. You can fertilize the water in your new pond with

· compost made with animal manure
· compost made with plant material e animal manure
· plant material.

16. You can fertilize your new pond with animal or plant compost in the same way as you did with your old small pond.

17. Items 56 to 66, in Booklet No. 27, tell you how to make animal compost. If you do not have animal manure, you can fertilize your pond with compost made with plant material.

18. To make compost with plant material make a compost pile using layers of grass, chopped leaves or other plant material mixed with a little topsoil and damp it with water to make it rot faster.


Make a compost pile

19. But to make compost takes a lot of time and work. It takes about a month to make it.

20. If you want to save time and work and you have plenty of animal manure, instead of fertilizing with compost fertilize with fresh animal manure mixed with fresh plant material. This is easier and quicker.

21. You can use the manure of chickens, pigs and cows to fertilize your pond or you can make a mixture of two or more kinds of manure.


Use manure

22. Your fish will grow better if you fertilize your pond with compost made with animal manure or with fresh animal manure mixed with fresh plant material.

23. If you do not want to take time to make compost with plant material, you can also put fresh plant material in the crib to fertilize your pond. But if you do this, it will take longer for your pond to be ready.

Putting fertilizer Into the crib

24. When you first put fertilizer into your crib, pack it down well and fill the crib to the water line. This will be about 60 centimetres deep in the shallow part of the pond.


Fill to water line and pack down well

25. If you are going to use compost, you will need enough to till your crib at the beginning and later you will need enough compost to add about a bucket each week.

26. If you are going to use animal manure, you will need about two buckets to put in your crib at the beginning. Mix the two buckets of animal manure with enough fresh plant material to fill your crib to the water line. Later, you will need enough animal manure to add about a bucket each week.

27. If you are going to use plant material or compost made with plant material, you will need enough to fill your crib at the beginning and later you will need enough to keep the crib full to the water line.

When is your pond ready?

23. If you fertilize your pond with animal compost or animal manure, the water will start to turn green in two or three days. If you fertilize your pond with plant compost or plant material, it will take one week or longer.

29. When the water begins to turn green, you will know that natural food is growing in your pond. It will take about a week to become green enough.

30. You can make a simple test to be sure that the water is green enough. Put your arm in the water up to your elbow. If you are just able to see the ends of your fingers, the water is green enough.


Test the green water

31. To keep the water green, put fertilizer In the crib every week. It you see mat the water Is losing its green colour, put a little more fertilizer in and stir it to break it up.


Keep the water green

Taking care of your pond

32. You must take very good care of your pond. Items 84 to 90, in Booklet No. 27, will tell you some important ways to care for your pond.

33. Here are some more ways to take care of your pond.

34. Do not let large animals such as cows, buffalo, horses or donkeys graze on the banks of your pond. They are too heavy and may break the banks down.


Not let large animals on the banks

35. You may let small animals such as goats and sheep graze on the banks.

36. Do not use your pond, your pond water source or your water supply ditch for bathing, or washing clothes, dishes or cooking pots.


Not use the pond for bathing

37. Do not plant big trees near your pond. If there are already big trees there, cut any branches that hang over the pond. The water in your pond may not turn green enough if your pond is in the shade.


Not plant big trees near the pond