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close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans- Secondary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 254 p.)
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Open this folder and view contentsSection One: The Life Skills Education Initiative
Open this folder and view contentsSection Two: Methodologies and Training Session Activities
Open this folder and view contentsSection Three: A Framework for Developing Life Skills within the Secondary Health Education Syllabus
Open this folder and view contentsSection Four: Sample Activities
Open this folder and view contentsSection Five: Preparing Your own Units
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(introduction...)

Foreword

For children to grow and develop, they have to depend on parents, guardians and people around them for food, shelter, medical care and all other requirements. In traditional societies, the wisdom passed on to children was to enable them stay alive, fit into their society and continue to live like the adults whom they found in the community. The wisdom was passed in packages of noms and rules such as; how to talk to adults, how to behave in a manner expected of one’s gender, or generally, how to live acceptably in society.

The communities were tight, with little mobility and outside influence. Their survival depended on social coherence. Communities of today are much more complex. There is a quest for development and more interaction with the ‘outside’ world. Rural to urban migration is on the increase. Children and adolescents travel and interact much more than their counterparts of the traditional communities. As a result, they meet more ideas that put demands on them. The media exert a great deal of influence on children and adolescents, far more than the acquisition of wisdom from parents.

There are many challenges to today’s societies. Armed conflict and civil strifes of today are more devastating than the ethnic battles that used to be fought with spears. Children are always the easiest victims to such conflicts. Man-made evils, such as defilement, target the child who has the least capability of self defence. Though humanity has the capacity to enjoy better health today than the predecessors did, there are numerous challenges that continue to threaten the human race.

It therefore makes a great deal of sense that ways must be found for the protection of children, adolescents, and the girl-child in particular, more than was done by traditional societies. The Government of Uganda is committed to this protection of the child. This is why, through the current Government of Uganda/UNICEF country programme (1995-2000) there is a strong component of Basic Education, Child Care and Adolescent Development (BECCAD). Within this component, passing on to children the wisdom that can enable them lead healthy and satisfying lives despite today’s challenges is considered critical for child care, protection and development. It is a way of empowering the children, having realized that the traditional wisdom may not be sufficient for the more complex societies of today. This is thus the basis on which Life Skills has been introduced in the Ugandan Society.

Uganda is committed to empowering children and adolescents by equipping them with skills for choosing what to do among several alternative courses of action, skills for making informed decisions; the ability to act, unhampered by forces around them, so long as they are convinced of the correctness of the stand to be taken. This may sound like going against certain traditional practices where the child is supposed to be dormant and not to question adult actions. We have to filter and sieve the traditional values carefully so that only the positive and functional aspects are adopted. Tradition Values that are not harmful to the children and adults must be preserved. When for example, respecting adult actions leads a child into being raped or defiled, then the child must be equipped with the skills to know when there is a likelihoolof danger and to take appropriate action in good time. The children must always be alert.

In this spirit, the Life Skills Initiative is being introduced into schools, Teacher Colleges and Institutes as part of the education of children and adolescents.

It is hoped that the trainers, for whom this manual has been prepared, will continue to be promoters of Life Skills among Ugandan adolescents. The future of the country’s young ones is in their hands.

Eric Karuhije

Ag. Commissioner for Education Inspectorate

Preface

WHO IS THIS MANUAL FOR?

This training manual has been prepared for lecturers of secondary school teachers in order to prepare them to introduce life skills in the schools themselves. It gives an introduction to and examples of life skills and the kind of methods needed to make the life skills meaningful. It then shows how the skills can be integrated or infused into the Basic Science and Health Education syllabus and examples of activities that can be used with the children.

HOW CAN THIS MANUAL BE USED?

The manual can be used in several ways. Lecturers can read through the manual and use it to train themselves in the approach before using it with their students. The students would also benefit from reading through the manual, especially since the last section gives hints and examples on how they could prepare their own activities when they go to work in the schools.

WHY IS THERE A NEED FOR THIS MANUAL?

In the last few years, it has become increasingly clear that knowledge alone does not change behaviour. Doctors continue to smoke even while they tell others of the dangers of smoking. Taxi drivers have seen their colleagues killed or seriously injured because of dangerous driving but they continue to drive in the same manner. People in the village are very familiar with the advantages of latrines, or the importance of cutting the grass around their house, but they continue to live as before. The dangers of such a gap between knowledge and behaviour have become even more apparent with the onset of HIV/AIDS. All our children are under threat from the disease. As a result, the Ugandan government in conjunction with UNICEF, have seen that there is a need to teach our children the life skills they require to cope with the world in which they live.

Acknowledgements

The manual was produced by:

Cyprian Cele (Uganda National Examinations Board)
Robinah Dumba (Institute of Teacher Education, Kyambogo)
David Kabiswa (ACET, Kampala)
Emmanuel Kusemererwa (Ministry of Education, Health Education Unit)
Joy Ogutu (Straight Talk, Jinja)
Joshua Ongom (National Curriculum Development Centre, Kyambogo)

in collaboration with:

Martin Buczkiewicz (Consultant, TACADE, U.K.)
Richard Mabala (Consultant, Sara Communication Initiative, Tanzania)

and with the untiring support of:

Janet Kiima (Ministry of Education, Health Education Unit)
Santa A. Opumar (Ministry of Education, Health Education Unit)

ably facilitated by:

Fred Ogwal-Oyee (UNICEF Programme Officer)

illustrated by:

Vie Kasinja (Consultant, Sara Communication Initiative, Malawi)
Robert Asaph Sempagala-Mpagi (Free-lance artist, Uganda)

layout and cover design by:

Robert Asaph Sempagala-Mpagi (Free-lance artist, Uganda)

(introduction...)

1.0 Background

This Life Skills Education Initiative has been developed on the basis of several other initiatives. These include:

(a) School Health Education Project (SHEP)

SHEP was a component of the 1985-9 and 1990-1995 Uganda Government/UNICEF Country Programmes. The aims of SHEP were as follows:

· To influence a reduction in infant and child morbidity and mortality.
· To influence a reduction in STD and HIV infection among the youths aged 6-20 years.

Appropriate content was then identified, materials produced and teachers trained to implement the project. SHEP was first introduced in Primary 6 and 7 because, while pupils in these classes had habits and behaviours which were still modifiable, they, especially girls, were at risk of dropping out of school and starting families of their own. Therefore it was important that they were equipped with some health knowledge, skills and attitudes to assist them. In addition, it was expected that they would inform their parents and other children about the health messages they were receiving in school, thereby creating a multiplier effect since a very large number of families had school going children. The programme was later extended to all primary school classes.

However, when an impact evaluation into SHEP was carried out, it was found that, while children’s knowledge on health issues had increased significantly, there was no corresponding behaviour change. The missing link was identified as the life skills to assist the children to translate knowledge into positive health behaviours.

(b) Early Life Skills Initiatives

Throughout the whole Eastern and Southern Region of Africa (ESAR) there has been a growing awareness that:

(i) The needs and life skills for children and adolescents have been largely neglected in current educational programmes in and out of school

(ii) Life skills are an essential aspect of confronting the crisis caused by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and other social problems facing young people.

In response to this, UNICEF-ESAR held a regional workshop in Entebbe, Uganda in June 1994 with the aim of reaching a common understanding of the concept of life skills and how it could be adapted to the African situation. In addition, it looked at how life skills could be integrated into current programmes.

Subsequently, Uganda held a national workshop in the same year in Jinja to discuss life skills further in the Ugandan context. This workshop came up with suggestions for a life skills programme based on the current needs and problems of Ugandan youth. However, in the course of further workshops, it was agreed that it was better to infuse life skills activities into current syllabi in use in schools and colleges than to have a separate life skills curriculum. The reasons for this are:

(i) Within the current curricula, there is no space on the timetable for a separate life skills programme.

(ii) Since a life skills curriculum would not be examinable, it would not be given the necessary emphasis by teachers who are accustomed to concentrating on preparing their pupils and students for examinations.

(iii) Life skills cut across the whole school curriculum and can be infused into all subjects taught.

Thus it was decided to adopt an infusion approach, whereby life skills would be integrated firstly into the Health and Science syllabi and later into other subjects.

(c) The Basic Education, Child Care and Adolescent Development Intervention (BECCAD)

The 1995-2000 Uganda Government/UNICEF Country Programme stresses the promotion of positive behaviour change with emphasis on women, children and adolescents. BECCAD is one of the four interventions intended to bring about such behaviour change. The Programme Plan of Operations states that the aim is:

To promote full cognitive and psycho-social development of children and adolescents within a supportive family and community environment which is conducive to education for all, prevention of HIV/AIDS/STDs, adequate care and protection of children and adolescents from birth to adulthood.


A Growing Child

One important aspect of this is to equip children and adolescents with life skills that will enable them to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life.

In order to achieve this objective, the Uganda Government/UNICEF Country Programme produced Into the 21st Century: Life Skills Education Resource Booklet (1996) for all those who work with children and adolescents, especially teachers in Primary and Secondary schools. Subsequently, a team was identified and trained to prepare this manual for tutors and lecturers in Teachers’ Colleges so that they can train pre-service and in-service teachers as the first step towards introducing life skills into the schools.

(d) Baseline Study on Life Skills

A baseline study conducted in 1996 to determine the level of life skills of Uganda’s primary school children found that:

(i) the children had a moderate but insufficient level of life skills.

(ii) teaching strategies in schools were content and examination driven/focussed and were therefore neither pupil centred nor suitable for life skills transmission.

(iii) when life skills were explained to teachers, they quickly saw their value and were eager to embark on such an initiative.

(iv) community representatives, like the teachers, welcomed the idea of initiating life skills education even though they had not known about life skills before.

(e) Pretesting of Life Skills Manuals

In 1996. BECCAD commissioned a team of writers to produce Life Skills training manuals for primary and secondary school teachers in order to meet the needs of Ugandan children. After the draft manuals had been produced, the writers, together with a few selected trainers, pretested the materials in Mbale, Bushenyi, Kampala and Lira. In each of the districts, a four day training was carried out for lecturers, tutors and teachers who were then encouraged to try out the activities in the manuals with their target groups. Educational administrators and relevant non governmental organisations (NGOs) were also involved. Below are some of the salient points from the pretesting:

(i) Many of the participants knew little or nothing about life skills before the training but, as a result of the training received, they were both knowledgeable and highly enthusiastic. In all the districts they urged that life skills should be integrated across the curriculum rather than in health education alone.

(ii) Participants felt that the objectives of the manual were straightforward, achievable, clear and specific; the content was relevant, easy to follow and use and suitable to the age group; and the methodology was relevant and appropriate.

(iii) Participants made several suggestions on improving activities and addressing other issues which have been incorporated into the final draft of this manual.

It is worth noting the following:

(i) Teachers who tried out these activities commented that:

The content sticks with less strain on the part of both student and instructor. (Pretest participants, Mbale)

The activities contribute to learning because they involve everyone in a relaxed way which leads to greater confidence in learners. (Pretest participants, Kampala)

The activities fit in with the syllabus and enable tutors to cover material morequickly and enjoyably (pretest participants, Lira)

This is important in that one of the most commonly stated objections is that it will be impossible to integrate life skills because of the demands of the syllabus and examinations.

(ii) The participants in the Lira workshop held a follow up meeting on their own initiative which prepared an action plan to target PTAs with information about life skills. The Headteachers’ Association also held a meeting and resolved to set up a health education department with the aim of ensuring that health materials are taught in a life skills participatory way.

In Mbale and Bushenyi, some participants immediately organised sensitisation sessions for other members of staff.

The reaction of pupils and students was similar. In Nyondo, the materials were tried on a Primary Six class who were so excited that they continued imitating the lesson even after it had ended. Elsewhere, a group of students attended very reluctantly on the first day because it was their holidays but enthusiastically attended on the second day because they found the materials relevant and the methodology absorbing. Student teachers urged their tutors to continue using the same methodology.

These reactions are also important because they show how life skills, taught in a participatory way, really do address the students’ concerns and feelings and therefore are likely to lead to not only behaviour and attitude change but also improved learning.

To sum up the reactions one can quote the comments from Kampala Primary School.

It relates to our daily lives as regards our health, emotions, character building, learning abilities and social interactions. It is also systematically arranged and extremely comprehensive.

Indeed this book is appropriate and relevant. It broadens one’s knowledge of issues and trains how to react to situations appropriately. It is also both teacher and child centred. Through the numerous activities involved, both facilitators and pupils greatly benefit.

The book is extremely readable and clear. It has nice reading texts which stimulate one’s interest and the accompanying questions for discussion help to sharpen the mind. Moreover they are drawn from life like situations and therefore educative. In addition, they are a variety - poems, dialogues, short stories, songs, character sketches. The numerous activities to be done, as shown in this book, help in making students active.

We welcome further comments from lecturers, tutors and teachers who will use the manual. What is clear from the pretest is that once one starts to teach life skills, the overwhelming reaction is enthusiastic.

(introduction...)

Those skills needed by an individual to operate effectively in society in an active and constructive way. (Edward de Bono)

Personal and social skills required for young people to function confidently and competently with themselves, with other people, and with the wider community. (TACADE, United Kingdom)

Human beings are a complex mixture of knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour. People constantly interact with other people, with their inner selves and with the environment as a whole. Thus, as children grow up into adolescence and adulthood they need to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable them to handle themselves and their environment successfully.

Traditional education attempted to address this holistic view of human personality through the informal education system. The formal education system, on the other hand, has tended to prioritise knowledge at the expense of other aspects of our personalities, believing that an increase in knowledge will automatically lead to positive changes in attitudes and behaviours.

At the same time, it was generally assumed that life skills and attitudes would continue to be imparted through the family and community. However what has happened is that such traditional methods have largely broken down thereby leaving young people more vulnerable. In addition, the challenges and threats facing young people have increased for various historical reasons. Thus, it has become increasingly clear that such prioritisation of knowledge at the expense of other aspects of the human personality is a very inadequate way of preparing young people for the complex nature and challenges of our world today. Maybe this has been brought into sharpest focus by the HIV/AIDS pandemic but it refers to the way we live our lives in general. Life skills have been defined in many ways:

· Livelihood or vocational skills

· Practical health related skills (for example, use of Oral Rehydration Salts [ORS], or boiling water before drinking)

· Physical skills

· Skills related to behaviour and interaction.

The first three are knowledge based, whereas the last one is directed at what we do with our knowledge and skills. These are the life skills addressed in the Life Skills Initiative. They can be divided into several groups.

(i) Knowledge of oneself or self-awareness. On the basis of their self awareness, (awareness of what they can and cannot do) young people build their self-esteem and self-confidence. On this too they build their assertiveness or ability to respond confidently to any situation. Finally, self-knowledge leads to self control so that people can cope with their emotions and stress.

(ii) Development of one’s interpersonal relationships with the people around one, family and friends, peers, people in authority and adults. This is done in two ways.

· Positively through friendship formation and adjustment to society in which they live. It also involves empathy or putting oneself in the shoes of other people in order to understand them and live happily with them.

· On the other side of the coin, interpersonal relations also require the ability to resist unhealthy pressures from adults or peers, to negotiate one’s way through difficult life situations both in interpersonal relationships and in work situations, and, where necessary, to advocate for change in the most effective manner.

These relationships are dependent on effective communication which is also required for conflict resolution and management.

(iii) Knowledge of oneself and interpersonal relationships must be based on the development of creative and critical thinking in order to be able to confront the challenges of life and make appropriate decisions on what to do and how to solve problems. Thus, whether to resist or negotiate, how to assert oneself in different situations, even how to cope with one’s emotions and stress depend on one’s ability to think critically and creatively.

Life skills are examined in more detail below:

(i) The skills of knowing and living with oneself

Self Awareness

Young people need to know and understand themselves first, their potential, their feelings and emotions, their position in life and in society and their strengths and weaknesses. They need too to have a clear sense of their own identity, where they come from, and the culture into which they have been born and which has shaped them.

For men and women are not only themselves; they are also the region in which they were born, city apartment or farm in which they learned to walk, the games they played as children, the old wives’ tales they overheard, the food they ate, the schools they attended, the sports they followed, the poems they read and the God they believed in (Somerset Maugham: A Razor’s Edge)

The more individuals are aware of their own capabilities, the more capable they are of using other life skills effectively, the more they are able to make choices which are consistent with the opportunities available to them, the society in which their live and their own abilities.

Self esteem

Self awareness leads to self esteem as people become aware of their own capabilities and place in their community. It has been described as an ‘awareness of the good in oneself. It refers to how an individual feels about such personal aspects as appearance, abilities and behaviour and grows on the basis of their experiences of being competent and successful in what they attempt.

However, self esteem is strongly influenced by an individual’s relationships with others. Significant adults, such as parents, family members and teachers, and one’s peers can help to develop or destroy a person’s self esteem by the way in which they interact with him/her.

Therefore, the encouragement of positive relationships is essential to life skills as self esteem relates to behaviour, in particular a wide range of health related behaviours such as sexual health, stress and anxiety, smoking, alcohol and other drug use, and willingness to follow medical advice. High self-esteem tends to encourage positive health choices and behaviour whereas low self-esteem tends to lead to unhealthy behaviours.

Assertiveness

Assertiveness means knowing what you want and why and being able to take the necessary steps to achieve what you want within specific contexts. It can cover a wide variety of different situations, from a girl rejecting the sexual advances of a fellow student or older man to children convincing their parents that they need to continue with their education, to adolescents taking the lead in bringing people together for some beneficial act in the community such as protecting or developing the environment.

However assertiveness should be differentiated from the two extremes on either side; passivity whereby the child or adolescent may know what s/he wants but is too timid or too lazy to stand up for that; and aggression whereby the child or adolescent just fights for what s/he wants without any consideration for the context or the people with whom s/he is interacting. Listening and valuing what others feel and want and why is an essential part of assertiveness.

In addition assertiveness is related to culture. It is important that children and adolescents know how to be assertive in all situations, but the way they are assertive with their peers may differ from assertiveness with parents, school teachers etc.

Coping with Emotion

Emotions, such as fear, love, anger, shyness, disgust, the desire to be accepted etc are subjective and usually impulsive responses to a situation. That is why they can be very unpredictable and often lead to actions which are not based on logical reasoning. They can therefore easily lead people into behaviours they might later regret.

Emotions are strong reflections of what we are. Thus, identifying and then coping with emotions implies that people can recognise their emotions and the reasons for them and make decisions which take account of but are not overly influenced by them.

Coping with Stress

Stress is an inevitable part of life. Family problems, broken relationships, examination pressures, the death of a friend or family member are all examples of situations that cause stress in people’s lives. In limited doses and when one is able to cope with it, stress can be a positive factor since the pressure forces one to focus on what one is doing and respond accordingly. However, stress can be a destructive force in an individual’s life if it gets too big to handle. Therefore, as with emotions, young people need to be able to recognise stress, its causes and effects and know how to deal with it.


Figure

(ii) The skills of knowing and living with others

Interpersonal Relationships

Relationships are the essence of life. Relationships also come in different shapes and sizes. As children grow up, they have to develop relationships with:

· significant adults in their lives such as parents, relatives, neighbours, teachers etc.
· peers in and out of school.
· people they meet in life, friends of their parents, the local leaders, shopkeepers etc.

Not everybody can be one’s friend but children need to know how to react appropriately in each relationship so that they can develop to their maximum potential in their own environment.

Friendship Formation

At the level of peers, this is one of the most important aspects of interpersonal relationships. An individual needs friends to share life with, activities, hopes, fears and ambitions. Friendship formation starts from the earliest stages of life but children and adolescents need to understand how friendships are formed and how to form and develop those which will be mutually beneficial. They should be able to recognise and, if necessary, resist friendships that can lead them into dangerous or unnecessary risk taking behaviour such as taking alcohol or other drugs, stealing and dangerous sexual behaviours.

Empathy

Showing empathy involves putting oneself in other peoples’ shoes, particularly when they are faced by serious problems caused by circumstances or their own actions. It means understanding and internalising other peoples’ circumstances and finding ways to lessen the burden by sharing with them rather than condemning or looking down on (or even pitying which is another form of looking down on people) them for whatever reason. Thus empathy also means supporting the person so that they can make their own decisions and stand on their own feet as soon as possible.

Peer Resistance

Peer resistance means standing up for one’s values and beliefs in the face of conflicting ideas or practices from peers. Friends, or colleagues, can come up with unacceptable or dangerous suggestions and may put pressure on one to accept. One needs to desist from doing things that one believes to be wrong and be able to defend one’s decision, even if it means being threatened with ridicule or exclusion from group membership. With young people in particular, the pressure to be like other group members is great. Thus, if the group is turning to negative influences and habits, peer resistance is a very important skill.

Negotiation

Negotiation is an important skill in interpersonal relationships. It involves assertiveness, empathy and interpersonal relations and also the ability to compromise on issues without compromising one’s principles. It involves being able to cope with potentially threatening or risky situations in interpersonal relations, including peer pressure, state one’s own position and build mutual understanding.

Non-violent Conflict Resolution

This is connected to interpersonal relations, negotiating skills and coping with emotions and stress. Conflicts are unavoidable and sometimes necessary but the skill of non-violent conflict resolution ensures that such conflicts do not become destructive. This can either involve a person resolving his/her own conflict situations or assisting others to come to an understanding without resorting to fighting.

Effective Communication

Communication is the essence of human relationships. Therefore, one of the most important life skills is being able to communicate effectively with others. This includes listening skills and understanding how others are communicating as well as realising how one communicates in different ways. For example, while one’s mouth is saying one thing, one’s body may be saying something completely different.

(iii) The skills of making effective decisions

Critical Thinking

Children growing up in the world of today are confronted by multiple and contradictory issues, messages, expectations and demands from parents, peers, teachers, the media, religious leaders, advertisements, music etc. These interact with their own aspirations and ambitions and constantly require them to make decisions. They need to be able to analyse critically the environment in which they live and the multiple messages that bombard them.

Creative Thinking

The furniture in a room can be arranged in one way and the room looks pleasing to the eye. Another person may come and arrange the furniture in a different way and make the room look even more attractive. In general, there is not always one way of doing things. Neither is human life static. Coming up with new things, new ways of doing things, new ideas, arrangements or organisations is called creative thinking. This is important in life skills because people are continually placed in unexpected or unfamiliar situations where creative thinking is required to make an appropriate response.

Decision Making

Each day one wakes up, one must make decisions. Should one go to the garden or wait for more rain to sink into the soil? Should a family cook beans today or green vegetables? These are relatively simple decisions which may not critically affect the direction of one’s life. However, an individual is frequently confronted with serious decisions in regard to relationships, future life etc. There are frequently conflicting demands all of which cannot be met at the same time. One must make a choice but at the same time one must be aware of the possible consequences of one’s choice. Thus it is important to weigh the consequences before making a decision and have a framework for working through these choices and decisions.

Problem Solving

Problem solving is related to decision making and needs many of the same skills. It is only through practice in making decisions and solving problems that children and adolescents can build the skills necessary to make the best choices in whatever situation they are confronted with,

2.1 WHAT ARE THE AIMS OF LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION?

In equipping the learner with the life skills mentioned above, life skills education aims at promoting the following abilities in the learner.

(i) taking positive health choices.
(ii) making informed decisions.
(iii) practising healthy behaviours.
(iv) recognising and avoiding risky health situations and behaviours.

Life skills education, therefore, does not teach skills in isolation but are an integral part of a variety of educational programmes such as:

· drug abuse prevention.
· prevention of adolescent pregnancy.
· AIDS education.
· protecting young people from abuse.
· peace education.
· suicide prevention programmes.
· programmes for vulnerable youth such as street children, orphans etc.

The skills outlined above are transferable to many different situations and issues. Linking these skills to the knowledge available will enable the Ugandan child to become a confident and competent individual, able to take his/her place in society.

2.2 WHY A SKILLS BASED APPROACH?

Traditionally, the main approach to health and life skill education has been knowledge based. This means just giving children the facts and information about, for example, the effects and dangers of misusing drugs or the biological parts of the reproductive system.

These activities address the right current problems of our society and especially youth. (Nabisunsa Girls School)

The skills based approach, exploring attitudes and values and developing certain psycho-social competences, is set alongside the knowledge component. The emphasis is on helping children to develop the personal and social skills they need to keep themselves safe and become responsible and independent adults. The skills based approach also taps into the feelings and emotions of the person - the affective domain.

It makes people understand that there’s a gap between people’s knowledge and behaviour. (Participants in pretest, Lira)

Research, including the SHEP evaluation, has shown that where knowledge is provided in isolation, people may become better informed but there is little effect on behaviour. However where young people are taught the life skills mentioned above, the impact on their lives is usually positive. As their skills develop and improve so their confidence and self-esteem increase. This is also very important as it is now known that self esteem is a significant factor in behaviour.

The skills based approach may therefore be summarised as follows:

Knowledge
Information
Social Skills
Self esteem/self awareness

Attitudes

Values
Influences
Personal confidence and competence


Figure

2.3 WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION?

The World Health Organisation suggests the following:

Health Benefits

(i) Life skills education addresses the combination of psychological and social (i.e. psychosocial) factors that contribute to healthy behaviour.

(ii) The implementation of life skills education in schools addresses the needs of all children.

(iii) The promotion of personal and social skills is an important aspect of health promotion interventions that aim to empower the individual to promote his/her own health as well as the health of others and of the community.

Educational Benefits

(i) Life skills education introduces learner-centred and interactive teaching methods which can have a positive impact on:

· the relationships between teachers and pupils.
· young people’s enjoyment of learning.
· teacher’s job satisfaction.
· rates of drop out and absenteeism from school.

Life skills go well with the ethics of a teacher and wilt bring serenity to schools. (Participants in pretest, Bushenyi)

(ii) Life skills have an impact on the teaching of academic subjects, e.g. because of the introduction of interactive methods.

(iii) There are indications that life skills education can have a positive impact on academic performance. Once the students or pupils feel that they are involved in issues of relevance to their own lives, they participate more and learn more.

Social Benefits

Life skills education can promote more pro-social behaviour and so result in less delinquency among adolescents.

Cultural Benefits

(i) Life skills education helps to clarify the needs of young people growing up in modern societies.

(ii) Life skills education is of particular value to young people growing up in multicultural societies.

Economic Benefits

(i) Life skills education, and the skills promoted, appear to be amongst the ones most highly valued by the future employers of young people.

(ii) Early prevention can be expected to reap maximum rewards in regard to a healthy society, especially since the health and social problems prevalent today have at their root a component of human behaviour.

Political Benefits

Life skills education addresses the needs of the child as specified in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Child Statute of Uganda, 1995.

Research into the effectiveness of life skills education have shown similar results.

(i) Several studies have reported positive changes in self-reports of health-related behaviour following educational programmes based on life skills, for example research on self-reports of drug use and smoking.

(ii) Several reviews of programmes have found that those based on skills learning are more effective than traditional approaches based on information.

(iii) Numerous studies have reported improvements in mental health status. In particular, improvements in self-esteem and self-confidence are frequently reported.

(iv) Numerous small studies have indicated teacher satisfaction after training and implementation of a life skills programme. In addition, improved teacher-pupil relationships and classroom behaviour have obvious benefits for school staff.

(v) The pretest for this manual shows potentially the same results as the ones mentioned above.

(introduction...)

(a) Some of the characteristics of students (S1 and S2)

Children at this stage are growing fast, physiologically, emotionally and mentally. They want to understand themselves, their world and their relationships. They are inquisitive and adventurous, wanting to find out through experimentation and trying out new things, even if this means risk taking. Such an investigative spirt broadens their perspective and world view and if they are provided with the right environment, they can be very creative.

At the same time, they are very sensitive to the behaviour and opinions of their peer group. Many would rather follow their peers than their own conscience. On the one hand, they want self-worth and independence while on the other they want to be like their peers. In addition, as a result of the changes taking place in them, they become interested in the opposite sex and some of them become sexually attracted if not active. Thus, unless guided in a sensitive manner, they can easily make mistakes with serious consequences.

They also remain a vulnerable group. Families tend to put more responsibilities on them, some of which they may not be able to handle. They are sensitive and any unwarranted blame on them can easily destroy their self-esteem.

Thus, this age group needs to be helped to clarify and establish the attitudes and values needed for their healthy growth, physically, mentally, emotionally, socially and spiritually through positive role models and proper guidance. They need to have their questions answered, their misconceptions and myths tested against reality and to be given support and encouragement in any positive decision they take. They are becoming adults and need preparation for responsible parenthood.

(b) Challenges to a Secondary School Child in Uganda

Because of these situations in which children find themselves, they are in danger of making uninformed and sometimes disastrous choices and decisions concerning their lives.

Today’s children and adolescents are having to grow up in an atmosphere which is full of messages, many of them confusing and contradictory. Traditionally, parents, relatives and friends used to be charged with the responsibility of passing cultural, social and vocational skills to the children but today, most of these parents are unable to fulfil this role because they may be unavailable, too busy, ignorant of their children’s changing needs or not well equipped themselves. At the same time, traditional communities are losing their role because of rural-urban migration and decreasing reliance on the extended family. Cultural inhibitions and prohibitions have lost their force in the face of the attraction of urban, and often foreign, life styles. There is also the problem of peace and security. To crown it all there is the STD/HIV/AIDS pandemic which is threatening to wipe out large sections of the population.

Schools have a key role to play in preparing children and adolescents to face the challenges of their world. Unfortunately, to date, what the teachers teach and how they teach it and what the pupils learn and how they learn is geared exclusively to passing examinations, thereby only developing the cognitive skills. Moreover, the traditional parental or pedagogical approaches are insufficient to face the contemporary challenges, problems and influences to which children are exposed. For example, children are daily exposed to information from the electronic media (TV, radio) in terms of music, dance, drama, discussion, and news, and the print media (newspapers, books and magazines) in the form of stories, pictures, photographs, and political issues. While some of this information is beneficial, some s misleading and a danger to the children. For example, songs which emphasise love affairs, especially exploitative ones, films which emphasise crime and violence, pornographic materials all tend to send them the wrong signals.

The communities in which the children live also tend to put the children at a disadvantage. For example, male adults, including some relatives and stepfathers, some teachers and some employers sexually exploit the girl child within the school, on the way to and from school and within the family home and community.

In addition, poverty in most of the rural and urban slum families forces the parents to pay more attention to meeting the immediate survival needs than to their children’s behaviours. The children are therefore left mostly under the guidance of their peers. In the urban slum areas, family dwellings tend to be crowded since most families cannot afford more than one room. This, coupled with scarce building materials and shared services like toilets and bathroom limits the essential privacy within and between families. The children are therefore prematurely exposed to many negative behaviours and influences from some parents and other adults who may drink a lot, use drugs, fight, commit crimes, be corrupt or have multiple sexual partners or extramarital relationships. The results are that some children take to drugs, alcohol, petty crimes and prostitution.

The ideal course of action would be to remove all these negative pressures and influences from our society and save the children. But an ideal is like a distant star. We chart our course by it but we never reach it. Therefore the most practical and effective course of action is to help the children handle and cope with these pressures and challenges by teaching them to take responsibility for their growth and development through a life skills initiative. The short term achievement from this will be that the children will be able to cope with these pressures and challenges as they move towards and through their adolescent years. The long term achievement will be that they will take these life skills into their adult lives and be more responsible and effective parents and managers of society.

3.1 HOW CAN LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION BE PROMOTED?

(a) Methodologies and Learning Environment

In the baseline study to determine the level of life skills among Ugandan primary school children, Cele et al (1996) found that while the level of life skills was not very high, the teaching styles and teaching/learning environments were generally not promoting the acquisition of life skills by the children. Teachers were using mostly teacher-centred methods which allowed limited or no pupil involvement and participation.


Figure

If the pupils are to learn and internalise life skills, more active, participatory, learner-centred approaches must be employed. The pupils must be exposed to learning experiences which will not only assist them to gain knowledge but also provoke them to think about and interpret the meaning of the learning experience and its implications in their daily lives. Such learning experiences can include exposure to and frank discussions of real life situations, games, pictures, role plays, case studies, songs, debates and reading materials.

Many teachers may claim this is impossible for several reasons:

(i) The syllabus is already overcrowded and there is no room for life skills activities.

(ii) Participatory methodologies require a lot of preparation and take up too much time in the classroom.

(iii) The most important life skill in the current Ugandan situation is passing the examinations which will enable the children to develop in life.

(iv) Teachers are already under so many pressures caused by economic insecurity, community expectations, overcrowded classes, insufficient teaching materials and inadequate training, etc that they cannot be expected to break away from the tried and trusted traditional methods.

In answer to these partially valid objections, it can only be said that:

(i) The infusion of life skills into the current syllabi using more participatory methodologies is based on the fact that it is not true that the children and adolescents know nothing. Especially on issues concerning their health, they already know a great deal from parents and relatives, health workers, visits to hospitals and earlier training in school etc.

The methodology provides simultaneous feedback on the learning experiences of the child. (Participants in pretest, Mbale)

Therefore, rather than plodding through one topic after another, the tutor (and teacher) can, by using the kind of methodologies and activities outlined in the next sections of the manual, elicit and build on the knowledge the students already have while at the same time connecting the knowledge (which is also vital) with the life skills required to use it effectively in their everyday lives.

(ii) Although most teachers follow the ‘chalk and talk’ model, they may not be satisfied with it. It may need less preparation, especially for a teacher who relies on the notes of years in the past, but the classes themselves are tiring precisely because they depend on excessive efforts from the teachers who have to do most of the talking. Worse still, because the vast majority of the pupils are not involved, they tend to lose interest and the teacher has to expend a lot of effort on maintaining discipline. The life skills approach leads to a more involved, less stressful classroom so that the teacher can actually enjoy her/his teaching more. This is why the teachers who participated in the base line survey were initially suspicious but later enthusiastically embraced the need to infuse life skills into their teaching.

(iii) Even in terms of examinations, life skills has a positive contribution to make.

The content sticks with less strain on the part of both student and instructor. (Participants in pretest, Mbale)

Firstly, lively classes lead to better retention of content. Secondly, the skills of critical and creative thinking are essential in examinations and finally children who have a clear awareness of themselves and their relationships with their peers and their community are more motivated and focussed in their learning.

(b) The educator

Effective implementation of the life skills education initiative will depend, to a great extent, on the life skills educators. For example, s/he must be able to correctly interpret and internalise the aims and objectives of life skills education, integrate the skills in appropriate carrier subjects and topics and select the most suitable situations and activities for the pupils to appreciate and learn the skills. S/he must also be convinced about the values of the individual skills. S/he must have the ability to recognise the pupils’ characteristics, challenges and needs in a given community. S/he must be sensitive and coordinate fellow educators, parents and opinion leaders so that they too play their roles in promoting the development of life skills. S/he must be a role model in words, actions and behaviours. If this seems a big responsibility for any individual teacher, there are many who are already showing many of these qualities and the life skills initiative merely provides them with the chance to develop them further.


Figure

3.2 WHEN CAN LIFE SKILLS BE PROMOTED?

Life skills education should be given right from birth. All the interactions between the baby and the mother, father, fellow children and other people in the family should be geared towards promoting the appropriate life skills in the child as it develops. These interactions should demonstrate love, affection, warmth, support and guidance. The physical environment should promote health and at the same time provoke and reward curiosity and the wish to learn and relate.

In communities or families where children go to pre-primary schools, they should continue to support family and community efforts to promote the skills. Formal life skills education should start right from Primary One.

3.3 WHERE CAN LIFE SKILLS BE PROMOTED?

Life skills education should be given everywhere. Within the school, every activity should offer an opportunity to impart life skills. For example, English Language and the ability to communicate effectively are crucial to life skills. Science lessons can help to develop skills such as critical thinking and decision making. Mathematics can be used to analyse trends and patterns of behaviour, and of course Religious Education, Political Education, History and Social Studies are often prime vehicles for instilling some of the life skills. During the pretest, several of the participants had already assimilated life skills into English, Geography and Political Education.

In addition, assemblies, communal work, meal times, worshipping time and games also provide useful opportunities. One Bushenyi school suggested that clubs like religious associations, scouts and guides and other extra curricular activities should include life skills in their activities.

Outside the school, life skills education should be given in the families and communities. During the pretest of this manual, the consensus everywhere was that parents and community need to be aware of the nature and purpose of the life skills initiative so that they become active participants. Some effort has been made in the activities to include parents but a broader sensitisation process is required, as shown by the participants in Lira who have already made plans to introduce life skills at Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs).

3.4 WHO SHOULD RECEIVE LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION?

The obvious answer to the question is that everybody should. This manual targets first of all the college tutors. Through them, the primary and secondary school student-teachers and teachers will be reached who will eventually teach the pupils. This is therefore a ‘cascade’ model of infusion.

(introduction...)

Life skills education in schools and colleges will be supported by several activities/strategies in Uganda. These include:

4.1 CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

In line with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child passed in 1990, the Ugandan Parliament passed a law in 1995 known as the Children’s Statute. Its provisions are as follows:

Rights of the Child in Uganda

1. A child in Uganda should have the same rights, irrespective of sex, religion, custom, rural or urban background, nationality, tribe, race, marital status of parents or opinion.

2. The right to grow up in a peaceful, caring and secure environment, and to have the basic necessities of life, including food, health care, clothing and shelter.

3. The right to a name and a nationality.

4. The rights to know who are his or her parents and to enjoy family life with them and/or their extended family. Where a child has no family or is unable to live with them, he or she should have the right to be given the best substitute care available

5. The right to have his or her best interests given priority in any decisions made concerning the child.

6. The right to express an opinion and to be listened to, and, to be consulted in accordance with his or her understanding in decisions which affect his or her well being.

7. The right to have his or her health protected through immunisation and appropriate health care, and to be taught how to defend himself/herself against illness. When ill, a child should have to right to receive proper medical care.

8. A child with disability should have the right to be treated with the same dignity as other children and to be given special care, education and training where necessary so as to develop his or her potential and self-reliance.

9. The right to refuse to be subjected to harmful initiation rites and other harmful social and customary practices, and to be protected from those customary practices which are prejudicial to a child’s health.

10. The right to be treated fairly and humanely within the legal system.

11. The right to be protected from all forms of abuse and exploitation.

12. The right to basic education.

13. The right to leisure which is not morally harmful, to play and to participate in sports and positive cultural and artistic activities.

14. The right not to be employed or engaged in activities that harm his or her health, education, mental physical or moral development.

15. A child, if a victim of armed conflict, a refugee, or in a situation of danger or extreme vulnerability, should have the right to be among the first to receive help and protection.

Who is a Child? A Child in Uganda should be defined as a person under the age of 18 years.

From the above, children’s rights can be divided into four main categories.

(i) Survival Rights (such as food, clothing and shelter).
(ii) Development Rights (such as the right to education).
(iii) Protection Rights (from exploitation, abuse, harmful initiation rights, battering etc).
(iv) Participation Rights (including the right to speak and be heard, to meet one another etc).

In the context of life skills (iii) and (iv) are the most important. Children need to know their rights and how to use life skills to keep those rights. The participation rights are the most controversial as many elders inmost communities do not accept automatically that children have the right to speak in front of, or disagree with, adults.

In the study of the Rights of the Child at the Village Level (Kakama, 1993), the participants agreed it was a good idea to listen and to consult children in decisions affecting them. It was however expressed that most people in the community do not respect the views of the child. “Their time has not come”, according to one key informant. In one area of the country where the study was carried out it was expressed that children’s views could be sought but the decision remains with the parents. The children said they are neither listened to or consulted and yet they felt they should contribute to decision making on matters concerning them (Republic of Uganda, 1995)

However, society is changing, and when it becomes clear that children’s participation does not lead to insubordination, and that the children actually participate more fully and more meaningfully if given the chance, communities (and teachers) can accept. Without the participation rights being discussed and negotiated, it is difficult to develop life skills such as self esteem and assertiveness.

In addition, there is always a need to insist on children’s rights within a life skills programme since knowing and asserting your rights successfully is an important part of self esteem and development. In addition, many vulnerable groups, such as orphans, street children, children with disabilities etc and girl children in general can be deprived of their basic rights, even to education and health.

In the pretest, participants commented that life skills and children’s rights go hand in hand.

· In knowing and understanding their rights, the children will increase and develop their self awareness and self esteem

· Life skills training, based on discussion of real life situations will help the children to discover how to assert themselves and their rights in acceptable ways

· Both life skills and children’s rights are interpreted within the cultural context of Uganda.

At the same time, it is worthwhile observing that the Children’s Statute emphasises both rights and responsibilities.

Responsibilities of the Child in Uganda

A child in Uganda shall first of all have responsibilities towards his or her Family, Society, Country and then the International Community.

A child shall, according to his or her age, ability and rights, have the duty:

· to work for the cohesion of the family, to respect his or her parents, elders and other children and to assist them;

· to use his or her abilities for the benefit of the community;

· to preserve and strengthen cultural values in his or her relations with other members of the society, in the spirit of tolerance, dialogue, consultation and to contribute to the moral well being of the society.

· to preserve and strengthen the independence, national unity and the integrity of his or her country.

This is in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child which talks of the responsibility of parents and guardians for ensuring that their children are brought up in accordance with acceptable cultural norms. Thus childrens rights do not mean the freedom to do whatever they want without parental guidance or correction. What is needed is to find the correct balance between adult guidance and children’s growing autonomy.

4.2 THE SARA COMMUNICATION INITIATIVE (SCI)

Generally in Uganda, the girl child is more disadvantaged than a boy. In a study on Village Perceptions of Children’s Rights (Kakama, 1993), it was revealed by the discussion groups that on various fronts the girl child is discriminated against. Girls are a second consideration for education, especially in instances where there is insufficient money. Girl children do not have the right of inheritance, and they are generally subjected to harder work than their brothers. These discriminatory practices against the girl child are not formally condoned. They are largely culturally determined. The overall effect, however, is that these practices and attitudes deny the girl child the enjoyment of her full rights. (Republic of Uganda, 1995)

The SCI is an initiative developed by UNICEF and its allies in the East and Southern African Region (ESAR). This initiative, which has learnt from the Meena Initiative in South-East Asia, is directed at the adolescent girl and her society with the following objectives:

(i) To address the extreme discrimination that exists against girls

(ii) To highlight the needs of girls (and boys)

(iii) To present a dynamic role model for girls and boys which communicates specific messages on:

· education, health and development with gender equity.

· other issues relevant to the survival, protection and development of children in sub-Saharan Africa.

The problem areas identified include economic issues (eg exploitation in employment, lack of vocational skills and homelessness), educational (eg being pushed out of school due to lack of school fees or girls being married off, lack of access to education, lack of family life education and career options), sexual (eg sexual abuse, pregnancies, STD/AIDS infection), and cultural (eg son preference, female genital mutilation, inheritance, early marriage, gender roles and workload)

It was also identified from the outset that in order to deal effectively with all these problems and challenges the girl child needed life skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, self assemment and concept, assertiveness, negotiation, coping with emotions and stress, conflict management and resolution, empathy and interpersonal relationships.


Some of the characters from the Sara Communication Initiative.

Thus, the Sara Communication Initiative aims at developing the life skills of girls in order to meet the challenges of life. This is to be done through a series of animated films produced regionally about different aspects of the life of the girl child, together with radio plays, comic books, story books and any other activities that might grow out of this.

In order to achieve this, stories were written across the region (from Eritrea to Namibia) and fourwere chosen for research in all the countries. They were read to boys, girls, community members, out of school youth etc in rural and urban areas, from different cultures and environments in order to test the acceptability of the characters, the stories, the names and even the appearance of the characters. As a result, three stories were chosen and rewritten for films and a second phase of research to choose a further four stories is underway.

The stories try to look at:

· factors that ensure that a girl does not have enough chance to improve her status in life.

· how girls and boys, their families and their communities can transform their lives from what it is to what it should be.

This Life Skills Training Manual makes use of the Sara Communication Initiative in three ways.

(i) The work done in all the countries of Eastern and Southern Africa to identify issues pertaining to the girl child has been used to ensure that the gender aspect of childhood and adolescence has been foregrounded where previously it was not apparent at all. As stated in the report quoted above, the discriminatory practices are culturally embedded more than deliberate discrimination and thus need to be highlighted. Thus all the activities bear in mind the specific problems facing girl as well as boy children, the reasons for them and the life skills required to face them.

(ii) The main characters from the Sara Initiative are introduced at the beginning of Section 4 (suggested activities for the tutor) These include Sara herself and her classmates and friends Juma and Amina. In subsequent activities, the tutor may continue to use these characters and invent other classmates and friends that reflect specific aspects of Ugandan life.

There are also her teacher, Ms Matata, and her family; the supportive father who is working in town to raise enough money for them to start a new life; the mother and younger brother and sister with whom she lives in the compound of the uncle; the uncle who is the elder brother of the father and is resistant to any change in the status and behaviour of girls in society; and the grandmother who is the depository of traditional values in society. Sara lives in a peri-urban setting and thus the problems and struggles of her and her friends can be adapted to a wide variety of urban and rural activities. Finally, Sara is presented as a role model of a girl who is assertive but respectful, who knows where she wants to go and uses her life skills to achieve her goals despite all the obstacles she faces. From research into the first stories produced she was recognised and strongly appreciated by both girls and boys, especially girls, and by the community as a whole who recognised that she had the right mix of assertiveness and respect. Where they felt she was too assertive, the stories were changed but parents greatly appreciated Sara’s ability to negotiate her way creatively through the obstacles placed in her path. Above all they appreciated that Sara is an actor, not a passive victim. Thus everyone, boys (who said she was the ideal wife of tomorrow) girls (who wanted to be like Sara) and parents (who felt that she was the kind of daughter they would like) identified with her.

The Sara materials give vivid feelings, raise emotions and problems affecting girl children are made clear. (Student teachers, Bushenyi)

In terms of teachers colleges, Ms Matata is also a good role model for the student teachers and can be used to promote discussion on the way teachers interact with their classes.

(iii) As Sara Initiative materials such as videos, comic books and radio tapes are produced, they can be used by schools and colleges for provoking thought and discussion on specific youth and girl child issues in relation to life skills. The first materials have already been produced and can be obtained from the UNICEF Kampala office at Kisozi House, off Kaggwe Road.

(introduction...)

In the final section of this chapter, we would like to raise and comment on some of the potential and actual problems that can arise when life skills are introduced into the curriculum. These are divided into two sections, ‘yes... but’ and ‘what if...’.

5.1 YES... BUT...


Figure

(i) Life skills are a nice idea but the syllabus does not give us any time.

It is true that life skills activities do take time and reduce the amount of time available for imparting of knowledge. However, by using a participatory methodology, the tutor is able to assess the level of knowledge already existing and build on it by addressing only those issues which are still problematic. As said by the Mbale participants:

The methodology provides simultaneous feedback on the learning experience of the child.

In addition, where students are active, interested and involved, they learn much faster and thus one is able to cover the content more quickly. In Kampala tutors commented:

The students learn more and you can cover more of the syllabus in a shorter space of time.

Therefore, the contention that there is no time has not been proven valid in terms of the research undertaken during the pre-testing of the manual.

(ii) These methodologies are very good but I don’t have the time and the materials to prepare them.

It is true that, especially at the beginning, it takes time to produce unfamiliar material. However, the manuals have already provided a wide variety of materials and participants in the pretest who started making up their own activities based on the suggestions in Section Five, found that they were not too difficult as they arose out of their own experiences.

Secondly, participants found that, while the preparation may be more time consuming, and even painful, the actual classes were much more enjoyable and fulfilling and therefore less exhausting.

Once the students start to participate, the strain placed on the teacher is significantly reduced and they do not get as tired as they used to. As Mbale participants noted, the content sticks with less strain, not only for the student but also for the tutor.

Thirdly, most activities can be carried out using a few sheets of paper and the blackboard. Once students appreciate the methodology, they can be used to prepare the materials if necessary, such as copying out sufficient copies of a case study, questionnaire etc.

(iii) I would like to use life skills but my class is too big.

It is very true that large classes may make it quite difficult to use some of the methodologies recommended in this manual. However, the methods may be adapted to suit circumstances. For example, the children may be taken to an area outside the normal classroom where additional space is required. However, group work does not depend on the size of classes and some methods such as role plays can be rotated from group to group, week by week, in order to give every student a greater chance to participate and ensure that the large size of a class does not prevent these methods from being used for the benefit of the students and the teacher.

(iv) Participatory methods are more enjoyable but they lead to more noise and a breakdown in discipline.

Findings from the pretest proved otherwise. Pupils and students were so absorbed in the activities that discipline actually improved. Discipline is more likely to break down when students have no interest in what they are being taught. The Mbale participants even commented that energisers and icebreakers (See Section 2) in fact boosted class control, concentration span and interest.

(v) We should teach life skills but they should not lead to pupils and students questioning our own practices.

In the pretest, some teachers, and headteachers, did not like some of the activities such as those related to destructive teacher behaviour and the health promoting school because they raised awareness of some of the negative practices and situations that exist in their schools. However, even without such activities, children already make such observations and it is incumbent upon the teacher to modify the behaviour identified as inappropriate. The activities are intended to help teachers and educational administrators to improve their practice.

At the same time, headteachers may argue that the school is so dilapidated because of economic constraints and that therefore it is wrong to criticise. However, such an activity could lead to a new appraisal, even with the PTA on how to ensure that schools really are health promoting and identify achievable targets for development.

(vi) Life skills are good but they go against culture and religion.

It is interesting that, in the pretest, one teacher at Mengo secondary school commented that:

The topics are good and helpful in helping teachers as custodians of culture in schools and curriculum.

Culture is not static and communities themselves are changing and developing in response to the challenges of a changing society. Life skills do not preach but rather raise issues which allow teachers and their pupils/students to look critically at culture in order to ensure the survival/development of those aspects which reinforce the society. The same applies to religion. It is only those who cannot tolerate debate who could object to the raising of issues.

WHAT IF...?


Figure

(i) What if the pupils become so emotionally involved that the debate gets out of hand?

Because life skills raise real issues affecting the lives of the children, they are likely to become emotionally involved. This is why the early activities in team building and laying down ground rules for discussion are so important.

It is also worth remembering that an animated discussion does not mean that it has got out of hand. The teacher has to let go and allow the debate as long as the students are actively involved and learning. It is not necessary for the teacher to control the whole discussion.

In addition, teachers should be aware of other support staff and agencies that may be able to offer help and advice to certain students and maybe even involve them in the discussion.

(ii) What if young people are bored with such issues and don’t want to listen?

Although this was raised by a participant in the pretest, the actual experience proved the opposite. If the young people are bored, it will be because the activity, or manner of presentation had some weakness and the teacher should discuss this with the students and look for an alternative method. Very often, the young people become bored as soon as they realise they are being preached at in another guise. The reflections from the pre-test were that the life skills activities were enjoyable and beneficial to the needs of the children.

(iii) What if a child’s rights are being violated?

If it becomes apparent in discussion that a child’s rights are being violated at home, school or in the community, the Local Government (Resistance Councils) Statute 1993, provides that the Vice chairperson of every Resistance Committee at all levels is the Secretary for Children’s Welfare with the responsibility of ensuring that the rights of the child are protected.

Therefore, if necessary, such cases of violation can be reported to the Vice chairperson. However, it may be worth trying more persuasive methods first through the staff meetings, Board of Governors, Parent Teacher Associations etc.

(introduction...)

This section is divided into two parts. Part A looks at activities and methodologies which create a good atmosphere, build unity and openness among the participants and encourage participation. Part B looks at specific workshop activities for introducing life skills training.

SECTION OBJECTIVES

By the end of this section, participants should be able to:

1. Explain the purpose of ice breakers and energisers
2. Use the activities outlined in the section
3. Use life skills approaches and procedures in their daily teaching.
4. Develop simple life skills techniques for dealing with difficult participants during a class
5. Use participatory methodologies to elicit and build on participants’ knowledge and attitudes
6. Use the workshop activities as a means of introducing a training session on life skills

1.1 ICE-BREAKING

PURPOSE

Ice breaking activities have the following purposes:

· Create a safe, warm learning environment from the outset.

· Encourage participants to mix with and get to know one another.

· Give all participants a chance to speak and be listened to in an environment where their experiences and opinions will be valued.

· Reduce individual feelings of isolation.

· Prepare all participants to become fully involved in later activities.

· Ice-breaking means breaking the ice, overcoming the cold (not warm), and tense atmosphere which may possibly exist before participants get to know each other.

At the beginning of a session, participants or first year students tend to keep to themselves or interact only with those they knew beforehand. They come from different places, have different backgrounds, experiences, qualifications etc. and often do not know how to break down the walls that exist between them. There is a need, therefore, for them to become acquainted with one another so that they are comfortable working together during the training. Thus, ice breakers should be used at the beginning of training sessions, or of a new year or term when the students do not know one another. They should not take too long, about 10-15 minutes.

EXAMPLE ONE

TOWN NAMES

Materials

Cards with half names of a town written on them. Enough cards for one per participant.

Procedure

1. Write cards with half names of towns. Each participant gets a card.

2. Participants look for the participant with the other half name of her/his town. i.e.

Card 1: MB-

Card 2: -ALE

Full name of the town: MBALE

3. Participants then sit in pairs and introduce themselves to one another using the following outline:

· Name.....................................................................
· Where you live.......................................................
· Where you went to school.......................................
· What you have achieved.........................................
· Hobbies..................................................................
· A wish...................................................................
· Anything else.........................................................

4. Each participant presents his/her partner to the rest of the group.

Hints

· If the group is large, place pairs into small groups of about six for the last step. Otherwise the introductions tend to take a very long time.

· The facilitator can come up with a different set of cards (i.e. local foods, famous personalities etc. instead of towns) or points of introduction (e.g. like/dislike etc.)

EXAMPLE TWO

WHY I WAS NAMED...


Figure

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Invite participants to sit in a circle

2. Place a large piece of flipchart paper in the centre of the circle (and one on the wall for those who are unable to move on to the floor).

3. Ask each participant in turn, to write their name on the paper and explain briefly why they were given that name e.g. “My name is Nightingale because I was born at night”.

EXAMPLE THREE

CLUSTERING

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Facilitator tells participants that they have to find a partner according to one of the following criteria:

· likes the same kind of music.
· shares the same birthday month.
· shares the same favourite food.
· also has trouble saying “NO” to friends.
· enjoys playing football.

2. Ask participants to stand up and move around the room, identifying another person who fits one of the criteria.

3. After forming pairs in this way, each pair can be given topics to discuss for 2 minutes each e.g. An exciting/sad experience I will never forget, or things that make me laugh/sad.

Hint

· Facilitator can think of any other appropriate statements for clustering individuals and topics for discussion. S/he should not be limited to the examples given above.

EXAMPLE FOUR

REASONS WHY I CAN’T COME TO SCHOOL TODAY

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Ask participants to form a circle.

2. Each participant gives his/her name in turn and then gives a false reason why s/he can’t come to school. The reason for not attending school must begin with the same letter as the person’s name e.g. “My name is Joy and I can’t come to school today because there are no buses from Jinja”.

Hint

· The facilitator is free to think of statements beginning:

‘Reasons why I.........................

EXAMPLE FIVE

THE NAME AND CARD GAME

Materials

A blank card for each participant, ball point pens or pencils, box or bag or basket.

Procedure

1. Give each participant a blank card.

2. Ask each participant to write the following on his/her card.

· complete name
· previous school attended
· favourite hobby

3. After all the cards are completed, collect and mix together in a container/basket. Each participant picks one card, but not his/her own.

4. After each participant has taken one card, instruct the person to find the owner of the card. Then ask each person to find out more information about the owner.

5. After 5 minutes tell everyone to be seated and ask each person to introduce the owner of the card which s/he has picked.

Hints

· Information which is too personal should be avoided.
· Allow some fun to create a more friendly atmosphere.

Feedback

At the end of each ice breaker, spend a few minutes asking the group some of the following questions. Do NOT ask all the questions every time.

· How did you feel during this activity?
· How do you feel starting a group in this way?
· How might you alter or adapt this activity?
· How have you benefitted from this activity?
· Do you have any comments about this activity?
· What other ice breakers do you know/have you used?
· Anything else?

1.2 EXPECTATIONS AND FEARS

PURPOSE

It is very useful at the beginning to allow participants to state their expectations and fears or concerns about the training. This brings into the open what people are feeling and allows the facilitator to clarify what can and cannot be done in the course of the training.

Expectations

Participants come to a training with certain expectations about what they may acquire in terms of knowledge or skills. It is important to give them an opportunity to express their feelings on what they expect to get from the training and also to say at the start what they think can or cannot be achieved.

Fears

The participants have fears about issues that may be a barrier to the attainment of the objectives. The fears should be dealt with to create a conducive learning environment.

The activity on the following page will help define the participants’ expectations and fears.

ACTIVITY

FINDING OUT THE EXPECTATIONS AND FEARS

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Pieces of paper, chalk or marker, blackboard/flip chart/large sheet of paper.

Procedure

1. Prepare sufficient pieces of paper for the number of participants attending the session.

2. Tell every participant to pick a piece of paper and write down what they expect from the training on one side of the paper and fear from the training on the other side.

3. Participants exchange papers with their friends and read out what is written. Facilitator writes replies on the flipchart or blackboard for all to be made aware of individual expectations and fears.

OR Divide the participants into groups, read out the answers and then merge the similar ones. The group leader presents the expectations and fears to the class and you write on blackboard or chart.

OR Each participant displays his/her written work for the whole class to read and they are later merged by the teacher.

OR Individual participants read out their expectations and fears and the teacher merges them on the blackboard or flipchart.

OR Put the cards in the middle (so that they are anonymous). Shuffle the cards and redistribute so that students read out the card they are given while you put the points on the board/large sheet of paper.

4. Discuss all the expectations and fears with the participants. Explain that you hope everyone will acknowledge that people have certain fears and will support these individuals. Explain what you hope and think can be achieved during the training, and what cannot be achieved in the time available.

5. Hang the flipchart or leave them on the blackboard.

Hints

· During the training, go through the expectations to find out those which were met and not met. Do the same with fears to find out how they were overcome.

· Expectations and fears may be introduced at the beginning of every new unit or topic to be taught and at the end of it, particularly if the issue to be discussed is a sensitive one.

· Leave the expectations and fears on the blackboard.

· Not all the expectations will be met. Explain this. Also explain that participants can discuss issues during the break.

· To cater for some of the expectations which may not be met, you can use a story or case study; or give them homework which can be done during the participants’ free time or call a resource person to give a lecture touching on those issues being reflected in the expectations.

1.3 LAYING GROUND RULES FOR LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION

PURPOSE

Life Skills education involves an individual interacting closely with other people. During such interactions, group members will want to be listened to and respected. Some of the activities may involve revealing personal experiences that one would not ordinarily tell others. Therefore, group members need an assurance that in interacting with other members, their personalities will not be betrayed. Rules of behaviour need to be established. These can be called ground rules or keys to cooperation.

The ground rules should be decided upon by the group members themselves. This can be done in different ways. One way is suggested below. Alternatively you may wish to use the ‘Group Shield’ in the ‘Team Building’ section that follows as a method for developing some ground rules.

ACTIVITY

DEVELOPING GROUND RULES

Time: 20 minutes

Materials

Small pieces of paper, each with a number relating to the number of participants.

Procedure

1. Write numbers from one to the last number in the class on small pieces of papers.

2. Each member picks a piece of paper with a number on it.

3. Number one pairs with two, three with four, etc. If the number in the class is odd, there can be three in a group.

4. Each member of the pair introduces himself/herself to the other and reveals her/his likes/dislikes and hopes for the way in which people will work together during the sessions.

5. The pair then discuss the rules they consider important regarding the discussions they will have.

6. 3 pairs join to form one group and come up with consolidated rules.

7. Participants discuss and agree on the rules to be adopted.

8. To wrap up, participants discuss the following questions:

(i) What do we do to a member who breaks the rules?
(ii) How will these rules be useful to the group during the course?

Hints

· Only one way of group formation is described here. There are other ways that groups can be formed e.g. using strings of different lengths, using combinations of letters for naming towns, etc. The teacher can also devise his/her own way of group formation. The essential point is that groups must be formed at random, with no systematic bias so that gradually each member of the group will meet and work with several others, thereby reducing the possibility of isolation and helping the integration of individual members.

· The interactions for negotiating ground rules can also be varied according to the size of the class. In the end, the negotiated rules should be agreed upon by the whole class and then adhered to in subsequent lessons.

· Because of the nature of Life Skills education, some of the rules that may come out are:

(i) Confidentiality
(ii) Respect for one another
(iii) Honesty
(iv) Listening to each other
(v) No ridiculing or derogatory behaviour towards anyone.
(vi) No value judgements about a person’s position.
(vii) Freedom to speak
(viii) The right to pass.
(ix) Being positive and constructive to the group
(x) Punctuality

Do not list those rules for the class, but only ask whether any that they may have omitted would be important for their group.

· Ways of enforcing the rules may include showing a “yellow card” to an offending member. If 3 people in the group show the yellow card then the individual must alter his/her behaviour or stop the activity s/he was doing. This should be done with humour and fairness to emphasize the importance of the rules rather than punish. The group should see that the rules are important for their cohesion and facilitative of acquiring the skills they are learning.

1.4 TEAM BUILDING

PURPOSE

Team building is a process which gradually transforms individual participants into group workers. A team has a common objective and a common strategy to achieve the objective.

Team building develops cooperation, builds good relations and makes learners active (Participants in pretest, Bushenyi).

The success of the team depends on each member being appreciated, building on their uniqueness and difference to enrich the variety of ideas, views or contributions for the general good.

For a team to function, every member should be given the opportunity to participate fully; learning to share, discuss, agree, disagree, persuade and adjust. Being a member of a team means looking beyond oneself and reaching out to others, and realizing that one has something to offer just like others. Life skills evolve around one’s ability to cope with the situations, circumstances, challenges of day-to-day life. Ability to get along with other people is one skill promoted through Team Building. The team spirit helps one to believe in oneself, boosting one’s self-esteem.

Some Team building Activities are described below. They can run through the whole session or workshops, varying in duration according to the purpose

ACTIVITY ONE THE

GROUP SHIELD

Time: 20 to 30 minutes

Materials

Large sheets of paper, marker pens.

Procedure

1. Randomly select participants in teams of 4 - 6 people.

2. Ask each team to choose a leader, moderator, observer, recorder and reporter

3. Ask each team to draw the group shield with four parts (see below), under different titles, depending on topic.

4. Every member writes his/her name in the first compartment and says a little about their name e.g. why they were given that name.

5. Members discuss their hobbies/interests and the recorder draws or writes some of this in the top right hand compartment.

6. Members discuss what they can offer the group e.g. experiences, listening, support and these are written up by the reporter.

7. Group members agree on ground rules and write them down.

8. Ask each group to come up with a Group Name.

9. Lastly, the group must come up with a motto.

10. In turn, each group displays their shield. The facilitator draws out or asks the reporter to draw out some of the unusual or interesting points. Finally, read out and clarify/agree on the ground rules for the whole group.


Figure

Hints

· By writing one’s name in the first box, an individual registers as a member to the team, with a right to participate.

· Explaining what you have to offer:-

· Boosts self esteem

· Promotes self - awareness, as each participant looks into himself/herself to discover what s/he has to offer.

· Enforces active listening and positive contribution.

· Ground rules offer an opportunity for one to appreciate different perspectives, desires and concerns.

· Hobbies/interests: This allows one to express a part of oneself.

· Other alternatives could be included in the shield according to the group and the context.

ACTIVITY TWO

SPEAK OR NOT TO SPEAK

The aim of this activity is to practise getting along using non-verbal communication and to appreciate its advantages and shortcomings. It improves negotiation skills, listening skills and critical thinking.

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Objects such as children’s toy cube dismantled. One object needed for every group.

Procedure

1. Divide participants into groups of 4 - 6 members.

2. Distribute objects such as a children’s toy cube, already dismantled.

3. Ask them to put the bits together without TALKING.

4. Ask groups how they felt working without verbal communication; and how easy or difficult it was for them to accomplish or fail to accomplish a given task.

5. Ask groups to exchange objects (if they succeeded in putting the first object together) or to continue with the current object if they failed to assemble it at the first attempt.

6. After 10 minutes, allow groups to use both verbal and non-verbal communication

7. Ask groups what are the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing both verbal and non-verbal communication.

Hint

· The trainer is encouraged to create his/her own team building activities as the need arises.

1.5 COPING WITH DIFFICULT GROUP MEMBERS (BEHAVIOURS)

PURPOSE

Time: 45 minutes


Figure

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers.

Procedure

1. Whole group brainstorms on types of behaviour which hinder group work.

2. List the behaviours on a large sheet of paper

3. Divide participants into groups of six or seven.

4. Allocate an equal number of behaviours listed to each group and ask them to devise strategies/life skills for coping with the behaviours they have been assigned.

5. Each group summarises on a large sheet of paper and presents to the plenary for discussion.

Hints

· To start brainstorming, ask participants to describe actual example/incidents

· Difficult group member behaviour can include:

· People who talk too much
· People who challenge everything
· People who never contribute
· People who never stick to the point
· People who are critical of everyone and everything

· There is no one strategy to cope with certain types of behaviour though there are certain suggested strategies.

· The actual behaviours, and the strategies to deal with them could take the form of a role play.

· Hopefully the team building activities, and in particular the introduction of ground rules, will avert many of the more difficult behaviours that certain individuals may display.

1.6 ENERGISERS

PURPOSE

Communication experts observe that concentration span in a learning situation is initially high then gradually drops. To keep learners’ attention it is imperative that they are kept interested. Energizers help achieve this by breaking the monotony and stress of a learning session. They may be used to allow the participants a chance to stretch and move about. They are usually brief (3-5 minutes)


Figure

Hints

· Choose energizers that are conducive to your specific environment and situation; i.e. consider your age group, classroom size, how well you know the group and how well they know one other.

· Develop your own energizers for your group.

· Other energizers have been developed, look around for references that contain energizers.

EXAMPLE ONE

THE BUYIKWE POLICEPERSON

Materials

Basket, baton, (stick).

Procedure

1. Ask everybody to sit around in a circle.

2. Get a volunteer who shall start off as the policeperson.

3. The volunteer stands in the middle near the room, taps a person seated and runs and places the baton in the basket.

4. Policeperson should then run and occupy the place of the person that was tapped - referred to as a culprit.

5. The person who was tapped should aim at picking up the ‘baton’ from the basket and chase the policeperson and try to tap him/her before s/he sits down in the culprit’s chair.

6. If the policeperson sits down in the culprit’s place before the culprit taps him/her, then the culprit becomes the new policeperson and the game continues.

Hints

· The game is better if the circle is large so that there is a fair distance to run (3 to 4 metres).

· The ‘baton’ or stick should NOT be thrown in the basket but rather placed there.

EXAMPLE TWO

THE SOCIAL MAP

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Explain to the group that the floor area is really a map of Uganda, which direction is North etc. Agree with them where one or two towns/landmarks would be on the map.

2. Every participant should move to stand where their village/district is located.

3. The facilitator gives out the following instructions to the group who must respond appropriately in accordance with the perceived level of problem in their area.

· not a problem or issue - sit down,
· a small problem - kneel down
· rampant - stand up
· very serious problem - stand on tiptoe or jump

4. Facilitator reads out/presents a number of issues, problems:

· malaria
· Aids
· happy homes
· defilement/rape
· abstinence
· farming
· democracy
· good marriages
· drug abuse
· faithfulness
· equal rights for girls
· pre marital sex
· wife beating
· oppression of women
· condom use

5. The objective is to read the issues out quickly so that people have equally quickly.

Hint

· You may choose to stop the activity from time to time to foster discussion on a particular issue.

EXAMPLE THREE

NAFUNA SAYS (NAME GAME)

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants stand up and space themselves evenly around the room in such a manner that will not collide or hit each other.

2. The facilitator does a trial to ensure the participants have understood the instructions. For example, the facilitator gives out the following key:

You should only follow the instructions if they start with ‘Nafuna says’. For example ‘Nafuna says, hop on one leg’. ‘Nafuna says turn round’ etc. If the instruction is just called out on its own, for example, ‘turn around’, ‘raise your right arm’ etc., participants should not follow the instruction.

3. People who carry out the instructions when they do not start with ‘Nafuna says’ should sit down.

Hints

· This activity may/could be made more interesting if one of the participants is asked to call out the actions.

· Pick a name that is easy to pronounce, fun and not the name of one of the participants

EXAMPLE FOUR

SONGS (SINGING ‘O’ MCDONALD) - OLD MUKISA*

(Choose your own name)


Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Choose a popular song and select an energetic song leader.

2. Sing-a-long

3. In between the song/verses the choir/song leader may chant.

“ARE WE TOGETHER?”
“ARE WE TOGETHER?”

Participants should echo back with a loud clear answer “YES”

Suggestions for good songs

· Patriotic “Chaka muchaka songs”
· Football team slogans
· Nursery rhymes i.e. Old McDonald had a Farm.

Hint

· Actions could be added to it.

EXAMPLE FIVE

FISHERS OF MEN’ (A well known song)

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants start off seated

2. Song leader starts the song

3. While the song is sung, males stand up at each word that starts with ‘M’ and females stand up at each word that starts with ‘F’.

4. Song gets faster and faster (in Tempo).

Hint

· Only use the song if you know and/or the participants know it.

EXAMPLE SIX

ONE CHAIR LESS

Materials

Chairs/benches.

Procedure

1. Place enough chairs/benches in a circle for each participant to sit on

2. Facilitator stands in the middle, with no chair.

3. Facilitator calls out a task that gets people moving and swapping places. Nobody should return to the same chair/position. Examples of such statements could be:

· “all people putting on black shoes, change places”.
· “all people wearing T-shirts, change places”.
· “all people whose names start with the letter A, change places”.

4. As they move, the person in the middle also runs for a chair

5. The person who fails to get a chair stands in the middle and calls out the next instruction.

Hints

· To end the game the facilitator may consider ‘failing’ to get a chair so that s/he is deliberately left standing.

· This is a way of getting people into different pairs or small groups.

EXAMPLE SEVEN

SHOES

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Facilitator explains that s/he wants people to demonstrate the activity called out. Participants stand up and walk slowly around the room. When the facilitator calls out “running shoes”, participants must imagine that they are running.

2. Examples of other statements to use with participants:

· walking shoes (participants demonstrate walking)
· slippery shoes (participants demonstrate slipping around)
· quiet shoes
· dancing shoes
· army boots

EXAMPLE EIGHT

RAIN

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants stand in a circle facing into the circle
2. Participants pat their knees to make the sound of the type of rain mentioned.

Examples of statements

-

actions...



· a drizzle

-

(gently pat)



· a storm

-

(heavy patting)



· thunder

-

(a big clap etc.).

Hint

· This activity can be modified by you to be something else i.e. a dog and related statements; cow, horse etc.

EXAMPLE NINE

LEADING BY FINGER

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Ask participants to pair up.
2. Ask one to volunteer to be a leader and the other a follower.
3. The follower should close his/her eyes and stretch out her/his hand and offer 1 finger.
4. The leader puts out his/her finger and places it on the follower’s finger.
5. Leader then takes the follower around the room without any collisions.
6. The follower should keep eyes closed at all time.
7. After 2 minutes ask each pair people to exchange roles.

Hints

· This activity can be used more than once in different sessions and include questions on how people felt as they moved around the room. Consider both perspectives, leader and follower.

· This activity should only be used after the participants have become familiar with each other since it can sometimes be quite threatening.

EXAMPLE TEN

BRING ME... AN OBJECT

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Divide the class into teams (two or three).

2. Explain that the objective of the game is for them to bring objects to you. The quickest team gets marks.

3. Facilitator then calls for objects.

· bring me......... an ear ring
· bring me......... a belt
· bring me......... a leaf
· bring me......... etc.

Hint

· Make sure there is no physical damage to any individuals, or embarrassment at having to remove certain items of clothing!

(introduction...)

PURPOSE

Since the aim of this initiative is to elicit, examine and develop life skills of the students, it is essential that participatory methods are used. They have several advantages:

· The more the students are engaged, the more they are able to develop their life skills. You cannot develop critical thinking by listening to lectures on the subject. Similarly you cannot develop the psychosocial skills without trying them out with others and practising them.

· Participatory approaches open up the syllabus in new ways because the/start with the assumption that students already know many things. Thus, by eliciting what they know through different activities, the tutor is able to build on the knowledge they already have.

2.1 BRAINSTORMING

PURPOSE

Brainstorming is a way of obtaining as many views as possible in a short space of time. Participants, in groups, or in a whole class are encouraged to give as many ideas as they can think of on a particular subject.

This can be done anonymously using cards, or on pieces of paper, or by students calling out their ideas which are all written on the board. In this first stage, all ideas are accepted and no challenges are allowed.

After all the ideas have been exhausted, the tutor can ask the groups to prioritise, or choose the most important 3 or 4 or 5 ideas. This is a good activity when introducing a new topic.

EXAMPLE

1. Draw a large ship on newsprint with lines beneath it to depict water. Label the drawing RelationSHIP.

2. Ask students to give ideas on what keeps a relationship afloat. Once all the ideas have been collected, each group will draw their own ship on a sheet of paper and choose the five most important things required to keep the boat afloat. These can be written round the water line of the ship.

3. Students brainstorm again on what leads to the sinking of relationships. They then prioritise the five most damaging aspects that can be drawn as rocks near the ship.

4. Groups stick their ships on the wall. Students move around looking at the different ships.

5. Class discussion on why priorities differ. Other processing questions might include:

(i) What do you notice about the positive things listed for the different relationships?

(ii) What do you notice about the negative things?

(iii) When you were working in your small groups, how similar or different were the responses of men from women? Why do you think this is so?

(iv) Which qualities do you think are the most difficult to find in a relationship?


Figure

2.2 QUESTIONNAIRES

PURPOSE

These are different from normal research questionnaires since their aim is not to collect data but to give the students an opportunity to assess their own attitudes, feelings and emotions about a particular issue. Thus the questionnaires try to make provocative statements which will lead the students to confront truthfully what they think.

EXAMPLE ONE

1. Give out the questionnaire to all students to fill in individually. If there are no duplicating facilities, write the questionnaire on the chalkboard and ask students to copy and fill in.

CHECK OUT YOUR ATTITUDE


For each of the following statements write A (if you agree) D (if you disagree) or? (If you don’t know).

(i)

Girls wearing short skirts are asking to be raped.


(ii)

It is OK for a man to have more than one woman as long as he practises safe sex and provides for his children.


(iii)

A wife is more likely to get AIDS than a prostitute.


(iv)

Parents should talk to their children about AIDS.


(v)

It is more important to send a boy to school than a girl.


(vi)

To have sex with a girl before she reaches the age of 18 is defilement.


(vii)

Women are more faithful than men.


(viii)

Raising a child by yourself makes more sense than marrying a man you don’t love.


2. After filling in the questionnaires, students form groups and discuss their answers.

3. After reaching as much consensus as possible, groups present their answers to plenary.


Figure

Hints

· Because such questionnaires are very sensitive, the facilitator should be careful about how s/he introduces it and ensures that the ground rules for discussion are followed. The discussion, for example, should allow for tolerance of other peoples’ viewpoints.

· The facilitator does not have to go round finding out what each person believes. An atmosphere of confidentiality encourages participants to be honest in their answers.

· Some of the items in the questionnaire can also be connected to issues of knowledge e.g. the tutor can take advantage of this to provide the essential knowledge where necessary.

EXAMPLE TWO

1. Give the following questionnaire to the students in groups.

WHAT DO YOU VALUE?

· What would you do if:

(i) You won 20 million shillings in a lottery and you have to spend it quickly?
(ii) You have a free day with no responsibilities at all?

· What would you change if you could only change one thing:

(i) in your community?
(ii) in the world?

2. Students discuss in groups and present to plenary.

Hint

· These sort of open-ended questionnaires with no right or wrong, firm or fixed answers can enable students to discuss certain life issues and reach their own decisions from the choices available.

2.3 RANKING

PURPOSE

Ranking is another way of encouraging students to assess their own values and attitudes. They have to decide which aspects are more or less important to them and give reasons for their decisions. This will allow them the opportunity to clarify their own values and attitudes.

EXAMPLE

1. Divide the students into groups and ask them to rank the following-in order of importance.

WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT TO YOU?

(i) Popularity
(ii) Academic success
(iii) A good salary
(iv) To own land
(v) Marriage and a family
(vi) To enjoy life

2. Groups present their ranking to the plenary for further discussion.

2.4 CASE STUDIES

PURPOSE

Case studies can be true or imaginary descriptions of a situation, or a character. They can be used:

· To provoke thought and discussion on various issues
· To give the tutor a chance to assess how much the students know about a particular topic.

EXAMPLE ONE

1. Divide the class into groups and distribute the case study.

Atieno comes from a poor family in Kampala. She went to school up to P7 after which she returned home to help her mother with her petty trading. When she was 16, a primary school teacher met her selling groundnuts on the street. He liked her and proposed marriage to her. He was quite young and handsome.

2. Ask the groups to answer the following questions.

(i) List the arguments for and against Atieno getting married.
(ii) If you were Atieno, what would you do? Why?

3. Groups report to plenary.

Hints

· It is vital that the case study does not give the answer, but rather provokes debate. If, for example, the case study showed Atieno getting married and dying in childbirth, there is no discussion, only a message.

· While this case study is directed at students’ attitudes to marriage and relationships, it can also be used by the tutor to find out the students’ knowledge on the law (defilement below the age of 18), the dangers of getting pregnant before the age of 18 and children’s rights.

EXAMPLE TWO

Comparative case studies such as the one in the Unit on “Our Health” at the beginning of Section Four.

EXAMPLE THREE

The case study could be in the form of a letter.

Dear Auntie,

We have started a health club in our school. We participate in child to child activities and try to advise people to keep their surroundings clean. The only problem is the local marwa bar which is always very dirty. It is owned by the LC1 and his wife is the main brewer. She just laughs when I try and explain to her.

What should I do in this situation as children often play in the dirt?

Kato.

1. If you were the auntie, how would you reply to this letter?

2. Do you think that similar situations exists in your school/home area?

3. What do you think can be done to improve the situation?

2.5 ROLE PLAYS

PURPOSE

Role plays are not dramas with fixed characters and dialogue. They are rather presentations of situations which the students can act out in order to explore situations, feelings towards situations and different strategies to cope with situations. They are very useful in providing students with a chance to react to simulated situations and test how effective or valid their reactions might be.

EXAMPLE ONE

1. Explain the role play to the class.

Sara is a P7 girl preparing for the exams. When she goes to do her homework with her friend Mary, Mary’s brother, Michael who is S3 is always very keen to help her with her mathematics. One day, Sara finds herself alone with Michael. Michael reveals that he is interested in Sara.

2. Ask the class to divide into pairs and act out what they think would happen between Michael and Sara. Tell them to think about how each of them feels, what are their options, who is more at risk, what should they do.

3. Students discuss and act in pairs.

4. Ask for volunteers to act out in front of the class.

5. Students discuss on both the methods used by Michael to convince (or force) Sara and Sara’s different methods for coping with the situation.

Hint

· The situation could be linked to a lesson on STDs/HIV/AIDS to provide the knowledge element.

EXAMPLE TWO

A ‘rolling role play’

1. Explain to the students that they are going to do a role play in several stages so that they can act out how they would behave at each stage.

2. Give stage one of the role play.

You live in with your mother, your stepfather and your two brothers and one sister. One day you are left in the house on your own. Your stepfather calls you into his room. What would you do?

3. Ask for one student to act the stepfather and another the girl.

4. After they act the scene, call for comments on the behaviour of both the characters. If someone disagrees with the way either behaved invite them to come and act how they think the uncle or the girl should have behaved. If they are too shy, they can ask someone to act on their behalf but they should be encouraged to try themselves.

5. After all possibilities have been explored and discussed, move the role play one step forward.

The girl enters the room and finds the stepfather on the bed. He calls her to sit on the bed.

What would you do?

6. Repeat as above.

Alternative scenario

Stage 1: You have agreed to go with a friend to a birthday party. When you arrive there, you find that several people are already drunk. Your friend immediately joins the drinking and calls you to join him. You don’t want to drink.


Figure

1. What would you do?

After possibilities have been explored, the role play moves forward.

Stage 2: You have agreed to join in drinking a bit to keep company with your friends. One of them introduces marijuana and uses the same arguments that were used to convince you to drink.

2. What would you do? Obviously this particular activity could be linked to a component on alcohol and other drugs to provide the knowledge input.

Hint

· It should be stressed that with role plays, as with case studies, aim is not to provide messages but rather to provoke (self-) questioning that will eventually lead the children to making their own decisions and adopting particular coping strategies in specific situations.

2.6 DRAWING

PURPOSE

Drawing activities are another good way of encouraging students to represent their feelings. They can do this individually or in groups.

EXAMPLES

(i) One form of self introduction is to encourage students either to draw their lives the way they think they are heading and the way they would like to head.

(ii) Groups draw the health promoting/demoting school as explained in the next session.

(iii) Students could prepare a picture in groups on the roles and responsibilities of different members of a family, e.g. a boy child and a girl child.

2.7 DISCUSSION

PURPOSE

Discussions and debates give children the opportunity to gain knowledge, check out their own myths and misconceptions, learn new skills such as listening (critically) and clarify their attitudes and values. Ground rules are needed to ensure that all individuals are allowed to express their viewpoints.

2.8 BUZZ GROUPS

PURPOSE

These are not as formal as group discussions. They normally involve a brief discussion of participants with their neighbours in the room. They are used to allow informal discussion on an issue so that people can relax and try out their ideas before they are put to the test in a more formal discussion.

2.9 TABLEAUX

PURPOSE

Tableaux are a more stylised form of role play which encourage students to think and discuss certain issues within the context of working out how best to represent them.

1. Divide the participants into groups

2. Ask each group to prepare a ‘frozen statue’ that depicts, for example, the feelings and state of a pregnant schoolgirl, or the needs of an AIDS sufferer. You could either ask to each group to prepare a tableau on a similar issue or each group could take a separate issue and present it to the rest of the class for discussion.

3. After the presentation, the facilitator can ask several processing questions.

· Why did you choose such a tableau
· How did you feel when preparing the tableau
· How did you feel when you were the pregnant girl/angry father/AIDS sufferer etc.
· What could be done in real life to change the tableau to a more positive portrayal.

2.10 STORYTELLING

PURPOSE

Story telling is part of our childhood and upbringing. Everyone can remember some stories they were told and they are an important source of learning about life. They can be used to illustrate and discuss a variety of life situations requiring life skills to deal with them. Stories can be presented in many different ways, through traditional tales using animals such as those in Hare and Hornbill by Okot p’Bitek which were in fact originally created as a way of commenting on the life of the community and teaching life skills to the children. Alternatively stories can be used from the Sara Communication Initiative or the teacher, or students can make up their own stories to suit different situations. Stories can be told in different ways such as this letter below.

Dear Auntie,

I really want to study so that I can escape from this life of poverty but what can I do when I don’t even have time to study. I have really struggled to get to secondary school but as the subjects get more difficult, I think I am going to fail. Just imagine, I wake up every day at 5.00 am. I fetch the water, sweep the compound and wash the clothes for my little brother and sister before going to school. My brother wakes up at 7.00 am, prepares for school and goes.

At school I do my best to study but because I ate nothing before leaving the house, when it gets to midday, I start falling asleep. The teachers get angry with me but what can I do. In the evening my brother weeds the garden while I do the housework and help my mother cook. After eating, my brother can start doing his homework but I have to wash the dishes first. After that I try to study but within half an hour, I am falling asleep.

At the weekend we both go to the farm but when we get back my brother goes to play football after which he says, ‘he has the job of bathing’ while I start to do the housework. My brother washes his clothes when he feels like it, but he makes sure I realise that he is doing me a favour. To tell you the truth auntie, although I do my best to help my mother, sometimes I pretend to be sick because that is the only way I can get a chance to rest.

So what should I do so that I can study like the others? My brother tells me that I don’t do well in class because girls are not as intelligent as boys. He says that boys are more curious which is why they do better in science. Sometimes I am tempted to believe with him because he always makes fun of the way I enjoy cooking. But then I remember that while he is playing with batteries and making his own little radio or torch, I am washing the dishes or fetching the water. When do I have the time to study like him? And if I was not so tired, wouldn’t I be as curious as he is?

Yours fed up,

Anna.

Questions

1. If you were the auntie, how would you reply to this letter?
2. Do you think that such a situation exists in relation to your school/home area?
3. What do you think can be done to improve the situation?
4. Why do you think boys tend to do better in science than girls?

2.11 PROCESSING

PURPOSE

As with the introductory activities, it is important that individuals have the opportunity to say how they feel about particular activities or situations and how it affected them. In this way the facilitator can assess her/his activities and to what extent they are being effective in engaging the participants and challenging them to think about the issues and life skills being raised through the activities. One part of such assessment is always observation of how participants are reacting, but processing questions allows a more reflective assessment and also encourages the participants to think about the purpose and value of activities rather than just participating in them.

Some questions that may be asked are:

· How did you feel about the activity?
· How (much) did it challenge your thinking/attitudes?
· How have you changed? (Or not?)
· How do you think the group has changed?
· What helped?
· What hindered?
· How might you apply this activity in training/teaching?
· Which life skills are promoted in this activity?

2.12 UTILISING THE CREATIVE ABILITIES OF THE PARTICIPANTS OR THE STUDENTS

PURPOSE

It would be a mistake for a facilitator to think that s/he has to produce all the material her/himself. Very often it will be the task of the facilitator to produce the preliminary activities but, after that, s/he can draw on the creativity and experience of the participants/students to produce supplementary activities.

This can be done in several ways.

EXAMPLES

· After presenting a case study, students can be asked to prepare case studies of their own which reflect different situations/dilemmas/problems they face.

· Students will act the role plays and, in cases where the tutor requires one participant in a role play to have a clearly defined or very persuasive role, instead of acting it him/herself can coach a student to do it on her/his behalf.

· If the tutor is not confident of her/his drawing skills (and for the purpose of teaching they do not have to be good) s/he can ask one of the students to prepare the drawing required in advance.

(introduction...)

WORKSHOPS

Hint

· Make sure that you, as the facilitator have read thoroughly and understood Section 1 of the manual (you may wish to photocopy or write some of the information on a large piece of paper for reference during the training).

WORKSHOP A: HOW TO IDENTIFY THE NEEDS OF A 13 YEAR OLD UGANDAN CHILD

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants will be able to:

1. Identify the needs of a 13 year old Ugandan child, the influences on him/her, the factors around him/her and the current provisions made for him/her

2. Demonstrate the need for life skills education in response to his/her needs

Time: 45 to 60 minutes

Materials

Markers, large sheets of paper, cello-tape.

Procedure

1. Divide the participants into small groups of approximately 4-5 people

2. Give a large sheet of paper, markers and masking tape to each group.

3. Allocate tasks to be discussed to every group as shown below:

(i) The needs of a Ugandan child
(ii) The influences on the child
(iii) The factors to consider for a Ugandan child.
(iv) The current provisions for a Ugandan child.

4. Allow 15-20 minutes for the groups to discuss and draw up their findings

5. In plenary discuss and summarize the participants findings.

6. Discuss the following processing questions on the whole activity

(i) What has been learned about the Ugandan child?
(ii) How do you think schools are currently meeting the needs of the Ugandan child?
(iii) In what ways are schools currently not meeting the needs of the Ugandan child?
(iv) How might a school work towards meeting some of these needs?
(v) How will a life skills approach help the Ugandan child?
(vi) Any other comments?


Ugandan Child

Learning points

· Examples of some of the answers from participants in the pre-test workshops were:

(i) Needs

· Parental love and guidance

· Absence of conflict in a family

· Security, shelter, protection

· Education (formal and informal)

· To be trusted and respected

· Freedom of speech, expression

· Lifeskills such as self awareness, self esteem, decision making, problem solving, ability to withstand negative pressures and to communicate and negotiate their position and feelings..

· Ability to weigh and analyse situations

· Ability to take initiatives and be responsible

· Equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities etc.

(ii) Influences on the 13 year Ugandan child

· At home:

Parents influence the training, discipline, responsibilities, love, financial support, education, values and attitudes.

Brothers and sisters - playing, sharing responsibilities

Aunts/uncles - counselling, cultural and traditional practices, financial support, accommodation, feeding etc.

· At school:

Curricula - objectives, methods, contact teachers, resource materials, assessment.
Students/pupils, support staff, school environment.

· Community: Neighbours, clan civic leaders, religious leaders.

· Social services: Health centres, schools, roads, Churches/Mosques,

· Culture: Beliefs, practices, ethnicity, dressing.

· Economic: Income generating activities

· Media: Newspapers, radio, TV, Videos,

· Environment: Social, physical, biological

(iii) Factors to consider

· Religion
· Cultural practices, beliefs,
· Level of education of parents and children
· School

· Boarding or day
· Mixed or single
· Rural, urban or semi urban
· Registered or not
· Private or Government

· Peer pressures
· Environment - Urban or rural, slums, outskirts, highclass residential areas.
· Economic, Social, Political factors.
· Constitutional/Legislature
· Economic policies - stability, peace, nutrition, social status, food security.

(iv) Provisions for 13 year Ugandan child

· Academic content
· Vocational skills
· Political Education
· Health Education
· Politicization/military training
· Programmes on radios, TV, Newspaper, Magazines
· Religious activities
· Parental and family guidance, including delegation of family responsibilities
· Cultural socialisation and initiation
· Health services

WORKSHOP B: WHAT ARE THE PRIORITIES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN?

Introduction

In order to have an effective lifeskills programme, it is crucial that we start by understanding the needs and priorities of children. This is not always easy because our own experience as adults often form the basis of what we would like our children to know.

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants should be able to:

1. Identify the lifeskills needs for children in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills.
2. Prioritise the needs of children as a basis for a life skills programme.

Time: 30-45 minutes

Materials

Pieces of paper, each with a value, skill or knowledge, large sheets of paper, markers, target board such as the one below.


What are the Priorities of Children

Procedure

1. Prepare packs of cards of knowledge, skills and values. Use a different colour for each component (i.e. blue for knowledge cards, yellow for skills and white for attitudes)

2. Explain to the participants the purpose of this activity: identifying the needs of children.

3. Divide the participants into groups of 4/5 and give each group a pack of cards.

4. Ask the group members to draw a target board with 3 circles (see above).

5. Ask participants to read each card and discuss where to place it on the target depending on how important they think it is. If there are other cards that they reject, they should place them outside the target. If there is any disagreement on where a card should be placed, they should discuss until agreement is reached or leave turned over. Some ‘blank’ cards should also be provided to allow participants to write their own.

6. Ask the groups to reconvene. Get some feed back on which colour or cards were placed where. What was the mixture of knowledge, skills and attitudes in the central area?

7. On the basis of their answers, discuss:

(i) What they feel would be priority areas for a life skills programme for children, and why?

(ii) What are/is the role of knowledge attitude and skills vis-a-vis this exercise?

(iii) What they would consider to be the four most important knowledge, skills and attitudes components?

Hints

· Make sure you have prepared enough sets of cards in advance.

To be put on the cards

Statements on knowledge and understanding:

· Sources of legal information and advice.
· Similarities and differences between themselves and others.
· Decision making in a democracy.
· Rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
· Nature of relationships in families, peer groups, friendships and work.
· How they can cause changes for better or worse.
· Legal and moral aspects of sexual relationships and marriage.
· The nature of rules and law.
· Nature of work/career opportunities.
· Human growth - awareness of emotional, psychological and social development.
· Their own personality, needs, abilities, interests.
· Healthy living.
· How to deal with situations if they are bullied or abused.
· Drink.
· Drugs.
· Driving.

Statements on attitudes/qualities:

· Independence of mind
· Self-knowledge.
· Sense of humour.
· Self-criticism.
· Rationality.
· Determination.
· Patience.
· Perseverance.
· Empathy.
· Commitment.
· Self-reliance/self-discipline/self-respect
· Self-esteem.
· Sense of fairness/respect for processes of law and legal rights of others.
· Honesty.
· Consideration for others.
· Tolerance.
· Respect for ways of life, opinions and ideas of others.

Statements on skills:

· Cope confidently and effectively with unfamiliar people or situations.
· Being actively involved.
· Present coherent arguments.
· Goal setting and action planning.
· Teamwork.
· Asking for help.
· Creativity.
· Managing information including taking instruction.
· Making and taking decisions.
· Communication.
· Use available evidence to make sensible choices.
· Learn from mistakes.
· Imagination.
· Take initiatives and act responsibly.
· Behaving assertively in appropriate circumstances.
· Leadership.
· Take initiatives.

WORKSHOP C: INTRODUCING LIFE SKILLS CONCEPTS

Introduction

Explaining the concepts of life skills to a group of trainees can become a dull and boring chalk and talk affair. In order to prevent this, it is suggested that the facilitator engage the participants with an activity so that most of the concepts can be elicited from them.

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants should be able to:

1. Identify the life skills present and lacking in the role play.
2. Explain the importance of life skills.
3. Explain the interrelationship between life skills and culture.

Time: 30-45 minutes

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers or chalk and chalk board.

Procedure

1. Ask for 6 volunteers to act in the role play ‘Mutonyi’s dilemma’, Mutonyi, her father, her uncle, uncle’s friend and two children.

2. Volunteers act the following role play:

Mutonyi finds her father lying on the bed with a very severe attack of malaria. She tries to rouse him but he can hardly speak. She runs to her uncle’s house to get help. Her uncle is talking with a friend. Mutonyi fears to interrupt them so she sits some distance away. Uncle notices Mutonyi is uneasy and looks at her inquiringly but Mutonyi just looks down nervously. At the same time she keeps on moving nearer to the uncle whenever she thinks he isn’t looking at her.

Finally the uncle turns and asks her in a firm voice what the problem is. Mutonyi reveals that her father is seriously sick. The uncle is shocked and asks Mutonyi why she didn’t tell him at once. Mutonyi just looks down at the ground. The uncle runs with his friend to see his brother.

3. Ask participants to form groups and write the following questions on the chalk board.

(i) Why did Mutonyi go to her uncle’s house?
(ii) What problem did she face when she arrived there? What did she do? Why?
(iii) Do girls in your area behave like Mutonyi? Why?
(iv) If you were Mutonyi what would you have done in that situation?
(v) What qualities does Mutonyi have? What qualities does she need to develop?

4. Group leaders present their answers to the rest.

5. Facilitator wraps up by discussing the life skills identified and the way they interact with cultural issues.

Learning points

· Mutonyi’s lack of assertiveness was a definite drawback in this situation.

· Her lack of assertiveness is connected with cultural norms and socialisation. For example, girls/women must not look into the eyes of men when talking, as a sign of submission.

Hints

· Ensure that you have read through Section 1 of the manual, especially the sub-section on ‘what are life skills’.

· Participants may not use the life skills terminologies used in this manual. This does not matter as it is the underlying concepts, not the terminologies that are important. The terminologies can come later.

Extension activity

1. If there is time, the role play can be repeated with slight changes in roles. Mutonyi now tries desperately to tell her uncle what has happened but he glares at her and tells her to keep quiet when he is talking to his friend.

2. Facilitator leads the discussion on the role of culture and its effect on life skills with the aim of finding a marriage between the two.

WORKSHOP D: ATTITUDES TO LIFE SKILLS

Objectives

By the end of the workshop, participants should be able to:

1. Express their opinions on life skills
2. Analyse reservations to life skills
3. Reach a consensus about the role and place of life skills education

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Copies of the ‘Attitudes to Life’ questionnaire. (Alternatively the facilitator can write the questionnaire on the chalkboard/large sheet of paper.

Procedure

1. Give each participant a copy of the following questionnaire. For each statement ask them to write (A) if they agree, (D) if they disagree and (?) if they are not sure or are neutral.


Figure

Attitudes to Life Skills Questionnaire

(i) Life skills education goes against Ugandan culture

(ii) The most important life skill is passing examinations

(iii) We should base our teaching on the experiences and knowledge children already have.

(iv) The problem with life skills is that they only talk about sex.

(v) Life skills should be learnt in life, not in school.

(vi) Using the cane should be banned in school.

(vii) Life skills should be the basis of the school curriculum.

(viii) Knowledge by itself is like uncooked maize flour, potentially good and nutritious, but only if cooked with other ingredients.

2. Divide the participants into groups of five or six in order to discuss their answers.

3. Groups report back to the plenary and final discussion is carried out.

WORKSHOP E: AIMS OF LIFESKILLS EDUCATION

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants should be able to:

1. Explain the main aims of life skills education
2. Prioritise the different life skills needed
3. Develop a ‘mission statement’ on the direction and focus of life skills education.

Time: 30-45 minutes

Materials

A set of statements for each group, ‘diamond’.


Figure

Procedure

1. Divide participants into groups of three to five. Handout sets of statements on the aims of lifeskills to each group.

2. Participants discuss the aims in their groups ranking them as most important, important, least important.

3. Participants arrange the aims (or their corresponding numbers) in a diamond pattern as shown in the diagram.

4. Participants are asked to write one more aim to make a total of 9 and fit it in their ranking.

5. Participants go round looking at how the other groups have ranked their aims.

6. Facilitator summarizes groups views and makes conclusive comments basing them on what the participants have come up with.

7. Groups try do decide upon a statement that captures the main aim of life skills education. This can then form the ‘mission statement.

DIAMOND ‘9’ AIMS OF LIFE SKILLS

(Photocopy/Write and Cut to Make a Set)

1

(i) To provide knowledge and information about human relationships and lifestyles.

2

(ii) To promote positive attitudes towards cultural, ethnic and religious diversity, gender equality and people with special needs.

3

(iii) To promote an individual’s self confidence, self esteem and self worth.

4

(iv) To explore feelings and emotions in order to create a greater self awareness and to develop the skills to manage them.

5

(v) To create an ethos in which self discipline and respect for others are important values.

6

(vi) To provide equal opportunities for each student to fulfil their personal, social and academic potential.

7

(vii) To teach pupils how to behave.

8

(viii) To make pupils aware of the social, economic and political influences on their behaviour.

9

(ix) Write one of your own.

WORKSHOP F: THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL

Objectives

By the end of the session, participants should be able to:

1. Explain the concept of a health promoting school.
2. Identify those aspects which make a school health promoting or vice versa.
3. Identify those steps that can realistically be taken to make their schools more health promoting.

ACTIVITY ONE

CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEALTH PROMOTING AND DEMOTING SCHOOL

Time: 60 to 80 minutes.

Materials

One copy of the handout ‘Moving from traditional health education towards the health promoting school’ for each participant, large sheets of paper, marker pens.


Figure

Procedure

1. Divide participants into pairs and distribute the handout, “Moving from traditional school health education towards the health promoting school”

2. Explain that each pair will study the handout. It has two columns, one entitled “TRADITIONAL HEALTH EDUCATION” and another, “THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL”.

3. Explain that there are 3 dimensions to health, illustrate this on the board or a large sheet of paper, as shown below:

4. Ask each pair to study the handout and reflect on the kind of health education that is most common. Explain that they are free to suggest any additions to either columns. They should discuss and record observations. (20 minutes)

5. Ask each set of three pairs to merge to form groups of 6.

6. Ask half the groups to discuss the characteristics of a ‘health demoting school’ and the other half to discuss the characteristics of a ‘health promoting school’.

7. Handout a large sheet of paper and markers to each group and ask each group to represent their findings pictorially on the paper provided. (30 minutes)

8. Each group presents their findings through showing and describing their pictorial representations.

Moving from traditional school health education towards the health promoting school


TRADITIONAL HEALTH EDUCATION

THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL

1.

Considers health education only in limited classroom terms.

Encourages school and community collaboration for a common good, e.g. protecting water sources.

2.

Emphasises personal hygiene and physical health to the exclusion of wider aspects of health.

Also promotes the spiritual, mental and social well-being of the children

3.

Concentrates on health instructions, acquisition of facts and their application in passing exams.

Emphasises that children practise what they learn, using a wide range of methods and developing skills.

4.

Lacks a coherent, coordinated approach which takes account of other influences and deals with children collectively.

Recognises the wide range of influences and attempts to take account of children’s pre-existing experiences, beliefs, values and attitudes, recognising children’s needs.

5.

Tends to respond to a series of perceived problems.

The school follows a life skills promoting curriculum.

6.

Takes limited account of psychosocial factors.

Views the development of a positive self-image as central to the promotion of good health; also views individuals as taking increasing control of their lives.

7.

Recognises the importance of the school and its environment only to a limited extent.

Recognises the importance of the physical environment of the school in terms of aesthetics and direct physiological effects on children and staff.

8.

Does not consider actively the health and well being of staff - measures their worth by the number of children who pass exams.

Views health promotion in the school as relevant to staff well being and recognises the importance of staff as a role model.

9.

Does not involve parents actively in the development of a health education programme.

Considers parental support and cooperation as central to the health promoting school.

10.

Views the role of school health services purely in terms of health screening and disease prevention.

Takes a wider view of school health services which includes screening and disease prevention but also attempts actively to integrate services within the health education curriculum and helps children to become more aware as consumers of health services.


Figure

The following are examples of some of the factors that were highlighted in the pretest.

THE HEALTH DEMOTING SCHOOL

· The only school structures available are dilapidated with hardly any seats or desks for the learners who sit on pieces of wood, logs, mats or even bare floor for seats.

· While it is only the teacher who has a proper desk and chair, s/he demands that every learner must observe maximum cleanliness.

· Within the classroom, the teacher is physically distant from the learners. S/he keeps a bundle of sticks for disciplining offenders. S/he does not refer to this pupils by name, but uses her/his stick to point at them as “You”.

· There are only two classroom blocks on the compound which are built very close together and allow no air to circulate to their occupants who are tightly packed inside them.

· The school meals are cooked in the open, a few paces away from the teachers’ toilet facility, while the pigs feast on the rubbish heap by the cooking site.

· The school has no water supply on the compound. Water is collected from a river, a mile away. Animals drink out of this river, while people wash themselves and their clothes in the same water source. Others defecate or urinate near the river bank.

· The teacher for lack of better recreation, carries a bottle of potent local brew and a few sticks of cigarettes, to the staffroom for company as he marks the children’s homework.

· There is no proper playground. The children play on bare ground, with sharp protruding stones and other objects. If they get hurt, they only rub a little saliva into the cuts.

· There is a box labelled “First Aid” but it has been empty and locked for the last twenty years.

· There is only one toilet facility for the whole school. Pupils commonly walk around and do their business behind the latrine. The latrine is full and overflows but the children have no alternative, even when they have to hold their noses against the stench and wade through swarms of flies.

· The headmaster only appears to give directives which the teachers must execute with no question. There is nothing like staff meetings where discussions can take place.

THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL

· The school is well set up with adequate space, buildings and sufficient sitting/learning facilities.

· The classes are not crowded, and the teachers are concerned with the individual child. They know them and refer to them by their names.

· The Headmaster enjoys a warm relationship with his staff. Staff meetings are held on a regular basis to discuss possible ways of improving their school.

· The teachers are show exemplary behaviour to their learners.

· There is an open communication between the school and the parents concerning the welfare of their children.

· The school designs instructional materials that encourages to participate in helping their children to practice what they learn from school. The parents send their feedback to the school with suggestions about improvement of the school activities.

· The children have well - maintained pitches and fields for various games. Teachers participate in these games too.

· The school encourages child-to-child health activities.

· The school collaborates with the health committees of the community and other organizations to carry out a number of activities such as protecting water sources, road maintenance and construction of health, and toilet facilities.

· The school participates in inter-sectoral link activities such as courses, seminars, workshops and projects.

· The school works hand in hand with the parents to emphasize immunization of all their children.

· The school has a well maintained rubbish pit and holds cleaning sessions to ensure a healthy environment.

· Trees have been planted around the school and flower gardens.

· There is an agricultural project to promote the good nutrition of the children and staff, and also for practical demonstrations.

· The school uses a lifeskills promoting curriculum.

9. Conclude the activity with the following discussion points.

(i) How do you feel about the health situation in your own school?
(ii) What dangers or advantages do you face in such a health situation?
(iii) What are some of the reasons why your school is what it is?
(iv) What role can you play as a member of your school to improve your environment?
(v) Do you share the health information you learn from school with your family why? or why not?

Learning Points

· Participants (Adolescents) need to know that the school is another bigger family where individual has responsibilities and privileges.

· The school reflects what individuals who attend it are in reality. It is contradictory to look smart in a filthy environment.

· Individuals can resolve to ensure a clean environment and can determine to do it.

· The skills emphasized in the above activity are critical and creative thinking and decision making

Hint

· The facilitator is free to use or add whatever may be missing to the descriptions of both the health promoting and demoting schools.

ACTIVITY TWO

HOW TO IMPROVE OUR SCHOOL(S)

Time: 30 to 45 minutes.

Materials

Large sheets of paper, marker pens.

Procedure

1. Participants brainstorm on ways of making their school more “health promoting”.

2. Write their responses on the board or large pieces of paper. (20 minutes)

3. Explain to the participants that no change or improvement can happen overnight. A number of stages have to be followed which calls for prioritization or putting the most important or urgent items or activities first, followed by those of lesser importance.

4. Participants prioritize the suggestions listed previously.

5. Since it is impossible to deal with all the items at once, ask the participants to pick the first 3 - 5 items on the list and prepare practical aims and strategies for turning them into reality.

6. Write the following on the board/large sheet of paper.

Aim

Strategy

1...........

...........

2...........

...........

3...........

...........

4...........

...........

5...........

...........

7. Lead the participants to determine their own aims. The following may be some of their responses:

· to plant flowers around the school.
· to maintain a clean and hygienic toilet environment.
· to keep our compound free of litter. (10 minutes)

8. Lead the participants to brainstorm on possible strategies to achieve their aims.

The following may feature as some of their responses:

· each one of us should carry a flower seedling from home every Monday morning.
· each of us should clean and disinfect our toilet facility.
· we should prepare ground rules to ensure that no rubbish is thrown around our compound.

These are just examples. The facilitator is free to adapt them.

9. Conclude the activity by taking the participants through the following discussion points.

(i) What did you learn from the activity?

(ii) What responsibilities do you think you have towards developing a health promoting school?

(iii) What do you hope to do about it?

(iv) Can you come up with your own action plan to take up a specific responsibility? (Explain that each individual will have to make their own action plan which they will carry out throughout the term - pin these action plans at the back of the classroom with their names. The plan may be in just one sentence).

Learning points

· It takes individual determination to effect a change. So each individual must play their part.

· The efforts of improving health needs a lot of voluntarism. No body should be forced, but will need motivation.

· Some of the skills encouraged in this activity are critical thinking, creative thinking, problem solving and decision making.

WORKSHOP G: PROMOTING SELF ESTEEM IN SCHOOL

Introduction

Self-esteem is an important factor in developing and promoting self-confidence in the students. Students of high self-esteem usually tend to behave positively and feel secure and confident.

In school self-esteem is usually developed in the students by the teachers and adults there. When students come to school their self-esteem may be boosted and made secure by the teaching and non-teaching staff of the school. This is only possible when the behaviour of members of staff towards students is supportive and warm. However when staff behaviours towards the student are destructive, their self-esteem becomes battered and damaged.

Objectives

By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:

1. Identify teacher behaviours which are destructive or constructive to the students’ self-esteem in class and school.

2. Analyse the implications of the school rules, regulations and practices

3. Identify and practice some of the practical activities which will promote self esteem of the students.

ACTIVITY

HOW TO PROMOTE SELF-ESTEEM IN OUR SCHOOL(S)

Time: 30 to 45 minutes.

Materials

Large sheets of paper, marker pens.

Procedure

1. Introduce the objective of this session and explain the concept of self-esteem in students and how important it is to health related behaviour (See introduction to this workshop and the subsection on what are life skills in Section One of this manual)

2. Divide the group into pairs using an appropriate method

3. Ask the participants in each pair to recount to one another some of the experiences which they underwent as a result of their teachers’ behaviour towards them. These experiences may have been destructive or constructive to their esteem.

4. Ask pairs to join together to form groups of four. Each group should list teacher behaviours in two columns as given in the sample below:

Constructive teacher behaviour

Destructive teacher behaviour

· Kindness - being friendly, listening to students, motivating students.

· Supportive - showing concern about student lives, wishing them success, acknowledging their efforts, encouraging discussion

· Fair and impartial - avoidance of discrimination on sex, tribe, religion, socio-economic background, home location, political affiliation.

· Keeping time and promises made to students.

· Respect for child rights.

· Beating, bullying, using bad language towards student.

· Sarcasm, belittling, ridiculing, favoritism, finger pointing, victimization and use of ‘you’ instead of names.

· Sexual abuse, flirting in class, use of degrading, impolite language.

· Drunkenness, shabbiness, lateness, telling lies to students.

· Bad handwriting, being unprepared.

· Making unfair demands on the students.

5. Each group displays and explains their list

6. Process the results with the participants by asking:

(i) Which of the two lists was difficult to compose and why?
(ii) Which items on their lists are part of school rules?
(iii) Which items did not match their expectations?
(iv) Which items went contrary to child rights?
(v) How do these teacher behaviours affect student’s self esteem?
(vi) How will they apply what they have learnt in this session to boost the self esteem of their students?

Extension activity

Ask participants to discuss:

(i) How they could apply what they have learned to their own family and community members.

(ii) How they could encourage parents to promote the self-esteem of their children who are still at home i.e. pre-school kids.

(introduction...)

INTRODUCTION

This section begins with a summary sheet. This lists all the topics and subtopics, suggesting Life Skills for each Unit.

The tables following are arranged in five columns and provide a detailed explanation of the linkages between the subtopics and the Life Skills.

The first column gives the class under consideration.

The second column presents the content within each Unit.

The third presents the suggested Life Skills that are considered suitable for development while teaching the given subtopic. This is not a prescriptive list. The teacher may feel that there are other more pertinent skills for her/his context. These suggestions are directional guidelines.

The fourth column outlines the general characteristics and needs of the learners. Again, the teacher may feel that his/her group has slightly different characteristics and needs. In such a case, a teacher may adapt the materials to meet these, or write some new activities (see Section Five of this manual).

Column five suggests the variety of methodologies that would foster the development of knowledge, attitudes and skills in a Life Skills context. There are also references to the Sara Communication Initiative (SCI) and the Child Rights Convention (CRC). The methodologies are not prescriptive. The teacher may choose any child-centred approach that will lead to active as opposed to passive learning by the children. The emphasis is that while learning content (knowledge), children should develop skills and attitudes that will enable them to use what has been learnt for their own healthy growth and development. The Life Skills components will have an influence upon their health behaviour.

Key




Self Awareness

SA

Peer Resistance

PR

Self Esteem

SE

Negotiation

NG

Assertiveness

AS

Conflict Resolution

CR

Coping with Emotion

CE

Effective Communication

EC

Coping with Stress

CS

Critical Thinking

CT

Interpersonal Relationships

IR

Creative Thinking

CRT

Friendship Formation

FF

Decision Making

DM

Empathy

EM

Problem Solving

PS

SUMMARY - TOPICS AND LIFE SKILLS

SECTION

CLASS S1

LIFE SKILLS

CLASS S2

LIFE SKILLS

CLASS S3

LIFE SKILLS

CLASS S4

LIFE SKILLS

A: HEALTH

10, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0

IR, EC, FF, CE, CS, CT, PS, CRT, PR, AS, NG





B: PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

1.1, 1.2, 2.0

PS, IR, AS, IR, CT, DM, EC, CRT

3.1, 3.2, 3.3

SA, EM, IR, PR, DM, AS, EC, NG, PS, CR

4.1, 4.2, 4.3

CE, EM, SA, EC, AS, CRT, IR, PS

5.0

IR, EC, NG, DM

C: OUR ENVIRONMENT

1.0,41, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5

SA, CT, IR, EC, CRT, EM, CE

2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5

CT, CRT, PS, SA, EM, IR

3.7, 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6

CT, CRT, PS, DM

7.1, 7.21, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6

CT, DM, PS, SA, CRT, EC, CT, IR, CRT, PS, IR

D: WATER AND ENVIRONMENT SANITATION

1.0, 1.1

CT, PS

1.1, 1.2

CT, CRT, PS, DM, SA

1.3

CT, CRT, PS

1.4

CT, CRT, PS, AS

E: FOOD AND NUTRITION

1.0,1.1, 1.2, 2.0

DM, CRT

3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0

DM, PS, CT, AS, PR, EC, SA, CRT

7.0, 8.0, 9.0

CT, CRT, DM

10.0, 11.0, 12.0

CRT, CT, SA, PS, DM

F: FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS

1.0, 1.1, 1.2

IR, SA, NG, CT, CE, CS, EM, EC, CR

2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 3.0

CT, SA, IR, DM, PR, PS, CR, CRT, AS, CE, EC

4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3

IR, EC, NG, CR, DM, CS, SA, PR



G: MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH



1.0, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5

CE, PS, SA, NG, MD, EM, CT, AS

3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 4.0, 4.1

DM, PS, CT, CRT, SA, EM, CS, CE, PR

42, 4.3

DM, CT

H: IMMUNIZATION

1.0, 1.1, 3.0, 4.0

CT, DM, PS, (SA, DM)

2.0, 5.0

DM





I: COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

1.0, 2.0, 6.0, 8.0


2.0,2.1, 2.2, 4.0, 4.1

CT, CRT, PS, SA, EM, IR

5.0, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3


2.1, (2.2)

J: NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES



1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 5.0, 6.0

CT, PS, DS

3.0, 3.1, 4.0, 4.2

CT, PS, SA, CS, EM, CE,

2.0,2.1, 2.2

SA, CT, AS, SE, EM, FF

K: MENTAL HEALTH

1.0, 1.1, 1.2

CT, SA, CS, CE, EM, IR, EC, FF





2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0

CT, SA, CS, CE, IR, EM, FF, PR, CR

L: ORAL HEALTH

1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 2.0, 3.0

CT, SA, DM, AS, IR, PS

4.0, 5.0

CT, DM, PS, PR, EC, SA





M: ESSENTIAL DRUGS

1.0, 1.1, 2.1, 3.5

CT, DM, AS, PS, CR, PR, CT, PS

2.3, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4

DM, PS, CT, AS, PR, CRT

2.0, 2.4

CT, PR, DM, PS, SA



N: ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID

1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0

CT, PR, EC, PS, AS

4.3, 4.4, 5.1, 6.0, 7.0

CT, PS, DM, AS, EM, EC

8.0, 9.0, 10.0

DM, PS, PR, CE, CT, SA



O: ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM

1.0, 1.1,

CT, DM, PT, AS, PS

1.3, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2

CT, DM, PR, SA, PS, CE

1.0, 2.3

CT, DM, PR, SA

3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3

CT, SA, DM, PR

P: SMOKING



1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.1, 4.0, 4.1, 5.0, 5.1, 6.0, 6.1

PR, CE, CS, DM, CR, SA, AS, SE, CT





Q: DRUG DEPENDENCE



1.0,2.0

SA, CT, SE, DM, PR, AS, CS, CE, EC

3.0, 4.0, 5.0

CE, PR, SA, SE

7.0, 8.0, 9.0

CT, DM, AS, PR, FF, CR, NG

R: TRADITIONAL & RELIGIOUS BELIEFS



1.0, 1.1, 1.2

CT, AS, SA, DM, PR

2.0, 2.1, 2.2

CT, AS, PR, SA



S: BODY SYSTEMS

1.0, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4

SA, CT

5.0, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6

SA, CT

3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3

CT, SA, DM, PR, SE

8.0, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3

SA, SE, CE, CS, PR

T: HEALTH SERVICES IN UGANDA





1.2, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4

IR, CT, CRT



A FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING LIFE SKILLS WITHIN THE SECONDARY HEALTH EDUCATION SYLLABUS

CLASS

SECTION

SUGGESTED LIFE SKILLS

RATIONALE FOR LIFE SKILLS

DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE SKILLS

Senior 1

SECTION A:
OUR HEALTH

Characteristics
Rapid changes (physiological emotional/ psychological, physical)
Egocentric
Sense of belonging (identity)

Needs
Need to understand themselves, the changes within and around them
Need to cope and act positively in the given circumstances
Healthy living/positive behaviour
Avoidance of risky behaviours

Methodology
Role play - autobiographies
Case studies - picture codes/cards
Information
Fieldwork exercises/ sessions
Situations

Sara Communication Initiative (SCI) - Female Genital Mutilation story


1.0 Concept of health

TR, EC




2.0 Physical wellbeing

FF, CE, CS




3.0 Mental wellbeing

FF, CE




4.0 Spiritual wellbeing

IR, FF




5.0 Spiritual wellbeing

SA, IT




6.0 Health Education and promotion of Health

CT, PS, EC, CRT, PR AS, NG



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION B:
PRIMARY HEALTH CARE (PHC)

Characteristics
Egocentric
Narrow world view
Adventurous
Strong peer influence
Body changes (physiological, e.g. menstruation, physical changes)

Needs
Sense of direction
Identify, appreciate problems around them
Take appropriate action

Methodology
Case studies - community work (clean the place of an elderly)
Field trips (visit PHC Units extension)
Role plays

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 24: The child has a right to enjoy good health


1.0 Concept of PHC

PS, IR, AS




1.2 Philosophy of PHC

IR, CT, DM, EC, CRT




2.0 Essential elements of PHC

CRT, PS, CT, DM, AS, EC



Senior 2
(14 to 16
years)

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
Continued

Characteristics
Energetic/active
Risk takers
Strong sense of independence
On top of the world ‘dreamers’
In search of identity
Narrow world view
Seek attention (or attention seekers
Impulsive

Needs
To be understood
Love
Guidance and counselling
Answers to life realities (myths and misconceptions)

Methodology
Case studies
Field trips
Role plays (at more advanced level than S1)
Talk shown in role impersonation - narrative research

CRC
Article 23: (Leisure), punishment
Article 24, section 2


3.1 The role of the individual

SA, EM, IR, PR, DM, AS, EC, NG




3.2 The role of the family in PHC

IR, EC, DM, PS, EM




3.3 The role of the community in PHC

IR, EC, DM, PS, EM, CR, AS



Senior 3 (15 to 16 years)

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
Continued

Characteristics
Carefree with 2 extremes (either too caring, sympathetic or too indifferent, hurting)
Hyper-sensitive (themselves vis-a-vis the other world)
Identity - anxious to be adults
Analytical
For strong peer groupings
Fear of rejections

Needs
Knowledge and awareness of themselves and others around them especially those with special needs
Appreciate roles/responsibilities to others
Self-motivation to action
Spirit of tolerance

Methodology
Case studies - able-bodied vis-a-vis disabled
Role play (Note: when somebody is disabled, it does not mean they are disadvantaged, need pity, etc.)
Quotes - “Disability is not inability”, etc. - for material development; have a character role for a disabled

CRC
Article 23: A disabled child has a right to enjoy a decent life


4.0 Responsibility of the individual family - communities for the weak, sick, disabled and displaced





4.1 The individual

EM, SA (of special needs of others or self if you are disabled)




4.2 The family

EC, AS, CRT, CE




4.3 The community

IR, PS, EC, EM, CRT, CE, DM, NG



Senior 4 (16 to 18 years)

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
Continued

Characteristics
Want independence - anxious about future
Want to be noticed (as adults)
Want to be involved/participate in planning for what concerns, touches them
Search for emotional attachment and support with the opposite sex

Needs
For society to appreciate them and their contribution as potentially responsible community members
To be involved in broad activities
Understanding not be judged
To be entrusted in making decisions
Need to be trusted as individuals

Methodology
Case study
Role plays, scenarios
Projects
Responsibility of the child
Respect of parents, etc.
Work for cohesion of the family

CRC
Article 24: A child has a right to enjoy a healthy life


Principles of PHC

IR, EC, NG, DM



Senior 1 (14 to 16 years)

SECTION C: OUR ENVIRONMENT

Characteristics
Looking for connections and explanations (cause - effect)
Impressionable, moldable
Playful, energetic
Identity is more with the peer group
Creative, improvise a lot
Need/copy of popular characters

Needs
Appreciate the role of play, recreation
To create values, connections
Need for positive role models

Methodology
Informational (illustrations, scenarios for discussion)
Demonstration - play (using day-to-day activities)
Performance activity
Micro play

Child Rights Convention
Leisure and recreation
Article 29, 1c, 1d (Article 26) for character building
SCI


1.0 The environment





4.1 Family and community

SA, CT, IR




4.2 Education and its institutions

IR, SA, EC




4.3 Religion

SA, CT, IR




4.4 Play and act

SA, CRT, EM, CE




4.5 The place of science and philosophy in society

CT, CRT



Senior 2



Characteristics
Explorers
Experimental
Inquisitive
Prone to mistakes

Needs
To understand the environment and their relationship to environment

Methodology
Field trips and excursions
Experiments in the environment
Group work/projects
Debating/group discussions
Case studies

CRC
Clean and safe water
Protection of the environment
Article 29, 1e


2.0 Physical environment





2.1 Water

CT, CRT, PS




2.2 Air

CT, CRT, PS




2.3 Edaphic (soil) factors

CT, CRT, PS




2.4 Temperature

CT, CRT, PS




2.5 Light

CT, CRT, PS




3.0 Biological environment





3.1 Plants

CRT, CT, PS




3.2 Animals

CRT, CT, EM




3.3 Insects

CRT, CT, EM




3.4 Micro organisms

CRT, CT, PS




3.5 Man

SA. CRT, CT, EM, IR



Senior 3 (15 to 17 years)

OUR ENVIRONMENT
Continued

Characteristics
Academic point of view - getting more focussed
Generally more focussed, becoming realistic

Needs
Guidance and direction
Their role as individuals to the environment

Methodology
Classroom discussions
Field trips and excursions
Projects/report of findings

CRC
Protection of the environment (Article 29, 1e)
Responsibilities - patriotism

SCI - making of the smokeless stove


3.7 The Ecosystem

CT




5.0 Environment conservation





5.1 Air

CT




5.2 Water

CT




5.3 Land

CT, CRT




5.4 Forests

CT, CRT




5.5 Wildlife

CT, CRT




6.0 Environment pollution





6.1 Air pollution

CT, CRT, PS




6.2 Water pollution

PR, DM, CT, PS




6.3 Soil pollution

PS, IR, DM




6.4 Noise

CT, PS




6.5 Impact of environmental pollution

CT, CRT, PS




6.6 Prevention of pollution

CT, EC, DM



Senior 4

OUR ENVIRONMENT
Continued


Characteristics
Decisive stage of life
Academic - state of flux (some aiming high, others have given up)
Emotional, some sexually active, esteem based on academics

Needs
Need to ‘tune’ them up for responsible adulthood
Guidance and direction, support and encouragement
Counselling - need to see value and relevance of the Topics
Career guidance

Methodology
Field trips and excursions
Group discussions
External speakers/guests, lecturers

CRC
Article 24, 27 - Right to health and proper nutrition


7.0 Population





7.1 Shortage of food, water, oxygen

CT, DM




7.2 Diseases

CT, PS, SA, CRT, IR




7.3 Lack of shelter

CRT, DM, PS




7.4 Accumulation of waste

CT, PS




7.5 Psychological stress

CE, CS, EM, IR, RS




7.6 Shortage of social services

PS, CT, CS, AS




7.7 Degradation of environment

CT, CRT, EC, PC




8.0 Environment





8.1 Law of the environment

AS, CRT, PS




8.2 Why environment should be protected

CT, IR



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION D:
WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION


Characteristics
Looking for connections and explanations (cause - effect)
Impressionable, moldable
Playful, energetic
Identity is more with the peer group
Creative, improvise a lot
Need/copy of popular characters

Needs
Appreciate the role of play, recreation
To create values, connections
Need for positive role models

Methodology
Informational
Picture codes
Site visits to different water sources

SCI


1.0 The definition of Sanitation





1.1 Domestic water supply

CT, PS



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
Continued

Characteristics
Explorers
Experimental
Inquisitive (questioning)
Prone to mistakes

Needs
To understand the environment and their relationship to environment
To understand their personal role in conserving the environment
Skills to be pro-active about

Methodology
Newspaper articles
Group discussions
Case studies
Role plays

CRC
Articles


1.1 Domestic water supply

PS, CRT, CT




1.2 Proper housing for rural and urban areas

DM, CT, CRT, PS, SA



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
Continued

Characteristics
Getting more focussed academically
Getting more focussed, becoming realistic

Needs
Guidance and direction
Their role as individuals to the environment (safety, cleanliness)

Methodology
Excursions/field trips
Case studies, stories

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Safe water Article

SCI


1.3 Refuse and excreta disposal

CRT, PS, CT, IR



Senior 4
(16 to 19 years)

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
Continued

Characteristics
Decisive stage of life
Academic - state of flux (some aiming high, others have given up
Emotional - some sexually active, esteem based on academics

Needs
Need to ‘tune’ them up for responsible adulthood
Guidance and direction, support and encouragement
Counselling - need to see value and relevance of the Topics
Career guidance

Methodology
Excursion/field trips
Case studies, stories

SCI
Sara makes a smokeless stove


1.4 Urbanisation and Environmental Sanitation

CT, PS, CRT, AS



Senior 1 (13 to 15 years)

SECTION E:
FOOD AND NUTRITION

Characteristics
Growing up very rapidly
Physiological changes (e.g. menstruation)

Needs
Students to understand/appreciate body nutrition needs
Importance of and appreciation of food groups
Broaden/widen their perception of the world view
Equal access to food (boys and girls)

Methodology
Display of different food types
Guided discussions
Case studies

CRC
Equal access to food
Article


1.0 Food and nutrition (concept)

DM, CRT




1.1 Food stuffs





1.2 Staple food





2.0 Food path (concept)




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)



Characteristics
Boys have enhanced appetites
Some girls are conscious about their figures and so, do not want to eat
Both boys and girls are easily influenced by what media (TV, films, magazines) portray as fashionable

Needs
Appreciate that different groups have different nutritional requirements
Nutritional needs according to sex and age
Appreciate the need to diversify food

Methodology
Case studies
Role plays
Site visits - markets, ‘Mwana Mugimu,’ etc. Child responsibilities (about food wastage, etc.)

CRC
Right of access to food, etc.
Article 27, 2b

SCI
Improvise a story


3.0 Food security

DM, PS




4.0 Basic nutrition requirements

CT, PR




5.0 Food composition and consumption

CT, EC, SA




6.0 Malnutrition

CRT, DM, AS




6.1 Nutritional deficiencies

CRT, DM, AS




6.2 Over- and under-nutrition

CRT, DM, AS




6.3 Food fadism and taboos

CRT, DM, AS




6.4 Growth monitoring

CRT, DM, AS



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

FOOD AND NUTRITION
Continued

Characteristics
Girls are more involved in food handling and preparation
Involvement in farming practices, harvesting
Often wasteful of food

Needs
Equal (boy - girl) participation in domestic chores
Attitude change towards domestic chores

Methodology
Role plays
Child responsibilities about food wastage, etc.
Case studies, stories
Group discussions

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 27, 2b

SCI
Stories’ improvisation
Meena Initiative - “amount of food”


7.0 Food preparation

CT, CRT




8.0 Food for special groups

CT, CRT




9.0 Food preservation

CRT, DM



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

FOOD AND NUTRITION
Continued


Characteristics
Make choices of food according to fashion, appearance and not nutritional value or content
Not conscious of nutritional requirements for different categories of people

Needs
Girls’ figure-watching vis-a-vis nutritional need
Bodies - with heavy food demands - need to take care of what they eat (Caution: Junk food)

Methodology
Stories, true life experiences, testimonies
Discussions
Child responsibilities about food shortage

CRC
Article 27, 2b

SCI


10.0 Food additives

CRT, SA




11.0 Food for special groups

CT, CRT




12.0 Planning meals

CRT, PS, DM



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION F:
FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Characteristics
Prone to comparing own home to those of peers
Mental picture of desired home
Easily pushed down into
Look for exemplary behaviour in parents and adults
Forming habits, values and beliefs
Great peer influence

Needs
Gender rules and stereotypes
Appreciation of ‘own’ family environment members
Skills to cope with the immediate and wider world... Conflicting values, etc.
Need protection, loving environment
Appreciate self - identity, values, beliefs

Methodology
Testimonies
Role plays
Case studies - posters, picture codes

CRC
Right to grow up in protected environment, etc.
Articles 5, 6, 9, 10.2

Sara Communication Initiative (SCI)

Meena Communication Initiative (MCI)


1.0 Family structure

IR, SA, NG, CT, CE, CS, EM, EC, CR



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Continued

Characteristics
To improve ‘manhood’, ‘womanhood’
Moving away from family circles to peer groups
Easily taken up with fantasy
High appreciation

Needs
Answers to their questions
Sort out myths and misconceptions, focussed expectations
Freedom, peer formation - need understanding adults
Guidance, counselling, love and affection

Methodology
Stories - fantasies of the youth vs reality, career and role models
Case studies, testimonies
Role plays, scenarios

CRC
Articles 13, 14, 15, 16

SCI
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

2.0 Growth and Development

CT, SA, IR, DM




2.1 Adolescence and puberty

PR, PS, CR




2.2 Culture and adolescence

CRT, AS




3.0 Juvenile deliquency

CR, CS



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Continued

Characteristics
Sensitive and easily breaks down emotionally
Prone to mental stress
Seek for perfect associations

Needs
To appreciate reality vis-a-vis utopia
Character building - concretisation of own principles, values and beliefs
Pursuit of a dream - career, own goals, etc.
Need skills to persevere
Security and understanding

Methodology
Research findings, newspaper excerpts
Case studies, testimonies
Stories, talk shows

CRC
Article 19
Law on Child Defilement (Penal Code)


4.0 Abnormal family

IR, EC, NG, CR




4.1 Cultural factors

DM




4.2 Effects of abnormal family relationship

CE, CS, SA




4.3 Prevention and treatment

PS



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Continued

Characteristics
Sexually active
Dream about making homes and having babies
Prone to unwanted pregnancy
Risk-takers, prone to infection that could affect baby if one became pregnant

Needs
Correct information about dangers of adolescent pregnancy and death
Awareness of causes of child deaths

Methodology
Case study
Research and projects
Group discussions

CRC
Article 24


4.2 Common causes of child deaths

DM, CT




4.3 Prevention of child deaths




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION G:
MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

Characteristics
Getting closer to the opposite sex than own
Sexually active
Daring and risk-takers
Fanatical about religious or traditional beliefs

Needs
Access to adolescent counselling and reproductive services
Guidance into responsible sexual behaviour, choices and positive attitudes
Demystification of traditional myths, beliefs and values
Access to correct information about pregnancy/abortion and the risks of becoming child-mothers

Methodology
Group discussions
Informational - illustrations
Case studies
Films, video - right for girls to remain in school even if pregnant
Talk shows

CRC
Articles 34, 35
Article 28, 1e
Article 28, 2
Article 29, 1a

SCI
Sara waits/abstains


1.0 Maternal and child welfare





2.0 Pre-natal, antenatal, post-natal





2.1 Pre-natal

CE, PS, SA, NG, DM




2.2 Pregnancy (ante-natal)

SA




2.3 Pregnancy (natal)

EM, CT, PS




2.4 Pregnancy (post-natal)

CE, EM




2.5 Family planning (Population Policy)

CT, AS, NG




2.6 Reproductive health




Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH
Continued

Characteristics
Obsessed with beauty through directing or starvation
Non-selective about foods - eat plenty of sweets
Prone to peer pressure to belong to a certain class - “slim”, tall, etc.
Conscious about self-image, appearance

Needs
Demystification of traditional myths, beliefs and values
Guidance in responsible sexual behaviour - choices and attitudes
Girl children need protection from exploitation, manipulation and sexual abuse
Guidance into self-appreciation

Methodology
Law, films - “Consequences”, “More time”, “Making choices”
Case studies, stories
Talk shows

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 34, a, b, c

SCI
FGM


3.0 Maternal and child nutrition

DM, PS, CT




3.1 Child nutrition

CRT, SA




3.2 Maternal nutrition

CT, EM, CS, CE




4.0 Maternal and child death

CT, PS, SA, PR




4.1 Common causes of maternal deaths




Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION H:
IMMUNISATION

Characteristics
No time to elaborate things
Enjoy short-cuts
No reason for “drug” if not sick
Take things and life for granted

Needs
Broadening of own perspectives and world view

Methodology
Informational - illustrations
Charts, picture codes
Case studies
Role plays

CRC
Articles 24,1; 24, 2c; 24, 2f; 24, 3

SCI


1.0 Immunity

Cl




1.1 Uses and advantages

DM, PS




3.0 Immunisable diseases

SA, DM




4.0 Immunisation schedule

SA, DM
* tetanus injections for girls who begin menstruation



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

IMMUNISATION
Continued

Characteristics
Sexually active
Daring, ready to take risks
Mixing freely with others

Needs
Stop people taking short-cuts - people should take pains to do the right thing
To be responsible to go the whole way to ensure health

Methodology
Case studies
Visual aids (immunisation cards, etc.)


2.0 Vaccine and Immunisation

DM




5.0 Immunisation and Travel




Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION I:
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Characteristics
Broadening of horizons, to increase awareness of the wider society
Often careless about hygiene
Stage at which they themselves can be vulnerable

Needs
Need to participate in solving problems within the home
Basic principles and values of hygiene

Methodology
Field visits
Group discussions
Role plays, charts and pictures
Guest speakers, health kits, (stories), etc.

CRC
Articles 24, 1; 24, 2; 24, 2f

SCI


1.0 Diseases

CT




3.0 Immunisable diseases

CT, DM, SA




6.0 Contagious diseases

CT, DM, SA, PS




8.0 Diarrhoeal diseases

DM, SA, CT, PS



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Continued

Characteristics
Carefree, since they have left Senior One
Developing sexual consciousness
Friendship formation with the opposite sex
Strong peer influences, share habits and things
Involved in domestic chores at home hence, need relevant information, skills and attitudes
Need to develop/identify personality and individual convictions

Needs
Need awareness and guidance, counselling

Methodology
Films - “Consequences”, “More Time”
Informational - talks, guest speakers and illustrations
Health kits
Role plays
Group discussions

CRC
Article 24, 3

SCI
Problem-solving stories
Sara chooses to wait (abstain from sex)


2.0 Communicable diseases

CT




2.1 Sexually Transmitted diseases

SA, DM, PS




2.2 AIDS

CT, PR, EC, AS, CE, DM, EM, NG




4.0 Water related diseases

CT, DM, PS




4.1 Communicable water-borne diseases

CT, DM, PS



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Continued

Characteristics
Higher mental appreciation
Anxious about life after school
Concerned about academic performance
Some are negligent about hygiene, detach themselves from the possibility of falling ill from these diseases

Needs
Critical thinking and problem-solving skills
To appreciate linkages (cause and effect) of diseases
Appreciate own role in the prevention of transmission of communicable diseases

Methodology
Group discussions, guided discussions
Films, video tapes - “Philly Bongoley Lutaaya”, “Consequences”, “More Time”, other AIDS films (Red Cross)
Invite PWAs (A/C)

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 24, 3


5.0 Vector transmitted diseases

CT, DM, PS




7.0 Airborne diseases

CT, DM, PS




7.1 Communicable diseases

CT, DM, PS




7.2 Non-communicable diseases

CT, DM, PS




7.3 Prevention and control

CT, DM, PS



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Continued

Characteristics
Soon going out of school - either for long holiday or forever
Due to idleness, they are more prone to sexual activity
Anxious about future; some are discouraged after S3 exams/long vacation

Needs
Develop personal conviction
Skills to resist unsafe behaviour
Skills to analyse potentially dangerous situations and how to steer clear of them

Methodology
Guided discussion
Visits to hospitals/health facilities
Films, video tapes - “Philly Bongoley Lutaaya”, “Consequences”, AMREF materials
Projects
Invite PWAs (A/C)


2.1 STDs

CT, SA, DM, PS, PR, AS




2.2 AIDS

CT, PR, EC, AS, CE, DM, EM, NG



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION J:
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Characteristics
Sensitive - conscious about sizes and shapes, figures and weight
Anxious about relationships, careers, academics
Have unrealistic, ambitious goals, expectations (from the world, friends and themselves)
Indescriminate reading (magazines, films, etc.)

Methodology
Testimonials, stories
Case studies, newspapers (Women’s Vision)
Group discussions
Films
Projects about the topic

Child Rights Convention (CRC)
Article 27, 1

SCI


1.0 Concept

CT




1.1 Malnutrition

CT




1.2 Deficiency diseases

PS, DS, SA




1.3 Over-nutrition (obesity)

DM, AS, CT, PR




5.0 Hyper-tension

CT, DM, SA, CE




6.0 Ulcers

SA, CS



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)



Characteristics
High expectation of life; youth do not think about death (“too young to die”)
Tendency to under-estimate the consequences of illness

Needs
Skills to cope with the realities (hence, negligence) about treatment

Methodology
Life experiences, testimonies
Group discussions
Case studies

CRC
Articles 27, 1; 24, 2c

SCI


3.0 Allergies





3.1 Effects and management of allergies

CT, PS, SA




4.0 Diabetes





4.1 Common forms of diabetes

DM, PS, SA




4.2 Effects and management of diabetes

CT, CS, PS, EM, CE



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)



Characteristics
Youth to accept that these things can happen to anyone - learn to handle them
Sensitive - if with defect, it influences self-esteem, feel rejected

Needs
Need to look beyond physical beauty
Acceptance, understanding, counselling

Methodology
Case studies, life experiences, testimonies
Group discussions

CRC
Articles 27, 1; 24, 2c

SCI - develop story


2.0 Inherited abnormalities

SA, EM, FF, IR




2.1 Causes, signs and symptoms

AS, SE




2.2 Prevention and treatment

CT



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION K:
MENTAL HEALTH

Characteristics
Ignorance about mental illness
Superstitions often put forward as explanations
Impressionable - not formed beliefs, values and convictions
In face of difficulties and problems, they fall back to family beliefs

Needs
Need to empathise with the mentally ill

Methodology
Real-life situations
Guest speakers, resource persons (Doctors, Psychiatrists)
Training in use of leisure, recreation

CRC
Articles 23, 1; 24, 3

SCI
Case studies


1.0 Concept of mental health

CT, SA, CS, CE




1.1 Stress

EM, IR, EC, FF




1.2 Types/conditions; signs and symptoms; causes and effects

EM, IR, EC, FF



Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

MENTAL HEALTH
Continued

Characteristics
Anxious about sexual performance
Conflicts between their dreams and the reality
Volatile, want independence
Other specific traits - too bright, cannot cope
Adult-adolescent relationships not ideal, often in conflict

Needs
To learn to face reality

Methodology
Case studies
Guest speakers, resource persons
Guided and informal group discussions
Testimonials

CRC
Articles 23, 1; 23, 2; 24, 3

SCI
Create a story


2.0





3.0 Neurotic illnesses

CT, SA, CS




4.0 Organic psychotic illnesses

CE, EM, IR




5.0 Psychological disorders

EC, FF, PS




6.0 Alcoholism and drug abuse

PS, CR




7.0 Mental disorders with old age

PS, CR




8.0 Sexual disorders

PS, CR




9.0 Mental disorders

PS, CR




10.0 Mental disorders in childhood and adolescence





10.1 Causes, effects, prevention





11.0 Mental disorders associated with AIDS





12.0 Homicide, suicide, attempted suicide





13.0 Legal, Social aspects of mental disorders




Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION L:
ORAL HEALTH

Characteristics
Age-group is a habit-forming stage
Still tied to cultural-background relationship, norms and taboos
Swaying between peer influence and sibling ties, cultural
Vulnerable
Cultural myths and misconceptions still strong on ‘false teeth’

Needs
Guidance on how to care for their mouths
To be able to cope with peer influence
To select cultural practices which will not affect their teeth

Methodology
Informational - practicals, demonstrations (i.e. tooth brushing)
Experiences (sharing life experiences)
Case studies

CRC
Articles 23; 24

SCI
Research (domestic)


1.0 Concept

CT




1.1 The mouth

CT, SA




1.2 Care of the mouth

DM, SA




2.0 Cultural practices

DM, SA




3.0 Effects of poor health care

CT, AS, PR, PS



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

ORAL HEALTH
Continued

Characteristics
Eat indiscriminately, active and do not concentrate on real issues
Strong peer influences, need to identify and belong

Needs
Guidance on types of food to eat

Methodology
Stories
Projects
Case studies, testimonies

CRC
Articles 23; 24

SCI
Develop story


4.0 Diet and oral health

CT, DM, PS




5.0 Drugs and oral health

PR, EC, SA



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION M:
ESSENTIAL DRUGS

Characteristics
Not keen on medication hence, take under/improper dosage
Information obtained from unauthentic sources
Have misconceptions about drugs

Methodology
Field visits to observe storage
Resource persons
Case studies
Testimonies, life experiences
Guided discussions

CRC
Articles 23; 24


1.0 Concept of essential drugs

CT




1.1 Sources of essential drugs

DM, AS, PS, CR, PR




2.1 Drug use and doses

CT, PS




3.5 Storage




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)



Characteristics
Still impressionable and have not formed own convictions

Methodology
Resource persons
Case studies
Group discussions

CRC
Articles 3; 24


2.3 Drug storage and labels

DM, PS, Cl




3.0 Traditional drugs

CT, PR




3.1 Names of drugs

CT, DM




3.2 Diseases cured by traditional drugs

CT, DM




3.3 Sources of traditional drugs

CT, AS, CRT




3.4 Uses and doses




Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)



Characteristics
Peer influences
Have a tendency to underestimate the consequences of misuse
Still experimental

Methodology
Group discussions
Guest speakers, guided discussion
True life experiences

CRC
Article 24


2.0 Pharmaceutical drugs

CT, PR, DM, PS




2.4 Drug abuse/misuse

SA



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION N:
ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID

Characteristics
Adventurous
Lack of information, can be careless
Active - prone to accidents
Experimentation, exploration, curiosity, questioning, looking for answers (cause and effect)

Methodology
Demonstrations, discussions and life experiences
Guest lecturers

CRC
Article 24


1.0 Accidents and first aid. What it is

CT, PR, EC




2.0 Poisoning

PR, PS




3.0 Snakes and snake bites

PS, AS




4.0 Bites and stings

PS, AS




4.1 Animal bites





4.2 Common insect bites





5.0 Burns and scalds




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID
Continued

Characteristics
Adventurous (games quite risky, e.g. climbing trees)
Lack of information, can be careless
Active - prone to accidents
Experimentation, exploration, curiosity, questioning, looking for answers (cause and effect)

Needs
Personal and environmental hygiene, and the relationship between the two
Engaged in practicals, need to take care Involved in domestic chores

Methodology
Practicals, observation in the environment
Demonstrations (for first aid)
Resource persons
Field visits e.g. to health centres/facilities
Group discussions

CRC
Article 24


4.3 Ticks and spiders

CT, PS




4.4 Scorpions and centipedes

CT, PS, DM, AS




5.1 Special types of burns

CT, PS, EM




6.0 Traffic accidents

AS




7.0 Wounds and cuts

CT, PS, EC



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID
Continued


Characteristics
Sensitive age group - disappointment can easily lead to shock (i.e. relationship fantasies)
Youth sexually active

Needs
Need to be aware of HIV/AIDS, since injuries are common
Differentiate from normal period discharge from bleeding

Methodology
Demonstration, group/class discussions
Case studies
Role plays

CRC
Article 24

SCI
Develop story


8.0 Drowning and near drowning

DM, AS, PR




9.0 Shock

PS, DM, CE




10.0 Bleeding

PS, CT, CE, SA



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION O:
ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM


Characteristics
Experimental stage hence, need guidance (i.e. groups trials)
Many are surrounded by alcohol brewers
Surrounded by people that have abused alcohol, living with alcoholics

Needs
Knowledge on effects before starting a habit

Methodology
Group discussions
Role plays
Testimonies, life experiences
Stories, counselling

CRC
Article 24

SCI


1.0 Alcohol

CT, DM




1.1 Types

CT, DM, PR, AS




1.2 Use(s)

PS, CRT, CE, CS



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM
Continued

Characteristics
No solid convictions yet (values, beliefs, etc.)
The habits Victims of certain environments

Needs
Living in environments conducive to starting the habits
Identity - desire to identify

Methodology
Group discussions
Role plays
Testimonies, life experiences
Stories, counselling

CRC
Article 24

SCI


1.3 Short term effects

CT, DM, PR, SA




2.0 Alcoholism





2.1 Causes and effects of alcoholism

PS, CE, CS, NG




2.2 Long term effects




Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM
Continued

Characteristics
Experimental age group
The habits
Victims of certain environments

Needs
Identity - desire to identify
No solid convictions yet (values, beliefs, etc.)
Living in environments conducive to starting the habits

Methodology
Group discussions
Role plays
Testimonies, life experiences
Stories, counselling

CRC
Article 24

SCI


1.0 Alcohol

CT, DM, PR, SA




2.3 Treatment and prevention




Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM
Continued

Characteristics
About to get out of school system (rules, protection)
Feel a big degree of untampered-with freedom
Strong group/peer influences (group, behaviour)

Needs
Want to become ‘adult’
Want to be recognised

Methodology
Guest speaker from a law court, enforcer
Group discussion
Role plays
Testimonies, life experiences
Stories, counselling

CRC
Article 24

SCI


3.0 Alcohol and the Law

CT, SA, DM, PR




3.1 Liquor law





3.2 Other laws pertaining to alcohol





3.3 Shortcomings of law




Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION P:
SMOKING

Characteristics
Critical stage for habit formation
Exploration/experimental stage
Peer influence
Body changes - emotional, physiological
Anxious to become ‘adult’
Emulating role models (film stars, etc.)

Needs
Want to look mature, sophisticated and independent
Want to associate with their peers
Need life skills on this habit

Methodology
Testimonies, true stories
Experiments
Case studies
Role plays
Talk shows
Guest speakers - medics
Films - effects of smoking
Demonstrations

CRC
Articles 33; 14

SCI
Create a story


1.0 Tobacco





1.1 Composition of tobacco

PR, CE, CS




2.0 Different ways of using tobacco

DM, CR




3.0 Reasons for smoking

SA, AS




3.1 Smoking as a habit

SE




4.0 Effects of smoking on a human body





4.1 Active and passive smoking





5.0 Characteristics of smokers





5.1 Drinking of alcohol and smoking





6.0 How to avoid/stop smoking





6.1 Campaign against smoking

CT



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION Q:
DRUG DEPENDENCE

Characteristics
Very adventurous/experimental
In search of an identity (group)
Body changes - emotional, physical

Needs
Knowledge on effects of drug dependence and addiction

Methodology
Resource persons
Case studies
Group discussions

CRC
Articles 33; 34

SCI


1.0 Drugs, dependence and addictions

SA, CT, SE




2.0 Causes of drug dependence

DM, PR, AS, CS, CE, EC



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)



Characteristics
Very adventurous/experimental
In search of an identity (group)
Body changes - emotional, physical

Needs
Skills to avoid drug dependence

Methodology
Resource persons
Case studies
Group discussions

CRC
Articles 33; 34; 3, 24

SCI
Develop a story


3.0 Drugs of dependence

CE, PR, SA




4.0 Consequences of drug dependence

SE, SA




5.0 Treatment of drug dependence





6.0 Prevention of drug dependence




Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)



Characteristics
Getting on into the world, and may be tempted to traffic drugs (mainly about drug trafficking)
Daring and risk-taking age group

Methodology
Group discussions
Guest lecturers
Case studies
Talk shows
Films and videos

CRC
Article 33


7.0 Drug trafficking

CT, DM, AS




8.0 Drug dependence and the law

PR, FF, CR




9.0 International cooperation

CR, NG



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

SECTION R:
TRADITIONAL AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS

Characteristics
Most vulnerable and impressionable by cultural institutions and systems
Age group, in search of identity

Methodology
Group discussions
Focus group discussions

CRC
Articles 5; 9; 10, 2; 24, 3

SCI


1.0 Traditional belief

CT, AS, SA



1.1 Trade beliefs that promote health

DM




1.2 Traditional belief harmful to health

PR



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

TRADITIONAL AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Continued

Characteristics
Age for cultural rites and passage
Very impressionable in terms of spiritual beliefs - heavy peer influence
In search of meaning

Methodology
Group discussions
Case studies (diverse)
Role plays (diverse)

CRC
Article 24, 2

SCI
Female genital mutilation (FGM)

2.0 Religious beliefs

CT



2.1 Religious belief that promote health

AS, CT, PR, SA




2.2 Religious beliefs that are harmful to health

AS, CT, PR, SA



Senior 1 (13 to 16 years)

SECTION S:
BODY SYSTEMS

Characteristics
Take life for granted, ignorance of the body system

Needs
Understand themselves
Understand what happens within themselves

Methodology
Informational - illustrations
Demonstrations
Guest lecturers
Visual aids (health kits)
Video tapes


1.0 Body systems

SA, CT




2.0 Circulatory system

SA, CT




2.1 The heart

SA, CT




2.2 The blood vessels

SA, CT




2.3 Blood

SA, CT




2.4 Lymphatic system

SA, CT




2.5 Health aspects

SA, CT




4.0 Digestive system

SA, CT




4.1 The food canal

SA, CT




4.1 Teeth

SA, CT




4.3 Enzymes

SA, CT




4.4 Health aspects

SA, CT



Senior 2 (14 to 17 years)

BODY SYSTEMS
Continued

Characteristics
Very active

Needs
Need to appreciate body systems and surrounding environment - body postures, reading habits, etc.

Methodology
Informational - illustrations
Experiments
Visual aids (skeleton models, plastic models of body parts, health kits)
Films, video tapes
Interactive methods


5.0 Excretory systems

SA, CT




5.1 The kidneys

SA, CT




5.2 The skin

SA, CT




5.3 The lungs

SA, CT




5.4 Health aspects

SA, CT




1.0 Musculo-skeletal system

SA, CT




1.1 The none tissue

SA, CT




1.2 The axil skeleton

SA, CT




1.3 The appendicular skeleton

SA, CT




1.4 Joints

SA, CT




1.5 The muscle

SA, CT




1.6 Health aspects

SA, CT



Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)



Characteristics
Need to have positive attitudes, names for body parts
Pressure of sexual expression/practice

Needs
Personal hygiene for sexual parts
Girls need to know their anatomy
Need access to health services
Sexual pressures and habits (e.g. masturbation for both sexes)

Methodology
Talk shows, films and videos
Focus group
Law - sex and defilement

CRC
Children till the age 18

SCI
Choosing to wait


3.0 Respiratory systems





3.1 Lungs

CT, SA




3.2 Tissue respiration

DM




3.3 Health aspects

PR




6.0 Reproductive systems

SE




6.1 Male reproductive system





6.2 Female reproductive system





6.3 Health aspects




Senior 4 (16 to 19 years)

BODY SYSTEMS
Continued

Characteristics
Body transition from the familiar ‘child’ body to ‘grown-up’ adult
Peer influences and competition
Myths and misconceptions, predominant notions
Anxious to be adults

Needs
Knowledge and understanding of themselves

Methodology
Talk shows, films and videos
Focus group
Law - sex and defilement

CRC
Children till the age 18

SCI
Choosing to wait


8.0 Endocrine





8.1 Endocrine glands

CT, SA




8.2 Hormones

SE




8.3 Health aspects

CE, CS




7.0 Nervous system

PR




7.1 Structure and function of nervous system





7.3 Reproductive health




Senior 3 (15 to 18 years)

SECTION T:
HEALTH-SERVICES IN UGANDA

Characteristics
Broadening consciousness of wider world
Some are in need of health services and facilities
Some are responsible for younger siblings at home

Needs
Need to know where to go for help, and access to services (and reproductive health)
Need to value health facilities
Information so as to make referrals

Methodology
Guest speakers, talks
Question-answer discussions
Informational/content
Research of health services available in their localities

CRC
Articles 17, a; 24, 1

1.0 Health services

IR




2.0 Decline of health services





4.0 Recovery of health services

CT




5.0 Current organization

CRT




5.1 International organizations





5.2 Local authorities





5.3 Health care delivery systems





5.4 Multi-sectoral collaboration




(introduction...)

Part One of this section provides an introductory unit on health in which a few activities are provided and suggestions are given as to how to begin integrating the Sara Communication Initiative and Children’s Rights issues into the training programme from the outset. Part Two then provides sample lesson formats for some of the units, in line with the analysis of the syllabus in Section Three which include the suggested lifeskills based on the general characteristics and needs of the learners.

Each activity has been prepared with emphasis on life skills education through interactive/participatory methodology. The activities have also taken into account the rights of children in Uganda, the needs of the Ugandan girl child and gender issues.

General Objectives

1. To introduce the students to a broad concept of health which includes the interaction between environment, community and the individual and the role of life skills in promoting health.

2. To integrate the Sara Communication Initiative (SCI) and Children’s Rights issues into Health and other courses.

HEALTH

Introduction

The WHO definition of health states that... “health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity..”

This section addresses health in all its diversity. The students are at a stage of transition and experiencing many physiological, mental, psychological, social and spiritual changes. As a result their characteristics and needs are changing also and unless they are addressed, it can lead to confusion and internal conflicts. This section gives a variety of suggestions on how to address their needs while, at the same time, fullfiling the syllabus requrements.

Details of characteristics and needs of the students are contained in the table on page in the manual.

TOPIC

CONCEPT OF HEALTH

Objectives

By the end of the topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the meaning of health in relation to their social, physical, mental and spiritual environment.

2. Demonstrate an awareness of their health and how to promote it.

3. Put into practice critical thinking skills in making health realted decisions.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, critical thinking.

Materials

Handouts containing pictures and descriptions of the four characters, case studies.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups and ask them to read the handout and discuss the questions below.

(i) Who is more healthy and why?
(ii) How could each character improve her/his health?
(iii) What factors lie within the control of each character and what factors do not?

2. Groups present their answers to the whole class for discussion.

Learning Points

Some definitions of Health

· Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not simply the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO, 1964).

· Our bodies are very complicated structures made of many parts each with its job. As long as each part performs its job correctly, at the right time, we are healthy. (School Health Text 1984).

· A process of adaptation... the ability to adapt to changing environments, to growing up and ageing, to healing when damaged, to suffering and to the peaceful expectation of death. (Illich 1976).

Hints

· The aim of the first activity is to evaluate the perspectives from which the students view health in its broadest sense and to use the examples to build on that knowledge. Therefore, the tutor should bring out issues of mental, social and spiritual health if the students fail to do so.

· Summary table of health characteristics.

Character

Social

Mental

Physical

Spiritual

Mr. Kizito

Womaniser
Rich
Drinks a lot

Commanding/ bully

Fights
Bad eating habits
Fat with big stomach

Religious?

Mrs Kaggwa

Widow
Poor
Peasant farmer

Badly dressed

Religious

(complete the table)

· To avoid repetition, each group should report one major point as they go around the class (refer to section of dealing with large classes).

· Tutors should bring out issues of mental, social, spiritual and physical health if the students

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to work in their groups to define health and what is needed in order to maintain good health.

2. What advice would you give to each of the four characters?

Picture 1:

Mr Kizito: He is a fat man, obviously rich wearing expensive clothes. Although he is fairly old, a young woman is hanging on to his arm.

Description:

Mr Kizito is 45 years old and he works in a parastatal. He is rich and lives with his family in a big house he has built just outside Kampala. In the morning he has no breakfast but when he gets to work he orders some welt salted mchomo which he eats while he reads the newspaper. In the afternoon he usually has a leg of chicken and one beer. In the evening he drops into the local bar for ‘a few beers’ and discussion before going home. Sometimes he takes another girl but he insists on wearing a condom. On Sundays he goes to church and tries to stay with his family the whole day. At work, Mr Kizito is not popular because he always like to command the other workers. He has even been known to hit one of them.



Picture 2:

Mrs Kaggwa: She is a peasant woman wearing a long colourless dress and a headscarf. She is not wearing shoes.

Description:

Her husband was killed during the liberation war. She has a small farm of bananas, sweet potatoes, beans and green vegetables. She has four children who all go to school. Although Mrs Kaggwa works very hard, the children have a sweet potato before going to school and then the main meal is in the evening. In the middle of the day they cannot eat.

The family eats green vegetables every day but Mrs Kaggwa keeps a few hens so that they can eat chicken on Sundays after going to church. She feels very lonely and abandoned without her husband. She gets her strength from her faith in God and her faith in her children who are all doing well at school.



Picture 3:

Mr Okello. About thirty years old, well dressed and thin.

Description:

He is the LC1 in his village. He used to work hard for the village but he has changed recently, since he believes that he has not received recognition for all the hard work he does. So he has taken to pocketing some of the village contributions for himself. He doesn’t drink but, ever since he was in the liberation war he has been smoking 20 cigarettes a day. Recently he divorced his wife and married a young girl in the village.



Picture 4:

Martina: She is dressed in a secondary school uniform. She looks very smart.

Description:

Martina is in S3. She is one of the best students in the class and everyone expects her to go to high school. She hates boys and refuses to go to any dances or other social activities. She spends all her time with the books. Maybe one reason why she hates boys is that she has a twisted leg which makes her feel that she looks ugly and so she is afraid that all the boys are laughing at her.


Picture 1


Picture 2


Picture 3


Picture 4

ACTIVITY THREE

HOW DO I REMAIN HEALTHY?

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the meaning of health in relation to their social and physical environment.
2. Demonstrate the ability to think creatively in making decisions relating to their health.
3. Identify and analyse factors in their environment that currently affect their personal health.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, creative thinking

Materials

Case studies for role plays, large sheets of paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Students brainstorm on all the factors in the physical and social environment that affect health.

2. In the same groups as in the previous activity, students analyse which factors lie outside their control (NC), which they can partly control (PC) and which they have a great amount of control over (LC).

3. Tutor explains that life skills are those skills that enable individuals to have more control over their health and their lives.

4. In groups, students prepare role plays on the following situations (one for each group).

(i) Paulina is in S2. She was Richard’s girlfriend for one year before agreeing to have sex with him when she realised that Richard was going out with one of her friends. Now she is pregnant with Richard’s baby. He is in S4. She goes to confront him.

(ii) Kato has been rejected by his girl friend, Rose, because he drinks too much. As a result, he starts drinking even more. He meets Rose on the road and tries to convince her forcibly to come back to him.

(iii) Mariamu is in S3. She comes from a poor family and has been going to discos every weekend in the hope of finding men to give her money. Her best lover was a 45 year old manager. She meets him on the street and he is very thin and obviously very ill.

(iv) Atieno left school in P7 to get married to a rich young man in the village who paid a big bride price to her father. She was soon pregnant. On her last visit to the clinic she was told that because she is still very young, she is in danger of losing her baby. She goes home to tell her husband (and her/his parents).

5. For each of these role plays, the students should discuss the following:

(i) What are the health or health related problems outlined?
(ii) To what extent are the problems caused by the situations in which they live?
(iii) What measures could they have taken to avoid their problems?
(iv) What life skills will be needed by each of the characters in order to improve their health and/or behaviour.

Learning Points

· A health problem is the actual illness e.g. malaria.

· A health related problem is an adverse/undesirable situation which, if not prevented or dealt with effectively will lead to actual illness e.g. in an under-five child, shortage of an adequate balanced diet is a health related problem.

· Clarify physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and the relationship between them.

Hints

· Each role play should not be more than 5 minutes. The aim is to start the students thinking themselves into the situations, not produce full dramas.

· Ensure that the classroom discussion focuses on all aspects of health and is open.

· You should be aware of the diversity of opinions and help students accommodate varying and divergent views.

· Focus on helping students internalise what they would do in that situation.

Extension Activity

1. Groups develop plays around the situations they role played, for later presentation to the class/college/community.

TOPIC

HEALTH AND GENDER

ACTIVITY ONE

WHO IS MORE AFFECTED?

Objectives

By the end of this activity, the students should be able to:

1. Identify differences in health problems facing men and women and reasons for them.

2. Explain their own feelings concerning gender roles and how they are changing/may change.

3. Take steps to address current imbalances in their own lives and environment.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, creative thinking, empathy.

Materials

Questionnaires, large sheets of paper, markers, handouts.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Hand out the following questionnaire. Each student places their answer on a scale of 1 to 5. 5 means that they fully agree and 1 means that they don’t agree at all.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

(i)

Boys are stronger than girls.

1

2

3

4

5

(ii)

Cooking is a girl’s job.

1

2

3

4

5

(iii)

Girls don’t have time to study because of all their chores.

1

2

3

4

5

(iv)

Girls wake up before boys.

1

2

3

4

5

(v)

At school, girls do more work than boys.

1

2

3

4

5

(vi)

Boys are more intelligent than girls.

1

2

3

4

5

“Girls don’t have time to study because of all their chores”


Figure

“Boys are stronger than girls”


Figure

2. Each person shows her/his answers to her/his neighbour and discusses it with her/him.

3. Students divide into groups according to sex and write down the different activities they do:

· on schooldays.
· at weekends.
· in the holidays.

4. Each group presents a list of what each does.

5. Tutor asks the follow-up questions:

(i) What do we learn from these lists?
(ii) What does it tell us about the health of boys and girls?
(iii) The Convention on the Rights of the Child, it states that:

· States should ensure that no child is discriminated against on the basis of status, ethnic origin, religion, sex etc. (Article 2)

How is this relevant to the above discussion?

Learning Points

· In Uganda men are generally considered heads of families and decision making is largely dominated by them.

· There are gender disparities in access to education, economic opportunities and health care in the country.

· There is bias in favour of education for boys coupled with issues of early pregnancy resulting in the high drop-out rate of girls from school.

· There are imbalances in employment by sector and sex. Within the agriculture sector, women are the major food producers.

· Women perform most of the household chores and are concentrated in low paying jobs.

· As a basic human right, there is need to improve women status, raise the level of income of individuals and family.

· People are born female or male, but learn to be girls or boys who grow into women and men.

· They are taught what the appropriate behaviour and attitudes, role and activities are for them, and how they should relate to other people. This learned behaviour is what makes up gender identity and determines gender roles.

Hints

· Gender issues are sensitive and therefore the ground rules should be strictly observed in order to ensure that it is not just a fight between the boys and the girls.

· Help both sexes appreciate the dilemmas and choices of the opposite sex.

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to identify the gender issues that affect the health of an individual, family and community.

2. Ask students to suggest types of communication activity which promote the behaviour change towards healthy living.

ACTIVITY TWO

MRS SEMPALA IS LATE

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Identify gender stereotypes and associated health problems facing men and women.
2. Analyse their own feelings in relation to gender roles.
3. Take steps to address current gender imbalances in their lives and environment.

Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, problem solving, critical thinking

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Prepare a few students to do the role play before the class.

2. Ask the students to do the role play.


Figure

Mr Sempala is busy cleaning the house. He is carrying a baby on his back and a small child is pulling at his legs wanting something. He is obviously tired but dinner is also cooking on the fire. He talks about his problems as he works, that there may not be enough food when his wife comes home from work in the council.

After his situation is made clear, his wife returns. She is a little drunk and is angry that dinner is not ready. The children hide behind their father.


Figure

3. Students discuss in groups the following questions:

(i) What do you think about this situation?
(ii) How did you feel when you were watching the role play? Why?
(iii) What do our feelings show about how we view roles of men and women in society?
(iv) If the role play were the other way round, would we have felt differently? Why?

Learning Points

· Gender describes those characteristics of men and women which are socially determined in contrast to those which are biologically determined.

· The distinction between sex and gender is made to emphasise that most of the so-called differences in roles are socially determined.

· Many of the students’ reactions come from the way they have been socialised which leads to an unconscious gender stereotyping.

· Many aspects of division of labour change from one place to another and one time to another. For example, men do cook when it is paid employment or the food is not regarded as traditional (such as roast meat and chips).

More learning points

· Women and men must be given equal opportunity at all levels of health and development activities because it is both a matter of justice and a recipe for faster development.

· We usually see contradictions when we are asked to play another person’s role. Women often carry more of a burden than we think.

· Health is not only the absence of disease or informity. Mental health can be affected by the way society views and treats us.

Hints

· Gender roles are very sensitive and therefore ground rules should be strictly observed.
· Avoid reinforcing stereotypes of men and women.
· Be aware of your own, as well as your students’ assumptions about gender.
· Students may think there is one right answer and wait to know your own personal stance. Be objective and facilitate open discussion rather than providing your own opinions early on.

Extension Activity

1. Students read the dialogue from the beginning of The Special Gift:

IN THE COUNTRYSIDE NEAR A SMALL TOWN IN AFRICA THE HOT MID-DAY SUN IS BURNING FIERCELY. WOMEN AND GIRLS ARE GATHERING NEEDED FIREWOOD. SARA AND HER FRIEND AMINA. TWO SCHOOL GIRLS, HAVE COLLECTED AS MUCH FIREWOOD AS THEY CAN FIND AND ARE HEADED FOR HOME WHERE MORE WORK AWAITS THEM. SARA’S PET MONKEY, ZINGO, IS ALSO GATHERING WOOD TO HELP SARA.


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure

2. In groups, discuss how Sara and Amina could convince their relatives to allow them more time for homework.

3. Role play the discussions.

4. Plenary discussion:

(i) How did you feel trying to convince your mother/uncle?
(ii) How easy is it to do so? Why? What other methods could they have used to convince their relatives? (eg calling in another adult, the teacher etc)

TOPIC

INTRODUCING THE SARA COMMUNICATION INITIATIVE

Objectives

By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the process of translation from knowledge to behaviour.
2. Identify and analyse factors that hinder the translation of knowledge into behaviour.
3. Introduce the Sara Communication Initiative as a role model for health promotion and development of equity and empowerment of the girl child.

ACTIVITY ONE

KEEPING THE MESSAGE

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, self-awareness.

Materials

Handouts on Sara, Amina, Juma.

Time: 30 minutes.

Procedures

1. Divide students into groups of 6 people according to their mother tongue. Ask them to stand in lines.

2. Explain to the class that this is a translation competition from English to vernacular and back to English.

3. Call a member from each group and give them the same English statement to translate.

4. S/he will then call forward the next team member and give his/her translation to him/her who has to translate it back to English. This process goes on till the last person in the group does the final translation.

5. Ask the last member of each group to write their translation on the board. After they have finished, write original message on the board too.

6. Groups discuss the following questions:

(i) How did you feel when you were doing the exercise? Was it easy or difficult? Why?
(ii) Why is translation so difficult?
(iii) What can we learn about communication from this activity?

Learning point

· Translation exercise reveals how easy it is for messages to be lost. This has implications on why people have not translated knowledge to behaviour

Hints

· If dividing class into mother tongue groups is sensitive you could form 2 groups using a language understood by all.

· Make sure that the other members of the team are far enough away not to hear the translations to earlier members in the team.


Figure


Figure

Sara handout

Sara is 14 years old. She lives with her mother and younger brothers and sisters in the compound of her uncle who is a farmer. Her father is in town where he is trying to save money to buy a farm and build a house. He sends money home for his children’s education. He is very proud of Sara because she is his first child and is doing so well in school.

Sara is determined to be a scientist in her life and she has already shown that she can be. Together with her friends, Amina and Juma, she has built a smokeless stove which has become the model for the whole village because it improves the kitchen environment by reducing the amount of smoke and also reduces the amount of time women and girls have to spend looking for firewood. She says that her aim it to be either a doctor or an animal doctor so that she can help her village in the future.


Figure

Amina handout

Amina is an orphan. Both her parents died three years ago and she lives with her sister who works in the local bar. Amina is very good at mathematics but she sometimes get discouraged at school because of her home problems. Recently she decided to go to town to look for a job as a domestic worker but she was cheated by a lorry driver and, if Juma and Sara had not arrived in time to save her, she was in danger of being raped. Since then, she helps Juma’s brother with his accounts for which he helps her with her school fees. At the same time, she has set up a health club, together with Sara in order to discuss how they can best develop their lives and health.


Figure

Juma handout

Juma lives with his parents and his elder brother Themba who drives a pick up truck. His mother also runs a shop. He is very good at languages and is one of the best footballers in the school. Some students say that he wastes his time playing football but he argues that people who are fit or who have healthy bodies can study better.

Maybe because Juma does not have a sister, he and Sara are like sister and brother and they do most of their homework together. Last year they did a joint project on the jobs done by different member’s of the family which won first prize at the school.

ACTIVITY TWO

FROM KNOWING TO DOING

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, creative thinking, self awareness and self esteem.

Materials

Handouts of Sara, Juma and Amina

Time: 30 minutes.

Procedure

1. Remind the class of what was learnt from the translation exercise.

2. Divide the class into groups and give them the handouts. Ask them to read and answer the questions that follow.

3. Discuss the groups’ answers in plenary.

4. Explain the Sara Communication Initiative to them, show them the materials and invite them to borrow the book etc.

Learning points

· These children are good examples of how to translate knowledge into practice.

· They are also good examples for student teachers that their pupils or students already have a lot of knowledge in their heads.

· Sara and her friends are to be uses as role models for students and will appear throughout the course.

Questions for group activity

(i) What picture do you get of these three children?
(ii) To what extent do you think they translate knowledge into practice?
(iii) Would you like such students to be members of your class? Why/why not?

ACTIVITY THREE

WHY DON’T WE TRANSLATE?

Time: 40 minutes.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, creative thinking, self awareness

Materials

Four cartoons on sheets of paper, large sheets of paper, markers.

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups and give each group a set of cartoons.

2. Groups discuss the following questions:

(i) What is the message being given by the character in each cartoon?
(ii) What do you see from the character giving the message in each case?
(iii) Why do you think they are not putting their knowledge into practice?

3. Groups report back to the plenary for further discussion.

4. Wrap up the activity by saying that the main aim of life skills training is learning how to put knowledge into practice.

Learning Points

· Having knowledge does not always translate into behaviour.

· We need life skills in order to bridge the gap between what we know and how we relate. We need to first appreciate that what we know and what we learn actually has relevance to the world we live in and can therefore be applied practically.

Hints

· In case of a large group please refer to ‘dealing with large classes/groups’.

· The more the students discuss, the more they will explore factors that influence their behaviour and/or change of behaviour.

Extension activity

1. Students develop their own cartoons based on the same idea of knowledge not being translated into practice. These can be put on the classroom walls.


Cartoon One


Cartoon Two


Cartoon Three


Cartoon Four

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

Introduction

In the unit, the students will be able to appreciate the importance of caring for and protecting water to make it safe for use as well as keeping and living in a clean environment. They need to develop life skills such as critical thinking and decision making to be able to get the best out of the environment while at the same time protecting it.

What should be taken into account when covering content is that different age groups have different characteristics and needs which have to be addressed in relation to the concepts of water and environmental sanitation.

Details of these are covered within the tables in Section Three of this manual.

TOPIC

DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

ACTIVITY ONE

DISCUSSION ON DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Describe various ways by which water from different sources can become contaminated and how this can be avoided.

2. Discuss how water could be made safe for domestic use.

3. Use safe clean water for all their needs.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, problem solving.

Materials

Notebooks, pens, school water source, community water source.

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups of 5-8 students.
2. Each group discusses:

· sources of domestic water.
· how water gets home from the source.
· how water is stored at home.
· possible ways by which the water may be contaminated:

(i) at the source.
(ii) at home.

· how to make water safe for domestic use.

3. Each group reports to the whole class.


Picture showing a protected spring

Learning Points

· Sources of water include wells, springs, rivers, rainwater, lakes and streams.
· Ways of water contamination, such as defecation, animals, use of dirty containers should be pointed out.

Hint

· If the groups are many, the teacher should ensure that the groups do not repeat points that are mentioned by others. This could be done by asking each group to provide one point at a time, in turn.

Extension Activity

1. Visits to different water sources.


Piped water source

ACTIVITY TWO

VISITING A COMMUNITY WATER SOURCE

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Locate a community water source.
2. Discuss the need for protecting water sources.

Life Skills to be developed

Problem solving, critical thinking.

Materials

Notebooks, pens.

Procedure

1. Teacher introduces the lesson by asking some questions about the previous lesson.
2. Teacher gives instructions about visit to the water source.
3. Class visits nearest community water source.
4. While at source, students write down:

· type of water source.
· aspects that make the water source safe or unsafe.
· ways of improving the water source.
· any other relevant comments.

5. Back at school, teacher divides the class into groups and requests each group to write a report on what they have observed during the visit.

Learning point

· Apart from water being protected, students should be able to note that human activities contribute a lot to contaminating the source and that there is a need to sensitise the community about safe water supply.

Hint

· If the water source is far from the school, the teacher may carry out the activity in a double period.

Extension Activities

1. Groups are requested to visit the school water source in their spare time and compare it with the community water source. Points to consider should be similar to those they used during the visit to the community water source.

2. During the next period the teacher requests different groups to present their reports to the rest of the class. This is followed by concluding remarks on the activity.

FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Introduction

A family is a group of people living together. It is the fundamental unit in society where a child is socialized right up to adulthood. Since there are many types of families, the children always have different roles and responsibilities in their family structures. The factors that promote good family relationships include practise and demonstration of love, feeling of belonging, good communication, adequate income, companionship, and equitable sharing of resources. It is important that the children understand themselves and their relationships in the families.

This section addresses the characteristics of a good family structure and a wide variety of particular skills to be developed. Details of characteristics and needs are contained on page... in the manual.

TOPIC

FAMILY STRUCTURE

ACTIVITY ONE

RELATIONSHIPS IN A FAMILY

Objectives

By the end of the activity students should be able to:

1. Name the people in their families.
2. Identify their roles and relationships in the families.
3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of their family structures.
4. Put into practice the skills of empathy and critical thinking,

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, empathy, self awareness and self esteem.

Materials

Pieces of paper for drawing, coloured crayons or pencils, instruction sheet for drawing.

Procedure

1. Ask participants to answer the following questions.

(i) Which people do you consider to be members of your family?
(ii) How do family members relate in your family structure?
(iii) Which family members do you feel closest to? Why?

2. Ask the students to draw a diagram according to the following instructions.

(i) Draw a diagram of your family. Draw circles to represent girls/women and squares to represent boys/men. Represent yourself as a circle or square according to your sex, and colour it completely to distinguish it from the rest.

(ii) Include all the people you consider part of your family, whether they live in your household or not. They do not have to live in your household. Shade the symbols in different colours to distinguish the other members.

(iii) As you draw, distinguish the order of positions you feel you and other family members hold in your family structure.

(iv) When you have finished drawing, use loops (strings) to connect your personal symbol with two or more of the family members’ symbols. These connecting loops (strings) will illustrate how you relate in the family structure, above, below or equal.

(v) When you finish, draw a frame around the portrait. Decorate it in any way you wish.

3. Students display and explain their portraits. Ask the group to identify one or two examples of how members in your family relate in your family structure.

4. Ask the students to answer the following questions:

(i) What are the advantages and disadvantages of your family structure?
(ii) If you were able to change one thing about your family, what would you change?

5. Ask for volunteers to share their answers with the rest of the class.

6. Discuss the issues that arise with the students.

Learning points

· A family structure doesn’t necessarily consist of a father, mother and children. Many (happy) families are single parent, polygamous, include children living with stepparents, relatives etc.

· A good family structure addresses the right of a child:

“... to grow up in a peaceful, caring and secure environment, and to have the basic necessities of life, including food, health care, clothing and shelter” CRC, Article 27 Sections 1 and 2.

· A good family structure promotes appropriate direction and guidance to the child, without oppression. Article 5 of the Rights of the Child.

· Answers to 4 above could include: Father is absolute authority. Mother does not have much authority; boys are above girls; or above females (mother and daughters inclusive); mother and father together share authority and children are below; role of grandmother or uncle (etc.).

Hint

· These are sensitive issues and you should make sure that the ground rules are followed, including the right to pass.

Extension Activity

1. Ask students to write down what is important about living in a family for the next class.

ACTIVITY TWO

GIVE AND TAKE

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Practice the spirit of give and take in their families.
2. Explain children’s rights and responsibilities in the context of the family.
3. Demonstrate the skill of positive interpersonal relationships.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, interpersonal relationship.

Materials

Large sheet of paper or chalk board, three sets of paper/cards for each student.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Distribute one card to all the students.

2. Write the phrase “give and take” on large sheets of paper and ask each participant to write down on his/her card what the phrase means.

3. Ask 4 volunteers to read out their definitions. Come to an agreement on a correct and acceptable definition.

4. Explain that “give and take” is a key element in all successful relationships but is a especially in a family.

5. Distribute another card to all the students and ask them to write down numbers from 1 to 10.

6. Ask students to fill in up to 10 ways in which they give to the family.

7. When they have finished ask them to write 1-10 on the reverse side of the card and fill in up to 10 things they get or take from their families.

8. Divide the students into groups. Each group prepares a consolidated list of what they give to and what they take from their families.

9. Write “privileges and responsibilities” on a large sheet of paper and explain that privileges are what we take from the family and responsibilities are what we give to the family.

10. Groups present their “privileges” and “responsibilities” from their consolidated lists.

Learning point

· It is important to realise that the students recognise that there are many things each person gains from her/his family.

Hints

· Point out that while some of their colleagues enjoy all these privileges, there are some families where adults are missing or are not able to provide their adolescents with all the things listed above This does not mean that the family has no value.

· Point out that though not all adolescents have all these responsibilities many of their colleagues do. They could be the responsibilities of other members of the family.

· It may be worth looking at different responses of males and females. For example it may be clear that girls actually give more than boys to the families while boys take more.

Extension activity

1. Students prepare answers to the following questions for the next lesson:

(i) How fairly are privileges divided up in your family?
(ii) Who seems to enjoy the most privileges? Why do you think so?
(iii) Who distributes the privileges?

TOPIC

FAMILY STRUCTURE

ACTIVITY

“FATIMA OVERWORKED”

Objectives

By the end of this activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain division of labour within the context of the family.
2. Explain how such a division of labour usually affects the girls adversely.
3. Explain the relevant children’s rights with regard to non-discrimination
4. Take steps to address the unequal division of labour in their own homes and communities.

Materials

Copies of the case study.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups. In this case the groups could be single sex.

2. Ask the groups to read through the case study and answer the questions that follow it. Different group members take it in turns to read aloud the parts of Sara and Fatima.

3. Group members present their answers to the plenary for discussion.

Learning Points

· Many studies now show that girls have to do far more work at home than boys and that this seriously affects their ability to study and climb the educational ladder.

· A good family should not overburden some of their members (on grounds of sex or any other criteria) with more responsibilities than they can comfortably bear. It is based on sharing and respect for all.

· The issue of culture needs to be confronted. So many cultures have changed that greater work sharing in the home is quite acceptable.

· Article 29 Section 1d, of the CRC spells out equal opportunity and treatment to a child, regardless of sex.

· While we normally refer to child labour where the child works for another person, child labour is a serious problem inside many families. Children have the responsibility to work in the home but not to the extent that it interferes with their lives. Particularly with regard to girls, the justification is that girls will have to impress their future husbands through hard labour to sustain the family income and ensure a stable marriage. Instead it leads to girls being pushed out of school and being unable to look after their children properly.

Hints

· The activity should help the adolescent develop a positive attitude towards responsibilities of household chores.

· If the response point towards few responsibilities being given to the boys, and more to the girls, the lecturer should point out that responsibility given to a child in the affairs of a family prepares them for better and more effective control over one’s life when they grow up. So both boys and girls need to be prepared.

· The lecturer could make use of the first Sara Communication Initiative (SCI) episode which is concerned with the issue of excessive work for girls.

CASE STUDY

Sara: Hey! Fatima, why were you dozing throughout the lessons today?

Fatima: I was tired.

Sara: Even during the first lesson in the morning?

Fatima: Yes.

Sara: What were you doing last night?

Fatima: A lot, starting from yesterday.

Sara: What do you mean?

Fatima: Well, in the first place when I went back home last evening, I had to fetch water two miles away, enough to keep the family going till I collect more today in the evening.

Sara: Sure?

Fatima: Yes, after which I had to gather enough firewood as well.

Sara: That’s quite some work. When do you do you homework?

Fatima: Most times I don’t. I have to prepare and serve supper, then clean the dining place and wash dishes before I finally go to bed.

Sara: I thought Selemani was your brother, doesn’t he help you?

Fatima: No. I’m told it is all the girls’ work.

Sara: I get the same comments from my uncle.

Fatima: Well, and this morning I had to dig my portion of the vegetable garden, prepare breakfast, and leave the family’s midday meal ready. Last night I went to bed around midnight and by 5 o’clock this morning, I was up again. That’s my daily bread. I am always tired.

Sara: I thought I had too much to do, but you have to do twice as much. I think we should let our teacher, Mrs Matata know about it. She may be able to guide us.

Fatima: That’s a good idea.

(i) Why is Fatima so tired? Do you think this is a common problem?

(ii) From Sara’s replies, what kind of life do you think she leads as well?

(iii) What is the effect of such a situation on Fatima’s and Sara’s chances in life?

(iv) What do you think of Selemani? Why doesn’t he help?

(v) How fairly are responsibilities divided up in your family? Who seems to have the greatest responsibilities? Why do you think that is so?

(vi) Are there responsibilities that you feel are too great for you to handle as an adolescent? If so which and why?

(vii) If you were Fatima, what would you do in this situation?

(viii) If you were Selemani what would you do?

(ix) If you were Ms Matata, how would you address the issue of fairness and culture?

TOPIC

CULTURAL AND ADOLESCENCE: CULTURAL FACTORS

ACTIVITY ONE

TALKING WITH OUR PARENTS, PART ONE

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Identify sources of poor communication in family situations and ways of overcoming them.

2. Communicate better with their parents/guardians and other adults.

Life Skills to be developed

Creative thinking, effective communication, negotiation

Materials

None

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Divide students into groups to answer the following:

(i) How much do you know about your parents/guardians when they were young? Interests/activities/aspirations in life etc.

(ii) To what extent can you talk to your parents/guardians about their past? Would they be willing to answer your questions if you asked?

(iii) Of what value would it be to you to know about your parents/guardians when they were young?

2. Groups report to the plenary for discussion.

3. Brainstorm on ways of improving child-parent communication.

4. Groups develop parent questionnaire.

5. Wrap up activity by reminding students to be very tactful in the way they ask their parents.

Learning points

· It is possible for parents and children to have healthy communication.

· Adolescence is a time of rapid changes that may lead to conflicts and confusion because they are not always understood by older people even if they had similar problems in their childhood.

· Changes in taste, fashion etc often cause conflict because many adults see them as against culture.

· The youth of today may well do the same as their parents when they grow older. It is important that we learn to communicate effectively in order not to have the same problems in the future.

Hints

· The initial group discussions will give you an insight into the kind of families your students come from. Use their responses to enrich classroom discussion.

· Deal with some of the difficult situations in an open minded way. Do not be moralistic in your responses.


Figure

Extension activity

1. Students discuss the questionnaire with their parents and feedback is given in a future lesson.

SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR PARENTS

(i) What was being an adolescent like for you?

(ii) How did you feel when you were my age?

(iii) What did you enjoy doing when you were my age?

(iv) What responsibilities did you have in your family when you were my age?

(v) Do you think young people today have better or worse times than you did? Why?

(vi) If you could change one thing about the time when you were young?

(vii) What was your family like?

(viii) What do you like most being a parent?

(ix) What is the biggest responsibility of a parent?

(x) What advice would you give to adolescents today?

(xi) What lessons did you learn from your parents or guardians, and other adults that you try to pass on to us now?

Guidelines to participants on how to get information from their parents:

1. Find a convenient time and make an appointment with your parent, and request about 30 minutes of his/her time, on a day agreed upon.

2. Be prepared with your questions, paper and a pen or pencil, before your appointed day.

3. Explain why you are doing this exercise with your parent/guardian. There is a class activity to learn about how the world was in the time when their parents’/guardians were young and how their family members related to one another. Explain that the information will be useful in the next lesson.

4. Take notes to help you remember. Do not write everything down, but record specific answers to the questions you have prepared. You may also want to write down any especially interesting quotations.

5. At the end of the exercise with the parents, the children should thank their parents/guardians for availing them their time.

6. When they have finally established a more comfortable environment with their parents/guardians, the children should ask them what they felt about the following quotation from The Rights of the Child’, “Article 13 section 1.

“The child shall have the right to freedom of expression”

7. The children should be ready to discuss this last (No. 7) issue in their presentation of findings, to determine the course of the next activity.

ACTIVITY TWO

TALKING WITH PARENTS, PART TWO

Objectives

By the end of the activity students should be able to:

1. Identify factors that lead to poor communication between parents and children.
2. Explain differences between generations in terms of adolescence.
3. Put into practice skills of communicating effectively with parents/adults.

Life Skills to be developed

Effective communication, negotiation, creative thinking.

Materials

Students’ assignments, large sheets of paper, markers

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Ask students how they felt carying out the assignment of talking to their parents/guardians.

2. Divide the class into small groups and ask them to discuss the following questions.

(i) What was it like having to ask your parents questions?
(ii) What new information did you learn?
(iii) How did your parent/guardian feel and react about you asking them questions?
(iv) What surprised you most when you were talking with your parents/guardians.
(v) What were their comments about the rights of children?
(vi) How do you feel now having sat down and talked with them?
(vii) How do you think this will help future communication with your parents?
(viii) How would you be similar or different as a parent if you had adolescents?
(ix) Any other comments?

3. Groups report back to plenary for further discussion.

Learning Points

· The children need to know that they have something to learn from their parents. (Older generation).

· Poor communication between generations is often the source of misunderstanding since both sides think they are not understood.

· This exercise was one way of trying to improve communication and understanding. The process should continue and build on the communication established.

· Adults have a lot of experience and can be a valuable source of help and guidance which the students can make use of.

Hints

· To avoid repetition in group feedback, each group should report one major point at a time.

· The children need to be made aware that on top of rights they have responsibilities. (Refer to Section One of the manual for a list of rights and responsibilities)

· The guidelines given to students for talking to their parents should form a basis of their having better communication not only with adults but also among themselves.

ACTIVITY THREE

ASSERTIVENESS WORKS

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the importance of good communication in solving problems.
2. Put into practice the skill of assertiveness (as opposed to passivity or aggression).

Life Skills to be developed

Effective communication, assertiveness

Materials

Large sheets of paper, copies of Fatima’s work schedule

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Explain to the adolescents that one way of making communication more effective is to choose the appropriate way of conveying the message in a difficult situation.

2. Read the following scenario aloud:

Fatima has been coming to school late, and always with unfinished homework. As a result, her performance is poor, but not because she is stupid. Her usual day runs like this:

5.15 am

Light fire and prepare a family’s breakfast.

5.30 am

Wash clothes, including her brother Selemani’s bedsheets because he wets his bed.

6.00 am

Dig her portion in the garden.

7.00 am

Collect water from the well, and gather firewood.

7.45 am

Prepare lunch and leave on the fire.

8.00 am

Run to school.

8.30 am

Arrive, 30 minutes late.

8.30 am

Clean toilets and pick rubbish around the school compound as a punishment for coming late to school.

2. Distribute paper to students and ask them to write down what they think Fatima should do to improve her situation?

3. Students present their answers. Write them down under the appropriate heading, PASSIVE, AGGRESSIVE or ASSERTIVE.

4. Divide the class into three groups, PASSIVE, AGGRESSIVE and ASSERTIVE according to the answers they gave. Each group discusses the following questions.

(i) How will Fatima feel within herself, after making the response you chose?

(ii) How do you think Fatima’s parents/guardians would feel if she responds the way you chose?

(iii) What is the best or worst thing that would happen if Fatima makes your response?

5. Groups report back to plenary for further discussion.

6. Use their responses to clarify the difference between passive, aggressive and assertive responses. Conclude by showing that an assertive response is usually the most appropriate and effective because it states clearly the person’s position without being antagonistic.

Learning points

· PASSIVE RESPONSE

· If you behave passively, it means you have not expressed your own needs and feelings, preferring to suffer quietly It may also mean that your attempts to express yourself have been so weakly done that your concerns will not be addressed.

· If Fatima behaves passively by not saying anything, she may develop resentment against her parents and be angry with herself. Whenever she gets to school late she may become furious, and may empty her anger on her colleagues at school, or the teachers on duty. She could end up being misunderstood both at home and at school, and may never be able to state her case, either way.

· A passive response is not usually in your best interest because it allows other people take advantage of you, and violate your rights. However, there are situations when being passive may be the best alternative at the time. Therefore, you must assess the situation at hand. If you feel it is dangerous or not very predictable, choose the most appropriate response that will keep you safest.

· AGGRESSIVE RESPONSE

· If Fatima refuses to do the work disrespectfully in a rebellious way, she may feel satisfied with herself for a moment. This may not guarantee that her response will not instigate her parents to aggresively assert their position as superior. They may exert all available force to make her submit.

· An aggressive response is never in your own or anyone else’s best interest because it usually leads to more conflict.

· ASSERTIVE RESPONSE

· When you behave in an assertive way, it means you have expressed what you want or feel, frankly but with respect without violating the other person’s rights or stepping on them.

· If Fatima asks her parents for audience and politely expresses herself with valid explanations about how she feels and suggest how her situations could be improved, she would have respected her parents, but also stated facts. Hopefully her parents will realize their unfair distribution of tasks and redress the situation. Fatima would have asserted her rights and she will feel proud about it, though there is chance that the parents may still feel offended and ignore Fatima’s concern.

· Though an assertive response has the greatest chance of success, and guarantees getting what you want without hurting others, at times it can be out of place. If tempers are high, or people concerned are depressed or hurt, being assertive may not be the best choice. Good timing must be observed when the situation is calm and conducive to dialogue.

· The major skill being fostered is ASSERTIVENESS. While Adolescents are encouraged to be assertive before their parents/guardians to defend their rights, they must be reminded that they have a responsibility to:

“Work for the cohesion of the family, to respect his/her parents [elders and other children] and to assist them” From National Council for Children - Uganda

· Adolescents must be reminded that, it takes practice, with several failures at times to acquire the skill of assertiveness - it doesn’t happen overnight.

· For assertiveness to be effective, the situation and timing must be appropriate.

· A good family is where members express themselves freely and share responsibilities, concerns and experiences fairly without overburdening a single member.

· Adolescents need to know that their parents/guardians have a responsibility of ensuring they enjoy their childhood. It is their right to be children and to develop slowly into adults. Nothing should be forced on them which is above their age. “The Rights of the child, “Article 31, Section 1.

Hints

· When you introduce the topic, keep in mind that speaking out our minds to our parents/guardians or adults is not considered the norm of most of the cultures in Uganda. The level of freedom with their parents also will vary among participants. Some will come from families in which speaking up for oneself, or refusing to carry out a task, especially from an adult or a male, is considered rude or inappropriate.

· You do not want to encourage adolescents to behave in a way that could have unpleasant consequences for them in their cultural or family circles. It is important however, for the children to know that there are situations where speaking out will yield positive results.

· You also have to note that being frank and speaking out calls for a lot of precaution on the side of the speaker.

Extension activity

1. Ask the students to respond to the following:

(i) Think of circumstances where passive communication may be safest, even if your needs may by met.

(ii) Have you ever behaved aggressively in a situation? How did it work out?

(iii) Have you ever behaved assertively in any situation? How did it work out?

(iv) When is easier, and when is it more difficult, to be assertive? Give examples.

(v) In what kind of situations do you feel you will have to act assertively?

(vi) Have you heard people getting a negative reaction when they tried to speak out assertively? Explain.

(vii) Does acting assertively always guarantee your getting your needs or wants or feelings met?

ACTIVITY FOUR

THE ROLE OF THE ADOLESCENT IN PROMOTING THE HEALTH OF THE FAMILY

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain how they can contribute to health in the home.
2. Demonstrate the skill of peer resistance.

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Write the following terms on the board/large sheets of paper.

· Social health
· Emotional health
· Mental health
· Physical health

2. Divide participants into groups of 4 - 6 people.

3. Assign one item to each group, and ask them to brainstorm on how they understand the term (Note: This does not have to be a definition as such).

4. Ask each group to present their findings for discussion.

5. Put up final findings on the wall for reference.

6. In their original groups, students discuss how they could contribute towards the social, mental, emotional and physical health of their families. Each group deals with their original item. Each group member should make at least one suggestion.

7. Groups present their ideas to the plenary for further discussion.

8. Hang final lists on the wall and agree with the students that they will remain there as a permanent reminder of their role in promoting health in their families.

9. Conclude by asking the students to discuss briefly the following questions.

(i) What did you discover from this activity about your role in promoting health in your family?

(ii) What opportunities and limitations do you think you can face in promoting health?

(iii) Which areas are easier for you (physical, mental, social, emotional?)

(iv) What similarities and differences did you find in the families?

Learning points

· The report could use some of the examples below:

What I could do to promote the Social Health of my family:

1. Greet my parents and siblings in the morning before I go to school.

2. Help my mother prepare meals.

3. Assist my younger brother to prepare his clothes and books for school everyday.

4. Share fun and laughter with my family members.

5. Not make noise when my sister needs concentration on her homework.

6. Respect everybody’s privacy - not search anybody’s bag or belongings without their permission.

7. Not hurt other family members.

8. Take time to listen to other family members’ concerns, issues or problems.

9. Keep the family’s confidentiality.

What I could do to promote the physical health of my family:

1. Boil drinking water.

2. Help in cleaning the house everyday.

3. Open the windows every morning.

4. Collect all the rubbish around the compound.

5. Cover all our food.

6. Place a small container of water near the latrine, for washing hands after visiting the facility.

7. Help my mother plan a balanced diet.

8. Have a small garden with greens and pineapples to minimize the family expenditure.

9. Care for the sick members of my family.

10 Help my younger brother brush his teeth every morning.

What I could do to promote the emotional health of my family:

1. Understand when my parents can not afford to meet all my needs.
2. Give comfort when one of us is hurting.
3. Join in the family’s celebrations.
4. Participate in the family’s prayers or workshop.
5. Help reduce conflict between family members.
6. Reassure my mother and father that I appreciate them and what they do for me.
7. Do my part in the household chores or responsibility.
8. Not hurl insults or humiliate my younger brother.
9. Share in the happy moments of my sister or brother when they succeed.
10. Work to promote the good image of our family.

What I could do to promote the mental health of my family:

1. Not create tension by what I do or say.

2. Not support conflict when my father and my brother/sister don’t seem to agree.

3. Let my family know where I am after 6.00 pm.

4. Accept and help other members to accept a situation about which we can’t do much to change.

5. Appreciate the little we have and make the best out of it.

(The Facilitator is free to adapt, add or make new lists or exercises).

Hints

· The students need to realize their important role as members of their families who can influence the health of their families in many ways, by translating what they learn from school into action at home.

· You could use The Special Gift’ as an example of activity to promote health through stopping air pollution, and a measure against deforestation. (Refer to the Sara Communication Initiative, “The Special Gift.”)

· The participants (adolescents) must be encouraged to review what exactly they have been doing in promoting the health of their families, and making resolutions for the better.

· The exercise above aims at promoting a sense of responsibility and creativity for the adolescents, it also aims at emphasizing a sense of membership to their families.

Extension Activities

Ask the students to:

1. Write how they can improve their own lives in order to contribute to improving their family’s health.

2. Develop an Action Plan for themselves. It should not be too ambitious but one that can be implemented. The Action Plan could look like this:

(i) My aim is.............................................................................................................
(ii) The steps I need to take are:

(a).......................................................................................................................
(b).......................................................................................................................
(c).......................................................................................................................

(iii) The way(s) to do this are......................................................................................
(iv) I need support from..............................................................................................
(v) It will take (how long)............................................................................................
(vi) I will know it has worked if or when........................................................................

ACTIVITY FIVE

DEVELOPING A SENSE OF SELF-WORTH

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Identify those behaviours which influence children negatively.
2. Explain their own strong points and how they can develop them.
3. Describe the positive approach to bringing up children.
4. Put into practice positive behaviours based on their growing self-esteem.

Materials

Text of poem, and “Who am I”, paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Divide students into pairs and ask them to share with their partner things they remember from their childhood which hurt or disappointed them.

2. Pairs give examples of this to the plenary. Write down their examples on a large sheet of paper/chalkboard.

3. Students compare experiences briefly.

4. Explain that everyone goes through experiences during their childhood which affect how they look at themselves when they grow up.

5. Distribute pieces of paper to each student and ask them to draw a picture representing a shield divided into six or eight parts.

6. Ask students to put a spear through their shield for everything they remember as having hurt or disappointed them.

7. Ask students to keep their shields for further reference.

8. Read the following poem to the students.

TEACH THE CHILDREN WELL I

If a child lives with criticism, he learns to condemn

If a child lives with hostility, he learns to fight

If a child lives with ridicule, he learns to be shy

If a child lives with shame, he learns to feel guilty

If a child lives with tolerance he learns to be patient

If a child lives with encouragement, he learns to try his best

If a child lives with praise, he learns to appreciate

If a child lives with fairness, he learns justice

If a child lives with security, he learns to have faith

If a child lives with approval, he learns to like himself

If a child lives with acceptance and friendship, he learns to find love in the world.

(Nolte)

9. Explain that the poem refers to both boys and girls. The flow of the poem would be interrupted by writing he/she all the time.

10. Read the poem a second time more slowly and ask the students to answer the following questions.

(i) What is the main point of the poem?
(ii) How can you compare the poem to what you represented on your shields?

11. Ask students to use the poem and their shields to write six statements under the title ‘Who am I?’

12. Ask for volunteers to read out their statements. Stress the importance of giving positive images of themselves and give the following example of a positive self-image:

Who am I?

I am a girl and I am proud of it.

I am only 3 feet 5 inches tall and I like myself

I am dark skinned, I am beautiful

I am the only one like myself

I am special

I am unique.

Extension Activities

1. Ask the students to answer the following questions:

(i) What aspects of your life can you not change (eg appearance, relatives etc)? Can you change your physical features by worrying about them?

(ii) Can you ever exchange your parents for others?

(iii) What should you do about those things you cannot change about yourself or about your life?

2 Make a resolution to tell yourself the following words, every morning before you get out of bed:

“I AM UNIQUE, I DON’T LOOK LIKE ANYBODY ELSE IN THE WHOLE WORLD. I AM SPECIAL BECAUSE I AM ME”

Learning points

· Even when your childhood was nasty, you can determine to change your self-image into a positive one.

· Adolescents may not be able to influence or alter the opinion other people hold of them, but they can change their own opinions about themselves.

· The power to fully love yourself and hold a positive self-image lies within yourself.

· The individual is the final authority in uplifting or destroying her/his up your self image.

· It takes practice and determination to build a lasting sense of self-worth.

· The skill being emphasized in this unit is SELF-ESTEEM. The way one behaves is largely determined by the level of self esteem one has.

Hint

Stress that, although the favourable conditions mentioned in the poem are more likely to lead to higher self esteem, every student from whatever background can build their self esteem.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Introduction

There are communicable and non-communicable diseases. To develop better health promoting attitudes and values, learners need to know the differences and what action responsibilities to assume in preventing types of diseases.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. List 7 communicable diseases that are common in their area and how they are spread.
2. Identify behaviours and ways that promote the spread of these diseases.
3. List ways and behaviour that can help to prevent the spread of the listed communicable diseases.

ACTIVITY ONE

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making and problem solving.

Materials

Slips of paper - Activity ‘Communicable and non-communicable diseases’.

Time: 60 minutes.

Procedure

1. Begin the activity by introducing the difference between diseases or sickness we can “give” to each other and those we cannot “give” to each other, and others that may be transmitted to us from other sources.

2. Give out cards or slips of paper and ask the students to write down diseases or illnesses they know. They should write at least two but should not limit their imagination.

3. Collect the slips of paper and have a volunteer read them out one-by-one. As the class decide which category each belongs - communicable or non-communicable (see facilitator’s resource below).

Describe the illness, how we get it (vectors, etc.) and emphasize how we can protect ourselves from communicable illnesses. Brainstorm ideas in small groups. Collect feedback as a whole group and make a list on a large sheet of paper.

4. Conclude the activity with the discussion points below:

(i) Why and how do we get communicable diseases?
(ii) Why and how do we get diseases that are not communicable?
(iii) Why do some communicable diseases become epidemics (for example malaria, AIDS, etc.)?

Facilitator’s resource

The following list is a guide to some communicable and non-communicable diseases and illnesses.

Description

Communicable

Non-communicable

Cold

Yes


Measles

Yes


Sore throat

Yes


Flu (common cold)

Yes


Asthma


Yes

Upset stomach


Yes

Chicken Pox

Yes


Malaria

Yes


Tuberculosis

Yes


Dysentry

Yes


Ear infections


Yes

Cavities (holes) in teeth


Yes

Nose bleeds


Yes

Mumps

Yes


Typhoid

Yes


Allergies


Yes

Scabies

Yes


STDs

Yes


HIV/AIDS

Yes














Make additions to the list. It is not exhaustive.

Hint

· If the class is very big, you may choose to let the children discuss in pairs or groups of 4. You may need to give them more slips of paper.

Learning Points

· Modes of transmission - from human to human, from animal to human, from other vectors (insects, etc.) to humans, air, water, etc.

· Concept of carrier is a person with a disease, who does not suffer from it abut can pass it on. Asthma and sickle cell (anaemia) are passed on genetically. (List a few others you can think of).

· What you and I can do to prevent transmission is maintain healthy practices.

Extension Activities

1. Ask 3 students to talk about their personal experiences with malaria and flu (common cold).

(i) How did they get it?
(ii) How could they have avoided it?

2. Dysentry could be communicable. What situations would lead to this?

3. How can we prevent/protect ourselves from contracting cholera, and malaria as individuals?

4. Have a resource person, from the health centre or clinic nearest to the school, to come and give a talk.

5. Look around in your community and see situations that could lead to the spread of communicable disease. Each person identifies at least 5 situations to bring back to class for discussion.


Figure

ACTIVITY TWO (suitable for boarding schools)

Material

Case study on “Sharing things”.

Time: 60 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class into male and female. The sub-divide each group into smaller ones of 6 to 8 people.

2. Explain to the class that this activity is to help understand to a greater detail the concept of communicable and non-communicable diseases, and how our lifestyles may be associated with these diseases.

3. Give out copies of the case study of “Sharing things”. Each group should be given 20 minutes to read and answer the associated questions.

4. Ask the groups to reconvene. Ask 4 volunteers (2 boys and two girls) to share their answers with the rest of the class.

5. Discuss the following:

(i) Why do people (peers) find themselves sharing things (basins, buckets, clothes) in school?

(ii) Do you think people are aware that they might contract diseases/infections? Why not?

(iii) Has any of you been pressured to share your things? What were the circumstances?

“Sharing things”

Ocero had a friend called Alenyo. They were neighbours back home. In school they were in separate houses of residence. When Ocero was in Senior One, his mother gave him a basin, a bucket, plates and all other things to make his life comfortable and self-sufficient.

“Remember not to lose anything, Ocero,” she said before she left.

A few weeks later, Ocero couldn’t find his basin. He had seen the senior boys using it. He wondered how to get it back. He told Alenyo. Alenyo came and helped him look around. A few days later, Alenyo found it in his house of residence. He took it to Ocero.

One day, Ocero noticed a rash on his hand and some whitish spots on his chest. On consulting his neighbour, he was informed that it was a skin disease called ‘ring worms and skin rash.’’

Questions for discussion

(i) How did Ocero get the skin rash?

(ii) What should he do to get rid of it?

(iii) What other diseases or infections could we get from sharing things? What diseases are peculiar to boys? Which ones are peculiar to girls?

(iv) What things do we normally share out amongst our peers that could lead to infections? List at least 5 of them.

(v) Could we get STDs through sharing?

TOPIC

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Introduction

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) - also known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - are on the increase in Uganda. Research reveals that children are sexually active, without the necessary precautions, nor the relevant information. In 1993/94, 31.7% of the girls 15 to 19 years of age were HIV positive compared to boys (of the same age) who were 6.0%. This is from the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) records and figures are different today.

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List ways in which STDs are spread.
2. Appreciate the need for skills that can lead them out of risky situations.
3. Identify and discourage risk-taking behaviour.

ACTIVITY ONE

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making and problem solving.

Time: 60 minutes.

Materials

Copies of the quiz, “What do you know about STDs?” and case study, “Dear Auntie, I think I was tricked!”

Procedure

1. Start the session by introducing the topic, ‘Sexually Transmitted Diseases.’ Ask the students whether they have heard of STDs and ask a few of them to say what they know about STDs. Explain to them that there is a quiz you would want them to fill in, to check how much we know. Emphasize that it is not a test but is rather used for discussion. Explain that you will not ask individuals for their scores.

2. Pass out the quiz, “What do you know about STDs?” and ask each person to fill in the statements individually. This exercise should take about 5 to 7 minutes. A ‘T’ answer will represent ‘true’, and ‘F’ will represent ‘false.’

3. Divide the students into groups of 4 and ask them to share their responses. See if can come out with a uniform list. If they do not agree on certain numbers, that should not worry them. This exercise should be about 20 minutes long.

4. Call the class back to order and ask them to share their responses. Look out for key questions that you may want to discuss. You do not necessarily have to go through the whole list. Suggested numbers for discussion may include the following:

1, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13 - dealing with myths
1, 8, 14, 15 - dealing with how responsible they are.

5. Wrap up the activity by going over some facts about STDs, for example types - gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital warts, vaginitis, herpes, etc. (Consult a medical person).

“What do you know about STD?” handout

Fill in this questionnaire after reading each statement. If you think the statement is true then mark ‘T,’ and ‘F’ if you think it is false.

Statement

True or false

(i)

You cannot get an STD if you have sex only once.


(ii)

Gonorrhoea is an STD.


(iii)

STD stands for ‘Sexually Transmitted Disease.’


(iv)

STDs are easily cured by penicillin.


(v)

Having an STD means you are a strong man.


(vi)

Some STDs can kill.


(vii)

HIV is an STD.


(viii)

If I had an STD, I would tell my partner about it.


(ix)

All STDs can be cured by traditional medicine.


(x)

Condoms reduce the chances of spreading STDs.


(xi)

Only prostitutes have STDs.


(xii)

You cannot get an STD in Senior Two.


(xiii)

You cannot get STDs if you have sex standing up.


(xiv)

I can protect myself from contracting an STD.


(xv)

If I suspected having an STD, I would see a doctor or a nurse.


(xvi)

AIDS has no cure.


* Use this exercise to see how much the students know about STDs. Questions (i), (v), (ix), (xi), (xii), (xiii) reveal the myths and misconceptions the students have, while questions (viii), (xiv), (xv) reveal how individuals would handle a situation personally. These areas can be tackled in group discussions.

Learning points

· Question (i): STDs and number of sexual contacts.

It does not matter how many sexual contacts one has in order to contract an STD. Once is enough. Children should understand this clearly. Note however, that having one partner decreases the risk caused by having multiple ones.

· Question (v): STDs and manhood.

There is often a fallacy that STDs mean ‘manhood.’ Men have been known to boast about having STDs. STDs are a health problem and people should be encouraged to have them treated as soon as possible. Having many partners should not be considered as manhood either. It only increases the risks.

· Question (vx): Seeking for help.

It is wise to seek professional advice and get full treatment for STDs. People have a myth that treating themselves always leads to the cure. This is not true and individuals should be discouraged from diagnosing and treating themselves. They should seek professional help and treatment.

· Question (viii): It is safe to tell your partner when you have an STD.

It is safe to tell your partner when you get an STD. This is because you may have gotten it from him/her or may pass it on to him/her. Communication helps both of you to stay safe and get better and good treatment. It decreases the risks of contracting other STDs including HIV/AIDS.

· Question (xiii): STDs and sexual positions

Youth often argue that if you have sex in this position or that, then yoy may get an STD or avert getting one. STDs are contracted as soon as people have sex. Children need to be clear on this.

· Question (xi): Protection against STDs

It is important that the students realize that they can protect themselves from STDs by their own correct choice of responsible practices.

ACTIVITY TWO

Procedure

1. Each group joins with another to form groups of 8.

2. Pass out the letter, “Dear Auntie...,” and ask each group to read it and discuss the questions.

3. Have the group select one person to share the ideas it came up with in a plenary.

4. Conclude the activity by emphasizing the need for us to always adapt what we hear to our own personal situations.

“Dear Auntie, I think I was tricked...” handout

Dear Auntie,

I am a young girl in Senior Three, I recently went to a party with my best friend. While at the party, my friend encouraged me to dance and introduced me to some boys. I did not want to but she pressured me to do so. Since I did not want to annoy her I talked to three boys.

Many people were drinking (alcohol) but I do not and I managed to refuse. I kept taking Coca-cola. I remember feeling very sleepy after coming back from the toilet. My Coca-cola tasted different. I think I was tricked.

When I was in the dormitory, I overheard somebody say that now I was a woman like everybody else. When I asked my best friend later what this meant, she just laughed.

I have now missed my period. Auntie, am I pregnant? Do I have AIDS? Am I still a virgin? I can no longer eat because I am worried. Please help me.

A desperate girl,

S 3.

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think happened to this girl?
(ii) What factors exposed her to risk?
(iii) How would you respond to this letter? Write a reply.
(iv) Do these things happen in school? How can we protect ourselves?

Hint

· The climate in the class will determine how much the learners share. If it is too formal, they shall concetrate on trying to develop ‘the right answer.’

Learning points

“Dear Auntie...” is a scenario that helps relate basic facts about STDs and sex to real life situations. It is important that the students realize that they are not invicible and that they too can get an STD. Be specific about the signs and symptoms of the common STDs. Some points for discussion:

· Betrayal

Youth treasure trust. They want to trust and be trusted. That is the essence of peer groups. A betrayal of trust is a very big let-down that can lead to greater emotional problems.

· Pressure vis-a-vis sense of belonging

This age group is subject to pressure. Often those who have had sex want others to be in the same boat. It is advisable that we help children see that they do not have to ‘follow the group’ in order to fit in.

· Skills

The presence or absence of skills is usually manifested by particular behaviour(s). It is crucial that children develop skills so that they are able to analyse their situations, know what they want and be able to resist peer pressure.

· Girl child and gender issues

Society often views women as sex objects. This misconception is usually formed at this stage. Boys need to know that they ought to respect girls but, similarly girls need to know that their role in society is not based on sexual favours. They have a right to say ‘no.’ This resolve needs to be developed this early.

· It is important that the students realize that they are not invicible and that they too can get an STD.

· Be specific about the signs and symptoms of the common STDs.

Hints

· For both activities, it is essential that the children enjoy the completing them. This depends a lot on how you introduce the sessions.

· Ensure that the children discuss and that the talkative ones do not dominate the discussions.

· Pick out highlights of their results and discuss those in plenary. Discussing every thing may not be as effective.

· Do not demoralize. Understand the children and appreciate their points of view.

Extension Activities

Students can do the following:

1. List down 4 STDs that are rampant and their signs and symptoms.
2. Write 4 reasons it is good to tell a partner that one has an STD.
3. Watch the film “Consequences” and ask the youth to look out for the following:

(i) Unsafe behaviour.
(ii) Points where Rita could have said ‘no.’
(iii) The point at which the course of the film could have changed to better results.

4. Find out the types of STDs common in the area and the age groups most affected.
5. Where do youth get their STD treatment?

TOPIC

AIDS

ACTIVITY ONE

SOCIAL FACTORS IN THE SPREAD OF AIDS

Introduction

AIDS is one of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases, as it may have been mentioned by the students during discussions in the previous activities. In Uganda, the onset of HIV/AIDS according to the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) 1994, is the ages of 12 to 15. This means that it is contracted within this age group (Senior 1 and Senior 2).

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List 4 ways in which HIV is contracted and 4 ways it is not.

2. Name 2 situations or circumstances which could predispose an individual to the risk of contracting HIV.

3. Appreciate the need to and list ways in which one can say ‘no’ to sex.

4. Assess levels of risk, behaviours and categories among peers and community.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, peer resistance, effective communication, empathy, negotiation, assertiveness and coping with emotion.

Time: 60 minutes

Materials

Copies of the activity sheet, “Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions,” the “ Namata role play” and newspaper clippings on stories that say something about HIV/AIDS, rape and defilement.

Procedure

1. Introduce the topic by telling the students that AIDS is a communicable disease, and that it is also an STD. The reason it is being handled separately is because of the fact that it is an epidemic in the country, as well as a pandemic (pan means ‘across,’ pandemic means ‘an epidemic across nations’). Many of us have lost friends and loved ones and are aware of the effects of AIDS. AIDS has many complicated issues surrounding it. This activity looks at a few.

2. Divide students into groups of 4 or 5 students. Give each group a pair of statements from the activity sheet, “Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions.” They may pick up a statement of choice. You could write the statements on slips of paper, roll them up and ask one person from each group to pick two pieces.

3. Ask one person to give the group’s input on only one of their statements. Ask the class for any responses to these inputs.

“Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions” handout

This activity may be used as a discussion starter. Any one of these questions may be used alone.


What do you think?

(i)

Most boys exaggerate their sexual experiences when talking about them.

(ii)

When girls say ‘no’ to sex, they really mean ‘yes!’

(iii)

Girls want sex more than boys, it is only that they fear to ask for it.

(iv)

A boy should have sex before marriage so that he knows what to do. However, women should be virgins at marriage.

(v)

If you do no have sex, your penis shrinks and you suffer from backache.

(vi)

Only careless people get STDs.

(vii)

Clean people do not get STDs.

(viii)

A man cannot be raped, only a woman can.

(ix)

A man should not say ‘no’ to a woman who has asked him for sex. It is cowardly.


Figure

4. Ask these general questions:

(i) Where do we get our beliefs, values and opinions from?
(ii) Are they always right?
(iii) How do we know when to accomodate or change our beliefs and when not to?

5. Summarise using some of the learning points below.

6. Merge two small groups to form large ones of about 8 to 10 children. Give each group a copy of the Namata role play to be discussed for about 5 minutes.

7. The students act out the role play.

8. Lead the students in a discussion about the issues which came up.

“Namata role play” handout

Namata lives in Buyikwe. In her village men think that women should never say “no” to a man who makes a pass (asks for sex). Namata has read a tot about STDs and AIDS in school. She has also read many newspaper articles about how men oppress and take advantage of women. She is determined that this should never happen to her.

Role play

Namata was reading and completing her assignment, when the head prefect walked into the class. He told Namata she had been called by the teacher on duty.

Outside the class, he told her how much he liked her...

Questions for discussion

(i) What did Namata do in that situation?
(ii) Why did she do it?
(iii) Is love shown by having sex?
(iv) What skills does one need to ensure that one does not have sex until s/he is ready?
(v) What skills do boys need to respect a girl who says ‘no’?
(vi) What skills do boys need to appreciate that love and sex are not the I same thing?

Learning points

· Beliefs, values and opinions are formed as we grow. They are a result of our individual background - the homes we come from, our parents’ values, our own experiences as we grow, our friends, religion or beliefs in God and other factors.

· Beliefs, values and opinions should always be handled in a context of others as well as the knowledge and accurate information that we have. It is important that we know our own beliefs and always think about the good of others.

· Myths are twisted ‘truth.’ Very often they are based on selfish ideas and are usually in the interest of one party (individual or group). We should always check what we believe against available knowledge and information.

· Girls should not be looked upon as sex objects. They are individuals like any male, have ambitions, dreams and goals which they should persue.

· There are laws that deal with issues such as rape, defilement and sex with minors (Uganda Penal Code). The following is a quote from “The rights of the child.”

“Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.”

This means that we are all responsible for the protection of children (under 18) against such behaviour.

Hints

· If the role plays were similar then proceed with the discussion points on the activity sheet.

· If the role plays were not similar, hold a discussion with the youth about some of the differences observed.

· It may be interesting to divide the groups up by gender and see what sort of role plays they come up with. It is most probable that they will be different. (Feel free to use your own discretion to decide which grouping is best).

Extension Activities

1. What behaviour is associated to each of the following different risk categories - high risk, low risk and no risk. Give examples.

2. Give out the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) 1993 graph, “The distribution of AIDS cases in Uganda.” Ask the students to give reasons - contained in the secondary school health kit on HIV/AIDS - why:

(i) AIDS cases seem non-existent in the ages 5 to 9 years?
(ii) AIDS cases start at 12 years onward?
(iii) more girls than boys get HIV/AIDS?

3. Get newspapers (The New Vision, The Daily Monitor, The Crusader, Straight Talk, etc.) and record stories that talk of AIDS, HIV, sex, defilement and rape, etc.

(i) What explanation can you give some of these activities?
(ii) How can girls be protected from sexual exploitation and manipulation?
(iii) Narrate the story that touched you most. Explain why.

4. What is the relationship between AIDS and economic factors? Why do people give sexual favours for economic gifts and rewards?

ACTIVITY ONE

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AND AIDS

Introduction

In the last activities, students discussed communicable and non-communicable diseases as a foundation point. At this level, more concetration is laid on STDs and AIDS basically because this is meant for a higher and vulnerable age group - Senior Four students. These students are about to go out of school either for long holidays, or even forever and are therefore prone to sexual activity.

Objectives

By the end of the class, students should be able to:

1. Name 5 STDs, explain how they are transmitted and how they can be prevented.
2. Know ways in which they can avoid risky situations and behaviour.
3. Discuss ways for looking after sick people.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, problem solving, self awareness, assertiveness and peer resistance.

Time: 60 minutes.

Material

Copy of the story, “Can you tell you have an STD?

Procedure

1. Tell the group that while in Senior Two, they learn about STDs. This activity looks at STDs to analyse the factors the surround its transmission and the associated complications.

2. Divide the class into groups of 5 or 6 students and give everybody a copy of the story, “Can you tell you have an STD?” Ask them to read it and discuss one of the stories on each.

3. Let the group reassemble after about half an hour. Ask a volunteer from each group to share what their responses were to each question. Allow a little room for clarification from the other participants of the group.

4. Discuss the following questions:

(i) Could Kato and Nafuna have avoided getting STDs?
(ii) What factors contribute to Nafuna desiring many partners? Is she secure? How could she develop a good self-image and influence her behaviour and attitudes.

“Can you tell you have an STD?”

Below are two stories of young people - Kato and Nafuna - from different parts of Uganda.

Kato

Kato was a great athlete in school and was therefore popular with the girls. When in Senior One, he was one of the best table tennis players and was in the school team. However, being in Senior One, not many people noticed him.

Kato’s popularity started in Senior Two, when he showed more of his skills in sport. By Senior Three, he was the best dancer in the school and a member of the school football team. This made him popular with the girls.

One day when Kato was in the toilet, he noticed that he was having difficulty urinating...

Questions for discussion

(i) What are the commonest signs and symptoms of an STD?
(ii) What symptom did Kato manifest?
(iii) How would he have got the infection? When (duration) would he have contracted it?
(iv) How would he have prevented himself from getting infected? (v) What should Kato do in this situation?

Nafuna

Nafuna was in Senior Two. She was definitely the most beautiful but this did not give her confidence. She was the only daughter from a family of 17. Her mother was the third wife.

To keep friends, Nafuna would easily have sex with them and in fact among the boys she was referred to as ‘school bus.’ They just wanted to use her then drop her.

One night, after bathing she realised that she was having an abnormal discharge.

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think is the matter with Nafuna?
(ii) What should Nafuna do about her condition?
(iii) If you were Nafuna, who would you confide in?

5. Group leaders present findings to plenary and wrap up activity.

Hints

· Look for ways and means to correct wrong thinking, risky beliefs and particularly myths. Address this by highlighting a few of them and bouncing them back to the group.

· Youth at this age have lots of myths, correction should be done with a lot of tact. Do not moralize!

Learning Points

· Review signs and symptoms of STDs.
· Review local names of common STDs and treatments offered (herbs, etc.).
· STDs are not the only consequences of unprotected sex. Pregnancy is another.


Figure

ACTIVITY TWO

“SEX... IS EVERYONE DOING IT?”

Introduction

Most youth have the belief that everybody is having sex. As a result they think thay are missing out and want to do something about it. This therefore may predispose people to contracting STDs/AIDS. This activity challenges some of these attitudes.

Time: 60 minutes.

Material

Copy of the activity sheet, “Sex... is everyone doing it?”

Procedure

1. Inform the students about the fact that people often make (erroneous) assumptions about sexual activity. We want to explore the social issues surrounding STDs.

2. Divide the class into 2 or 3 groups and give out to each a copy of the activity sheet, “Sex... is everyone doing it?” Tell them that they have 40 minutes to do this activity. Encourage everybody to discuss in their groups and share their independent views.

3. Reconvene the groups for general guided discussions. Ask the groups to explain why they chose to end the dialogue the way they did.

(i) Was it easy to reach concensus (agreement) in the group?
(ii) Did Kapere have sex or not? If not, how did he resist the pressure? What skills did he use?

Hints

· Ensure that the usually quiet students are encouraged to get involved in the discussion and that the loud and talkative ones do not monopolise the discussion. If the likelihood of talkative students dominating the group work is high, seek alternative ways of grouping the class.

· A friendly conducive environment is critical for discussion. Some groups may discuss outside the classroom if that helps.

· Look up the treatment of common STDs so that you direct the discussion with confidence. Find out the rampant STDs in your locality.

“Sex... is everyone doing it?” handout

Kapere and Ongom were good friends since primary school days. Ongom was clever and joined a good secondary school in Senior One. Kapere was not as clever and he joined this school in Senior Three. Ongom was so glad to be re-united to Kapere. “I will show you around,” he promised Kapere.

When the school dance (‘Senior Four Social’) was organised, the school invited a girls’ school to attend. Ongom thought he could introduce Kapere to some facts of life.

Ongom: “Kapere, tomorrow is the school social and 1 want to make sure you know what to do...”
Kapere: “That is kind of you man. What exactly do you mean?”
Ongom: “I am aware that you have not had a lover...”
Kapere: “So...”
Ongom: “So tomorrow I want to get you one...”
Kapere: “But... I do not want...”
Ongom: (angry) “Everybody is calling you a ‘woman’... do you want that? Prove yourself man. I have always been protecting you...”

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think is happening in the story?
(ii) Does manhood mean having sex?
(iii) What options does Kapere have? What should he do if he does not want to have sex?
(iv) Read through the dialogue again, and write an end to it.

Extension Activities

1. Discuss the following:

(i) What leads young people to get involved in sexual activity?
(ii) What can young girls do to avoid being sexually used and abused by men?
(iii) What are some economic factors that lead people to engage in sexual activity?
(iv) What are the economic implications of HIV/AIDS on the nation?

2. Consider calling a resource person. Ask students whether they have any particular person in mind.

3. Ask the class to collect newspaper clippings on stories that say something about HIV/AIDS. Hold a discussion on their findings (which may be done in groups).

TOPIC

AIDS - SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISEASE

Introduction

AIDS has been a big issue and crisis in Uganda for more than 10 years. The greatest concern is the fact that it is the youthful population that is most affected. This population therefore needs to be given a supportive physical and social environment and be made aware of the nature and dangers of risky behaviour.

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List 5 ways in which HIV can be contracted (behaviour situations).
2. Clarify situations that are risky and develop skills to get out of them.

ACTIVITY ONE

“WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT AIDS?”

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, peer resistance, effective communication, negotiation, assertiveness and coping with emotion.

Time: 60 minutes

Materials

Questionnaire, “What do you know about AIDS?”

Procedures

1. Give out the questionnaire on “What do you know about AIDS?” Ask each individual to read through and answer each question. Tell them it is not a test but a way to clarify one’s thinking, and that no one will be asked their individual answers.

2. After this activity, collect all the papers and then redistribute them so that people do not have their own answers.

3. Lead a discussion based on key questions of your choice.

4. Correct the myths surrounding HIV transmission and cure.

(i) Where do we get our values from? Beliefs?

(ii) How do we know whether our opinions are accurate?

(iii) What should we do when we discover that what we held so dear is actually wrong?

(iv) Essay question: What is the role of social relationships, age and money in the transmission of HIV/AIDS.

(v) What skills or behaviours could help stop young people from being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS?

Handout “What do you know about HIV/AIDS”

This is a quiz to held students assess the information they know about HIV/AIDS scientific and behavioural facts. Please mark ‘T’ for true, and ‘F’ for false” after reading each statement carefully. It is not a test.


Statement

True or false

(i)

AIDS is an STD.

(ii)

You cannot get AIDS from somebody who has AIDS.

(iii)

You cannot get HIV/AIDS if you use a condom.

(iv)

It is easier for a young girl to contract HIV than an older woman.

(v)

You can see and know somebody who is HIV positive.

(vi)

AIDS really means American Invention to Discourage Sex.

(vii)

AIDS can be cured if you eat dog soup.

(viii)

You cannot contract HIV if you have sex only once.

(ix)

You can cure AIDS by having sex with a virgin.

(x)

It is people with HIV, and not people with full-blown AIDS who spread the virus.

(xi)

People with AIDS have signs and symptoms.

(xii)

People with HIV have signs and symptoms.

(xiii)

You can contract HIV/AIDS from a classmate/schoolmate.

(xiv)

It is not possible to abstain from sex till marriage.

(xv)

Sex drive is an appetite that needs to be satisfied like hunger.

(xvi)

You develop health problems if you do not have sex.

(xvii)

Girls have a right to say ‘no’ to boys (their lovers) who ask for sex.

(xviii)

Sex means that a girl loves you.

(xix)

A relationship with no sex does not last for long.

Learning points

· Emphasize the facts about HIV/AIDS (transmission, etc.)

· Emphasize the role of social relationships in the transmission in Uganda is through hetero-sexual transmission.

· Explain the merits of regular medical check-ups, and the role of hygiene in the prevention of STD transmission.

ACTIVITY TWO

“RAPED, DEFILED AND DISGRACED”

Materials

A copy of case study, “Raped, defiled and disgraced.”

Procedures

1. Divide the class into group of 8 to 10 learners. Ask them to read through the case study and to discuss the questions attached. This should take about 25 minutes.

2. Call back the group and have a winding up discussion.

Hints

· AIDS is a social issue and hence a lot of emphasis is laid on sexual activity because of the critical stage at which learners are at. Rape and defilement are ways that some people may contract STDs and/or HIV/AIDS. We want to use this story to explore factors that may lead to rape.

· Encourage a lot of discussion among the learners themselves, before you offer guidance. Unless people talk it is difficult to know what faulty/dangerous information they may have.

Handout “Raped, defiled and disgraced” case study

In the Bible there is a story of a brother who had sex with his stepsister. The boy was Amnon, and the girt, Tamar. They were both children of King David, King of Israel.

Amnon had a beautiful sister whom he desired so much so much that he wanted to make love to her. His desire was so strong that Amnon fell sick. King David was concerned about his sickness and asked what he could do to help. Amnon sent back a message saying that he requested his sister to come and serve him food.

When Tamar came to serve him, Amnon chased everybody away. When she came closer, he grabbed her and made love to her. When he had finished the Bible tells us that, “... he hated her with a hatred stronger than the love he had for her.” Amnon chased Tamar away, “Go away.” Tamar refused. She cried saying he had to take responsibility for disgracing her...

Questions for discussion

(i) How could a girl in Tamar’s situation have got out of such a situation?
(ii) If you were Tamar, who would you tell? What action would you take against Amnon?
(iii) What laws do you know that protect girls from such actions?
(iv) Why do men take advantage of women?
(v) Culture says that, “Such matters between family members are private.” As a result, many abused children do not talk. What do you think about this? What should be done to change that?


Figure

Learning points

· Difference between HIV+ status and AIDS

· Many people feel that they can rely on their eyes to tell who is HIV+ and therefore ‘dangerous’ for sexual activity and who is not. This is not the case. An HIV+ person may be sick for many years before s/he develops regular signs that people can see. Before that time s/he could have infected many more people.

· AIDS is a state where the person is ill and has regular signs and symptoms that can be seen. This is usually the terminal state of the HIV disease. It is rare that people at this stage spread the virus because people are cautious of them.

· The difference between the above two stages is that one cannot be detected by the eyes (HIV+) whereas the second one often can be (AIDS).

· Young girls (14 to 20) and mature women (21 to 29) body differences

· The lining in the private parts of a girl (vagina) is not as well developed as that of an older woman. It is thinner and not ready for sexual activity.

· The chances of a young girl getting HIV than an older woman may be said to be greater because a young girl would get more bruises in sexual activity due to thinner vaginal lining and because there are fewer vaginal secretions intended for sexual activity.

· A young girl of between 14 to 20 years is also not ‘ready’ for child-bearing activity.

· Sex and love

· Many young people feel and think that the test of true love is sex. As a result they may pressure the friends of the opposite sex for love.

· Distinction needs to be made between sex (an activity) and love (a mutual friendship/relationship). It is healthy to have friends of the opposite sex to broaden our understanding of the opposite sex and to fulfil our desire to reate as male and female.

· Premature sexual activity may often ruin friendships and the development of persons, because the interest may be turned to physical intimacy.

· Assertiveness and saying ‘no...’

· Traditional views of sex always have men asking for sex and girls responding. Boys often do not accept ‘no’ for an answer.

· In this era of AIDS both men and women or boys and girls need to appreciate that women are not sex objects to be wooed and conquered for sex. As a result men/boys need to accept ‘no’ as an answer and to respect it.

· Women/girls on the other hand need to develop skills of how to say ‘no’. These skills may need to be practiced. A good ‘no’ is said with confidence, and where both the body language and the words are matching and saying the same thing.

· Some of the reasons why there are more girls with HIV than boys between 12 and 24 years of age may be partly due to the inability of girls/women to say ‘no’ to sexual advances.

· AIDS has no cure

· It is useful that young people know that there is no cure as yet for AIDS. This should be presented in a manner that they see and understand the scientific argument. Take time to find out common local drugs that have been said to cure AIDS and hold a discussion on them.

· Impotence and abstinence

· Children often argue that if they are not sexually active, their private parts (boys’ penises) will shrink and the girls will develop cramps. This is not true. Penises do not atrophy (shrink) because of ‘non-usage’ in sexual activity.

· Abstinence should therefore not be discouraged or thought to be impractical due to the above belief. It is a myth and needs to be presented as a myth and an untruth.

Extension Activities

1. Consider calling in a person living with AIDS to give a talk about how social/economic factors influence the spread of AIDS.

2. Film show on, “Philly Bongoley Lutaaya.”

3. Film shows on, “More Time,” which deals on relationships and, “Making Choices.”

4. School visit to a Post-Test Club - where people living positively with AIDS - may be visited and discussions held.

ACTIVITY THREE

“SHARING THINGS’

Materials

Copies of stories on “Alenyo has a skin disease” and “Regina contracts an STD.”

Procedure

1. Explain to the participants that sharing of clothes is very common in secondary schools, most especially in Senior Four. We are going to examine behaviour and lifestyle that lead people to such situations.

2. Divide the class into 4 groups. Pass out the stories, “Alenyo has a skin disease” and “Regina contracts an STD.” Ask 2 of the 4 groups to handle a similar story, and the other 2 to handle the second same story.

3. Ask the groups to reconvene and ask 2 people to share thoughts from their group (one for the story of the boy and another for the story of the girl).

4. Conclude the discussion with some of the questions below.

(i) What things pressure us into sharing clothes and other items?
(ii) How could we ensure that we stay safe from infection?
(iii) What did you think about Regina getting an STD by sharing items? Did it scare you?

“Alenyo has a skin problem” handout

It was coming to the end of the year and it was a time of excitement. There was a lot of activity. “... socials only for Senior Fours?” one Senior Two boy was heard asking another.

Alenyo was frantic. He did not have suitable clothes, perfume, shoes. How would he impress the girls? Alenyo decided to get a Senior Two boy who came from a rich family. He would strike a deal. If he promised him some food, he would probably agree to lend Alenyo some clothes, a pair of shoes and perfume.

Alenyo enjoyed the social. Three weeks later he was still talking about the two gins he had met. He had even received three letters! Boy, wasn’t he popular.

One day while showering, he noticed some things on his skin. What could it be? Where did it come from?

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think Alenyo observed on his skin?
(ii) Where do you think he got it from?
(iii) What behaviour could have led Alenyo to get this infection?
(iv) What could he have done to prevent this?
(v) What other things do boys share that could cause them risk?
(vi) What hygienic behaviour could we practice to ensure we do not contract infections?


Figure

“Regina contracts an STD” handout

It was a Senior Four social and Nakalema was in need of good clothing. She sat down and planned what to do. Regina was a Senior Two gin and her father was a Member of Parliament for Akukulu county. They were rich.

On the social day, Nakalema asked Regina for some clothes, including some new under-clothing. Akello was another girl who came to Regina and borrowed her basin and comb. Regina did not want to lend anything but the excitement in the air was so great she could not resist.

One month later, Regina noticed that she had a thick white discharge. “What on earth is happening to me?” she wondered. When it persisted, she decided to go and ask her favourite teacher, Miss Matata. She was told that she had an STD. Regina was shocked, how could this be, she had never had sex. She cried and explained to Miss Matata. Miss Matata believed her.

Questions for discussion

(i) Where do you think Regina contracted the STD from? How did she contract it?
(ii) What other infections could she have got from sharing things?
(iii) What advice would you give Regina in her present situation? How would you advise her to protect herself in the future?

Hints

· Allow the groups time to discuss exhaustively. The discussion, especially the Regina story, may help them address the issue of hygiene, which they perceive as risky.

· Be ready to handle clarification about common infections. You may need to consult the school nurse or another medical person, or in fact ask them to talk with the children.

Extension activities

1. Write a story about what skills and behaviour Regina needs to have in order to help herself stay safe (Do this in the 4 groups).

2. Find out from the Senior Five and Senior Six in your school whether they used to borrow clothes for the Senior Four social. Ask them why they think this practice was in their schools.

ORAL HEALTH

Introduction

This section addresses the importance of caring for the mouth. The healthy practices that an individual has to observe to promote good oral health are discussed.

The consequences of poor oral health arising from poor diet, cultural practices and drugs are highlighted.

TOPIC

CARE OF THE MOUTH

ACTIVITY ONE

HOW AND WHEN TO BRUSH THE TEETH

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Make toothbrushes from twigs
2. Demonstrate proper techniques of brushing the teeth and cleaning the tongue
3. Explain the importance of keeping the teeth and tongue clean

Life Skills to be developed

Self-awareness, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, decision making.

Materials

Twigs to make local tooth brushes/tooth brushes and tooth picks, toothpaste, salt mixed with soda bicarbonate, clean water.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Ask the students the following questions:

(i) What do you use to brush your teeth?
(ii) When and how do you brush and clean the teeth and tongue?

2. Show students how to make a local tooth brush.

3. Demonstrate to students how to use a tooth brush (local or modern) and the correct way of brushing the teeth.

4. Distribute twigs to each student.

5. Students make a tooth brush (local) by chewing one end of the twig and sharpening the other end to a point.

6. Put toothpaste or salt on the brush with a bit of water.

7. Practice using the stick (or tooth brush) in pairs

8. Discuss the importance and correct way of brushing the teeth and cleaning the tongue.

9. Conclude the activity.

Learning Points

· Brushing you teeth wrongly drags your gum away from your teeth and breaks the membranes, so germs (microbes) get in and cause tooth decay (dental caries). The teeth have to be removed or filled with cement.

· Using the sharpened end of a toothpick to remove food stops food packing into spaces between teeth and giving germs (microbes) a home.

· It is important to brush teeth and clean the tongue regularly and thoroughly to remove all plaque and food remains. Rinse your mouth with safe, clean water.

· Brushing the teeth removes bad breath.

· Brush your teeth and gums every day and before going to bed.

· Each person should have their own tooth brush or brushstick.

· Use salt or tooth paste when brushing, not broken sticks, charcoal, sand or other hard materials.

· Use safe and clean water.

· You should eat healthy food not too many sweets.

· Using teeth as a tool when opening bottle tops is dangerous for the teeth.

Hints

· You should have enough toothbrushes/brushsticks for all the students.
· Discourage the use of sand and charcoal while brushing the teeth and cleaning the tongue.

Extension Activities

1. Answer these questions:

(i) What types of food are most likely to get stuck between your teeth?
(ii) Why do you get a nasty taste in your mouth when bits of meat get stuck for some time?

2. Read newspapers which have information on health for any dental tips.

TOPIC

EFFECT OF POOR ORAL HEALTH CARE

ACTIVITY ONE

EFFECT OF NOT BRUSHING THE TEETH REGULARLY Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Name the common oral diseases
2. Describe the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases.
3. Practise good oral health care

Life Skills to be developed

Self-awareness, self-esteem, decision making and critical thinking.

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

Healthy and unhealthy teeth, charts, pictures, transparencies, dil. hydrochloric acid, two small containers, large sheet of paper, markers.

Procedure

1. Review the importance of brushing the teeth and cleaning the tongue regularly.

2. Divide the students into groups and give each group a large sheet of paper and marker pens.

3. Students discuss the statement “What can go wrong when teeth are not regularly brushed?”

4. Groups report back to plenary for further discussion.

5. Teacher shows differences between healthy and unhealthy teeth and development of the diseases in teeth and gums.

6. Students discuss the overall effects of not brushing the teeth.

Learning Points

When teeth are not brushed regularly:

· teeth get brown and black holes which look ugly.

· the holes are small at first but if they are not filled by a dental worker, they turn into big holes which hurt.

· the person concerned normally has a toothache, bad breath and may even have a boil or abscess in gums surrounding the teeth.

· decayed teeth can affect the health of the rest of the body.

· the teeth may be so decayed that they have to be taken out.

· when teeth and gums are not cleaned properly, plaque forms around them at the base of the tooth.

· a diet with a high sugar content often produces particularly heavy accumulation of plaque.

· if plaque is allowed to accumulate, it can calcify and harden to form tartar (black-brownish spots on the teeth).

· the gums become inflamed and one develops gingivitis and destruction of the peridontal tissues (peridontal disease).

Hints

· Use real teeth specimens, pictures and film slides to show differences between healthy and unhealthy teeth and charts/transparencies to show development of the diseases in teeth and gums.

· Emphasise Article 24 of the CRC which states:

“To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with emphasis on the development of primary health care.”

Extension Activities

Students can do the following:

1. Share their own life experiences for example by discussing:

“A bad oral health experience I had.”

2. Prepare an advertisement about dental health, spelling out how to prevent formation of cavities.

3. Find out the prevalence of individuals with missing teeth or with teeth that have turned brown and assess whether this is connected with the way they care for them. But this should not cause embarrassment to your colleagues. Be polite and respectful.


Brush your teeth regularly and visit the dentist when you can.

TOPIC

DIET AND ORAL HEALTH

ACTIVITY ONE

GOOD AND BAD FOODS FOR THE TEETH

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Distinguish foods which promote good oral health from those which lead to poor oral health.

2. Identify foods which have only a few nutrients and are bad for the teeth.

3. Choose more healthy foods.

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Biscuits, sweets, toffees, sugar cane, milk, vegetables, eggs, sodas, carrots, pawpaw.

Procedure

1. Divide students into groups and ask group leaders to collect foods from the teacher’s bench.

2. Groups discuss which types of food are good or bad for the teeth and why and list other foods which are good or bad for the teeth.

3. Groups present their findings to the plenary for discussion. Write down all answers and guide class to come up with a list of common foods which promote good oral health.

Learning points

· Bacteria + food containing a lot of sugar = acid + caries
· Foods containing a lot of sugar include cakes, jam, biscuits and sweets.
· Common foods which are good for the teeth include fruits, vegetables, sugar cane.

Hint

· Adolescents tend to be attracted to foods which damage the teeth when used excessively. You should not be judgemental on this but encourage them to choose the healthier foods.

Extension Activities

Students can answer the following questions:

(i) What foods do you like at home? Are any of them likely to affect your teeth? Why?

(ii) What advice would you give family members and friends about foods they should eat to protect their teeth and gums?

ACTIVITY TWO

EFFECTS OF DIET ON TEETH

Objectives

By the end of the class, students should be able to:

1. Distinguish between foods that promote good oral health and those that lead to bad oral health.

2. Identify peer influences that promote poor oral health.

3. Choose healthier foods.

Life Skills to be developed

Peer resistance, self-awareness, self-esteem

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

Container (ie big empty bag), items to represent fruits)

Procedure

1. Ask students to volunteer to role play “That is Not Grub”.
2. Give typed copies of the instructions of the play to volunteers.
3. Volunteers role play while the others observe.

“THAT’S NOT GRUB. WHAT WILL MY FRIENDS SAY?”

Today is a visiting day at Orogo Secondary School. David, an S.2 in the school, is looking forward to his mother’s visit and the usual ‘grub’: biscuits, sweets, chocolate, cakes, jam, orange squash, rice and chicken which make him popular among his friends. In fact, they won’t go for lunch today because they’re expecting to enjoy David’s grub as usual. David is their man!

When mother arrives, she is so pleased with herself for having supplemented David’s grub, as he requested on her last visit. From her ‘Kikapu*’ she sorts out in front of David all she has brought for him: ‘bogoya*’, ‘fene*’, pawpaws, oranges, mangoes, avocados, sugarcane and pineapples. David is shocked. How could his mother do this to him? How does he walk back to the company of his friends? What will they say?

Footnote

kikapu* - a type of woven mat basket
bogoya* - A type of plantain eaten ripe

fene* - jack fruit

4. Class divides into groups to discuss the following questions:

(i) Why did David worry about what his friends would say?
(ii) Why do you think David did not appreciate the types of food mother brought for him?
(iii) What kind of ‘grub’ do you normally like?
(iv) What adjustments would you make in your ‘grub’ in order to improve your diet?

5. Group leaders present findings to plenary and wrap up activity.

Learning Points

· If a person eats sugar frequently, his teeth will be attacked by acid many times and gradually cavities will develop in the teeth.

· The most important factor is not the total amount of sugar that is consumed within a given period but the number of times sugar enters the mouth.

· Calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D are essential for the formation and development of teeth. Fluorides are important for prevention of caries.

Hints

· Ensure good time management.
· Promote the fresh foods commonly found in Uganda rather than packaged foods.


Eat nourishing foods as well as fresh foods to keep your teeth healthy.

Extension Activity

Graph on Fluoridation and accompanying questions.

(Adapted from “An Integrated Approach to Biology for East Africa” by Sopers and Smith)

TOPIC

ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM

Introduction

Due to their curiosity and their wish to try out new things, as well as their growing wish to assert themselves and be regarded as adults, adolescents are often tempted to try alcohol. This is expecially true if members of their peer group are already drinking, since they tend to value the opinions of their peer group more than their parents and other adults who they view as outdated and unnecessarily restrictive. They are often influenced also by those adults they see drinking, especially if the adult drinking (to excess) is then the one who is telling them not to drink.

They therefore need to be given a supportive physical and social environment and be made aware of the nature and dangers of alcohol abuse.

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the reasons for taking alcohol and its dangers.

2. Differentiate between alcohol use and abuse.

3. Counteract the rumours, myths and misconceptions advanced by peers about taking alcohol.

4. Demonstrate responsible behaviour with regard to alcohol.

Time: 40 minutes

Materials

Newspaper cuttings on alcohol related accidents, advertisements for beer, Penal Code concerning alcohol.

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups and ask them to read the dialogue aloud in pairs. Choose two students to read in front of the class.

2. In groups discuss:

(i) What are some of the reasons John and his friends give for drinking? What do you think of them?

(ii) What other reasons do other people (who you know) have for drinking?

(iii) What strategies did Sam use to avoid drinking? Which do you think were the most effective?

(iv) What do you think happened next?

3. Groups prepare a role play of a few minutes to present to the rest of the class on how the evening between John and Jane, as well as Sam and Gertrude ended.

4. After the role plays, the class discusses the following questions.

SCENARIO FOR ROLE PLAY

John is an S.4 student in Kamkam S.S. who drinks a lot. He has invited Jane, an S.2 in Kamwenge S.S. to go out with him on the weekend. He takes his father’s car to go and meet her. They expect Gertrude and her boyfriend Sam, their great friends, to join them.

At Ange Noir, Gertrude joins Jane and John in persuading Sam into trying a little Pilsner or “Chairman’s”, or even a little “Uganda Wa’.” He won’t die after all! Who doesn’t want to be great, anyway? Life is worth all the fun. And that is the greatest moment Gertrude has been looking forward to. She couldn’t continue moving with a “falla*” of a boyfriend who is a step behind.

Sam is perplexed. He wasn’t prepared for this.

Footnote

falla* - slang for an unfashionable/non-sophisticated person


Figure

(i) Which role play did you think was the more realistic? Why?

(ii) What dangers, risks, or behaviour problems do you think alcohol drinkers have? (Use statistics to illustrate the problems among youth in families and society).

(iii) Have you ever been persuaded to drink? How did you feel?

(iv) What are the best ways to resist pressure?

(v) How would you get home from a social event if your driver had been drinking alcohol? What would you say? What would you do?

Learning points

· Alcohol, even in small quantities, affects the brain.
· It is a myth that people can drive better etc. after taking alcohol. Alcohol slows down the reflexes.

Hints

· Refer to newspaper cuttings on deaths caused by incidences related to alcohol. And advertisement language for Alcohol.

· Photocopy Penal Code on Alcohol.

· Make sure you praise each group for their presentation before you you ask for comparisons.

· If there is not enough time, the last questions could be answered as an extension activity.

· Encourage class members to relate their real experiences.

Extension Activities

1. Look at advertisements on alcohol and discuss what the advertisements are trying to say. Why do they seem to be convicing?

2. Design your own advertisement or campaign poster against the drinking of alcohol by students.

3. Debate: “Alcohol should be banned”.

Two local examples of advertisements on alcohol.


Figure


Figure

SMOKING

Introduction

Smoking is being promoted with more vigour today as new brands of cigarettes hit the market. Most adolescents may, initially, have no intention of smoking but in their search for identity, to belong, to experiment or simply to pass time and enjoy themselves, they become involved in smoking too. They don’t want to lose out on the currently popular activities advanced by mass media especially since this is a stage when values fluctuate between those of their parents and those of their peers.

The masculine cowboy figure, the images of success and dominance all appeal to adolescents, especially male adolescents. They therefore need to be aware of the influences surrounding them, so that they can confront them, as well as being aware of the effects of smoking so that they can make informed decisions.

TOPIC

WHAT INFLUENCES PEOPLE TO SMOKE

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Name four ways in which tobacco may be used.
2. Explain the influences which may lead to people smoking and how it can affect them.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, self-esteem, empathy

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

Large sheets of paper or chalkboard, markers, or pens and pencils, masking tape or pins, smoking advertisements from the newspapers, case study, “Ibara.”

Procedure

1. Divide class into groups of five to eight people.
2. Distribute the case study or write on chalkboard or large sheet of paper.

Ibara lived in Kabale. His parents grew and smoked tobacco. From his infancy, Ibara saw his mother smoke and chew tobacco. His father too used to put dried tobacco leaves in a big pipe and send him to light it with burning charcoal, it. Ibara would then smoke a little before handing it to the old man.

Ibara started smoking cigarettes when he was fourteen and soon became a chain smoker. He also chewed, sniffed and at times put dried leaves of tobacco in a pipe and smoked it like his father.

3. Each group discusses the case study and records its findings. The discussion can be centred on the following questions.

(i) How many different ways was tobacco used in Ibara’s home?
(ii) In your opinion, why did Ibara choose smoking?
(iii) If you were Ibara, would you have done any differently? Why?
(iv) What were the influences on Ibara’s decision to smoke tobacco?
(v) Who is a chain smoker?

4. Each group presents its findings for class discussion.

5. Show one smoking advertisement to the class (an example is shown on the next page). Discuss how it tries to attract people to smoke.

6. Distribute other advertisements for group discussion.

(i) What is the message of the advertisement?
(ii) How is it trying to make smoking attractive?
(iii) According to the advertisement what is the advantage of smoking?
(iv) How realistic is the advertisement

7. Each group writes its points on a sheet of paper and puts them on the wall below the advertisement.

8. Students move round looking at the adverts and the analysis of the other groups. They can add further points if they wish.

9. Wrap up activity by soliciting similar or other influences which lead people to smoke (including peer pressure which will be looked at in a later lesson).

Learning points

· Some of the answers as to what influenced Ibara could include the fact that he grew up in a tobacco growing area and family, the example of his parents, curiosity and adventure, practice (from lighting his father’s pipe), search for approval and compliance with family norms.

· Advertisements are most effective when people do not realise how they work. Students should come to see how the advertisements are directly appealing to certain emotions within them, which are not connected at all to the actual fact of smoking (for example, the smoker always has a beautiful girlfriend) to convince them to smoke.

Extension activity

1. Ask students to collect other examples of cigarette adverts from billboards, newspapers, radio and television and write a similar analysis of them to put up in the classroom.


Figure

TOPIC

DECISION MAKING IN SMOKING

Introduction

Adolescents are confronted with a variety of complex issues concerning their growing independence and search for identity. Thus, although, this is the age when abstract thinking which links present action to future consequences is just beginning to develop, many teenagers tend to let their lives take their course without thinking about it too much. Making decisions is a complicated process.

At the same time, the ability to make sound decisions is crucial in life. That is why decision making as a skill must be learned and practised - before it is too late.

ACTIVITY ONE

MAKE YOUR CHOICE

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Explain factors that influence decision making.
2. Illustrate different styles of decision making.
3. Use the appropriate style in relation to smoking.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, self-esteem and decision-making

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

5 parcels, each one containing a number of items wrapped in paper:

Parcel 1:

Items like sweets, bananas, money wrapped in old newspaper.

Parcel 2:

Stones, bottle tops, etc beautifully wrapped in gift paper.

Parcel 3:

Empty biscuit packet stuffed with paper, perfume bottle filled with water, sticks covered with biro tops and some bundles of paper made to appear like money wrapped up nicely.

Parcel 4:

Stones, bottle tops etc wrapped in old newspaper.

Parcel 5:

Books and a mathematical set, wrapped in nice but not colourful paper.

Each parcel should be labelled with its number.

Procedure

1. Place parcels in a row on a table behind the class

2. Divide the class into four teams and explain that the purpose of the game is for each team to win the best deal for itself.

(i) Each team has 200 points which they can use to bargain.

(ii) The most valuable parcel is worth 250 points. The second most valuable is worth 150, the third 100, the fourth 50 and the fifth nothing. Therefore the best deal is connected with the winning the most valuable parcel.

3. Each team chooses one volunteer to go to the back of the classroom and choose the parcel they think has the best contents.

4. Volunteers draw lots as to who is the first to choose.

5. Volunteers choose in turn. They are not allowed to touch the parcels. Members of the team can give advice. After each one has chosen, teams are allowed to negotiate for an exchange of parcels by offering extra points to the other team in order to get the parcel they want.

6. Allow the representatives of each team to pick up their parcels and feel them. They can tell the rest of their team what they feel. Each representative is also allowed to hold the fifth parcel which has not been touched. On the basis of what they feel, they can again try to renegotiate an exchange of parcels through the giving and taking of points. Alternatively, they can bargain for the 5th parcel by giving 100 points to the lecturer.

7. After the negotiations have been completed, the lecturer allows each team to open their parcels. Students decide together which is most valuable, with the lecturer having the casting vote if necessary. Teams add up the points remaining to them together with the points for their parcel.

8. Ask the teams to consider the following questions.

(i) How easy was it to choose a parcel the first time? Why?

(ii) On what did they base any negotiations for a change of parcels the first time?

(iii) When they felt the parcels, how much did their knowledge of what was inside change? To what extent did it provoke them into bargaining for a different one?

(iv) How did they decide how much to bargain? Did they make any calculations as to how many points it was worth giving away in the bargaining?

(v) How did they feel when they opened their parcels? Any regrets? Self-congratulation?

9. After teams have considered these questions and presented them briefly to plenary, ask them what this game taught them about the process of decision making.

10. Conclude the activity by reiterating that this was a game and therefore no serious consequences of our choices were suffered. However, the same processes are applied to all our decisions for which we have to take the consequences. Ask students to give examples in their lives where decisions have to be made with similar kinds of circumstances.

Learning points

· In the discussion of this, the following facts should come out:

(i) Collecting information or facts is important in decision making.

(ii) Choosing a parcel without sufficient information is a clear demonstration of how we often make decisions with little or no information. Even though we only have outside impressions we make decisions and often get quite emotional about them and develop all sorts of reasons to justify our decisions.

(iii) After feeling the parcels, they were able to make more informed decisions. However, once again the information was incomplete and the possibility of making the wrong decision was still quite high. The way different team members made decisions about whether to bargain or not etc. is a sign of how much we consider before making decisions in our lives.

(iv) After opening the parcels, it was very clear which decisions should have been made. This also happens often in life. We are wise ‘after the event’ but it is sometimes too late, which is why we have to be very careful about what decisions we make beforehand.

· Decision making is a process.

· Just as forming a habit is a process, so is rejecting a habit and adopting another.

· There is no right or wrong decision but there are principles and the individual must take responsibility for her/his own actions.

Hints

· The lecturer should not be tempted to provide a ‘dos and don’ts’ approach to behaviour change.

· The lecturer should try as much as possible to develop the students’ ability to reflect on their own behaviour and decide whether they need to change.

ACTIVITY TWO

TO SMOKE OR NOT TO SMOKE?

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of smoking.
2. Make informed and health promoting decisions in their own lives, especially in relation to smoking.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, empathy.

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Students remain in the same teams as the previous lesson.

2. Explain that they are going to apply the process of decision making to the issue of smoking - whether to smoke (or continue smoking) or not.

3. Ask half the groups to draw up reasons for smoking and the other half to draw up reasons for not smoking. Explain that they do not have to agree with the reasons they draw up: the aim is to understand the reasons for smoking or not smoking.

4. Ask the 2 sides to present their arguments one by one. For each argument, the other side is allowed to present a counter argument. Each side takes turns to present an argument. The teacher writes their arguments in a table on the chalkboard/flip chart:


Negative aspects

Positive aspects

(i)



(ii)



(iii)



(iv)



(v)



(vi)



(vii)



(viii)



(ix)



(x)



5. Explain that at the end they must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each decision. If the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of a chosen option, then go ahead and take the decision. Groups discuss what decision they would take.

6. Write the following factors involved in deciding to start or stop smoking.

(i) Having the information required to make a good decision.
(ii) Recognising the situation that requires decision making.
(iii) Recognising alternatives.
(iv) Recognising consequences.
(v) Respecting oneself and one’s values in taking a personal stand.
(vi) Being consistent with personal values and convictions.
(vii) Recognising setbacks including social pressures.
(viii) Consciously making a decision is better than making no decision at all.

Ask students to discus how these issues are related to the decisions. Which are the most important (eg personal values, the values of one’s friends, etc)

7. Conclude the activity by explaining that making decisions is not easy and we can often resist what we logically know to be the right decision because of other personal and emotional factors. This is not something to be ashamed or proud about but to be confronted before the negative consequences take effect.

Learning points

· Decision making in issues reflecting our health depends both on our knowledge and our self-esteem.

· Some of the reasons for smoking may include:

(i) relaxation.
(ii) to get rid of fatigue, boredom and idleness.
(iii) to identify with my friends.
(iv) to get rid of my worries.
(v) to overcome timidity.
(vi) to get rid of anxiety.
(vii) it makes my brain work better
(viii) to become confident.
(ix) to look mature.
(x) to look sophisticated
(xi) just like my dad.
(xii) because smoking is for successful people.

· Reasons for not smoking may include:

(i) can cause cancer.
(ii) contributes to other diseases.
(iii) anti-social habit. Leaves a smell.
(iv) causes bad breath etc.
(v) affects the health of other people who are with me.


Figure

Hint

· Bring out the conflict that often occurs between what we know we should do and what we want to do.

TOPIC

SMOKING AS A HABIT

Introduction

While adolescents may not have the intention of becoming permanent smokers, more often than not those who begin fail to stop. At the outset, they may be mainly concerned with their image among their peers than any real enjoyment of smoking. This can have serious consequences because even after the issue of image has disappeared they may still be unable to give up smoking because of its addictive nature.

Objectives

By the end of the session, students should be able to:

1. Identify and explain the different influences which lead adolescents to become habitual smokers.

2. Analyse the process of habit formation

3. Identify and put into practice those life skills which will enable them not to form such habits or break them when necessary.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, assertiveness

Materials

Cards or sheets of paper, copies of the case study, markers or pens and pencils

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups. Ask each group to prepare a mime on why people decide to smoke. The mimes should be brief and amusing and not more than 1 minute each.

2. Explain that for a person to become a habitual smoker, it takes time because it is a process.

3. Write the characteristics for the process on the chalkboard

· Stage 1

Persuasion

· Stage 2

Approval

· Stage 3

Intention

· Stage 4

Practice

· Stage 5

Continuing smoker

4. Ask each group to discuss among themselves what stages were shown in their mimes.

5. Distribute case studies. Do not disclose the stages that correspond with the case studies. Give the students a chance to discover for themselves.

6. Each group discusses its case study, responding to the questions that follow them.

7. Each group record its findings ready for presentation. If there is time, groups can start to present to the plenary. Otherwise the presentations will be done in the next lesson.

8. After all groups have presented, wrap up the exercise with the following processing points.

(i) What did you learn from the discussions?
(ii) What surprised you?
(iii) What did you hear from your peers that was different from what you expected?
(iv) What do you think about smoking? Has your attitude changed as a result of the previous activities? Why/why not?

Learning points

· ‘Mr Okello’s hobby’ corresponds with CONTINUING SMOKER.

· ‘Letter to Dr Apollo’ corresponds with PERSUASION.

· ‘Rita okays smoking’ corresponds with APPROVAL.

· ‘Emma and Joy at the crossroads’ corresponds with PRACTICE.

· ‘Richard makes a decision’ corresponds with INTENTION.

· Some individuals do not necessarily go through each stage.

· Sometimes we ‘unconsciously’ form habits without giving them much thought. But this should not be used as an excuse.

· Learners should be encouraged to know what is best for them and stand up for it.

Hint

The class may have smokers. The lecturer may have to begin the lesson with formation of ground rules (see Section 2 of the manual for examples) in order to protect the dignity of such persons.

CASE STUDIES

Mr Okello’s hobby

Okello was a chain smoker for twenty years. He smoked at least 20 cigarettes a day and believed he could not do without a puff. No matter what his friends said, he would not be convinced. His doctor told him that he had problems with his lungs and recommended that he immediately stop smoking but Okello did not take heed even when he showed signs of acute ulcers. He could not give up smoking.

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation was Okello? Explain
(ii) What options did Okello have? Why did Okello choose the option he did?
(iii) Is it easy to stop smoking? Why?
(iv) If you were Okello, what would you say to young people after visiting the doctor?
(v) How can you support someone who is:

· a smoker already
· a non-smoker who is tempted to experiment with cigarettes


Rita okays smoking

Rita while smoking a cigarette tells her class ‘smoking is the fashion. It makes you cool. I’m telling you, when the smoke enters your blood your brain works better. You feel so good and you show the world that you’re great.’

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation is Rita? Explain
(ii) What are the main reasons for Rita’s smoking? Do you agree or disagree? Why?
(iii) What are your feelings about Rita?
(iv) What life skills does Rita have/need?
(v) Do you think it will be easy for Rita to give up smoking? Why/why not?
(vi) How could you help Rita if you were one of her classmates?


Figure

Letter to Dr Apollo

I am in Senior Two. I have a rich friend who is willing to give me free cigarettes and booze if I am willing to accept them. All my friends smoke. I feel I should not start smoking but I fear I will lose my friends. Dear Dr Apollo, please help me.

Rebecca Kale

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation is Rebecca? Explain
(ii) What dilemma do you think Rebecca is faced with?
(iii) What consequences do you foresee?
(iv) How would you help Rebecca?
(v) What action should be taken first?
(vi) What do you admire in Rebecca?
(vii) What life skills does she need?

Emma and Joy at the crossroads

Emma and Joy are in Senior Three. They have a friend called Robinah who recently started smoking. Every break time she has a few puffs in the school toilets and she encourages her friends to smoke. They tried once but didn’t like the taste much even if it gave them a thrill to be trying something new. Robinah is always trying to convince them to try again.

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation are Emma and Joy?
(ii) On what criteria are they likely to base their decision?
(iii) What life skills do they have/need?
(iv) If you were their classmates, what would you advise them?

Richard ‘gathers his guts’

Richard left early for school. He wanted to pass by the shops and buy his first cigarettes. He had had enough of those classmates of his who laughed at him for being afraid to smoke. He had tried one or two of theirs and although he didn’t really like them, he was determined to buy some cigarettes and then casually offer them round to the group during breaktime. They would then all smoke together behind the latrines before going back to class.

Questions for discussion

(i) At what stage of habit formation is Richard? Explain.
(ii) Why do you think he has reached this stage?
(iii) How do you feel about him?
(iv) What life skills does Richard have/need?
(v) What would you say to Richard if you were one of his classmates?

Extension Activity

1. Give the following handout to the students.

HANDOUT

Dialogue “Ways to say No to smoking”

(i)

Saying “No thanks”

Dora

“Would you like to smoke?”



Sheila

“No thanks”

(ii)

Repeated refusal or keep saying “no”

Dora

“Just smoke and feel good”



Sheila

“No”



Dora

“Come on Sheila”



Sheila

“No”



Dora

“Just try it”



Sheila

“No please”

(iii)

Walkaway

Dora

“Just a puff”



Sheila

“No” and walks away

(iv)

Cold Shoulder

Dora

“Hey are you saved?”



Sheila

Ignores with a cold shoulder

(v)

Change the subject

Dora

“This cigarette has a nice taste”



Sheila

“Come on Dora. The examination is knocking at the door. Let’s go to revise chemistry.

2. Students discuss the different methods.

(i) Which method do you think is the most effective and why?

(ii) How would Dora feel in each of these? If Dora is your friend, which is the best way of resisting her, while at the same time keeping her friendship? Is it possible to refuse to smoke and keep your smoking friends?

(iii) What life skills is Sheila showing here?

(iv) What other ways can you think of to say no?

(v) What do you feel about friends who try to convince you like this?

TOPIC

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

Introduction

While adolescents smoke, they rarely think about the negative effects their actions have upon those around them. Teenagers usually feel on top of the world and tend to be ‘egocentric’. Even those who don’t smoke do not realise that inhaling smoke from other people’s cigarettes is harmful to their lives. Both parties do not realise that they have a part to play in helping one other without necessarily appearing to condemn one another.

ACTIVITY ONE

QUESTIONNAIRE ON PERSONAL CONVICTIONS

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Explain and internalise the need for thinking through the effects of one’s behaviour on others.

2. Defend their rights assertively without being offensive.

3. Utilise different strategies that facilitate peaceful co-existence between smokers and non-smokers.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, interpersonal relationships, decision making, peer resistance.

Time: 40 minutes.

Materials

Checklists for each student, or large sheet of paper with checklist written on it, copies of case study, chalk or masking tape, markers or pens and pencils.

Procedure

1. Divide class into groups of five to eight people

2. Distribute checklist to each member of the group. If this is not possible, write on chalkboard or large sheet of paper.



True

False

Frequency

(i)

Whatever 1 do, 1 think about myself first.




(ii)

I’m not bothered about someone else’s personal activities.




(iii)

Smoking is solely the responsibility of the smoker.




(iv)

Smoke from cigarettes is just as bad as that from cars and lorries or even firewood.




(v)

Even if I don’t smoke, I should leave smokers alone. We all have our rights.




(vi)

One man’s meat is another man’s poison. The same applies to smoking.




(vii)

My health can’t be affected even if I sit next to a person smoking.




3. Each student fills in the checklist first without consulting anyone else.

4. In their groups, members compare their responses and tally in the frequency column.

5. Each group answers the questions below:

(i) What did you like about the activity?
(ii) Is it easy to think about others when an action is pleasant to you? Why?
(iii) Why is it difficult to base your actions on other people’s feelings?

6. Distribute the case study ‘Amina and Joseph’ to all students or write on chalkboard/large sheet of paper.

AMINA AND JOSEPH

Amina is Joseph’s girlfriend. She is a very attractive and respectful lady. She loves Joseph and would never wish to hurt him. Joseph smokes at least 10 cigarettes a day. He smokes even when they’re having meals together, or watching TV or when they are out for walks. Even in his bedroom, Joseph smokes a cigarette before going to sleep. Amina does not smoke and the smoke from Joseph’s cigarette sometimes makes her cough. She doesn’t like the smell of cigarettes on his clothes or in his mouth. But she doesn’t want to offend him by registering her discomfort.

7. Groups answer the following questions.

(i) Who of the characters in the story is the active smoker and who is the passive smoker?

(ii) What is lacking in Amina’s and Joseph’s friendship?

(iii) If you were Amina what would you do differently?

(iv) If you were Joseph and Amina told you she didn’t like you smoking, what would you do/say?

(v) What effects does Joseph’s smoking have on Amina’s health?

(vi) Who suffers most, Joseph or Amina? Why?

(vii) What life skills do Joseph and Amina have/need?

8. Groups report their answers one at a time and class discusses each question.

9. To wrap up, discuss the following questions:

(i) Who is a passive smoker?

(ii) How is a passive smoker affected by an environment of smokers?

(iii) If you were a passive smoker, what steps would you take to protect your health?

(iv) Is smoking outside buildings or within special areas for example in aeroplanes enough protection for the passive smoker? Explain

(v) If you were/are a smoker, where and when would/do you smoke?

Learning points

· Passive smoking refers to those people who are non-smokers but who indirectly and involuntarily inhale smoke from other people’s cigarettes or pipes.

· Passive smokers can suffer worse consequences than active smokers because smoke from half-burnt tobacco is more harmful than that from fully burnt tobacco.

· Active smokers inhale smoke after the tobacco is fully burnt while passive smokers take in smoke from the half-burnt tobacco.

· Passive smokers are exposed to respiratory diseases, cancers, ulcers, bronchitis, emphysema, heart problems and skin diseases.

Hints

· The lecturer should not seek to bias participation of the class. All should be given a chance, smokers and non-smokers.

· Emphasis should be laid on life skills needed by individuals to co-exist with active or passive smokers; and to make the appropriate decisions for themselves.

Extension activity

1. Write exercise on chalkboard/paper.

You have been chosen as chairperson of the health committee in your area. What measures would you put in place to protect people from passive smoking.

2. Groups discuss exercise and prepare their list of measures for presentation in the next lesson.

DRUG ABUSE

Drug abuse is a growing problem in Ugandan society. Because it is known to be illegal, the full extent of the problem is not really known but children, both in and out of school, are being tempted to experiment with drugs, at the very age when they are prone to adventure. It is therefore very important to bring these issues into the open and prepare the youth to confront such temptations.


Figure

ACTIVITY

ARAALI’S CHOICE

Objectives

By the end of this session, students should be able to:

1. Explain the 3C’s method to good decision making.
2. Make good decisions concerning drugs.

Time: 40 minutes

Materials

Chart, pen, pencil, markers, exercise books.

Procedure

1. Write the three C’s to Good Decision Making on a large sheet of paper or the chalkboard and tell students to copy them down.

2. Give the case study of Araali’s Choice to the students and ask them to fill in the 3 Cs with reference to Araali and make a decision for him.

ARAALI’S CHOICE

Araali is a student at Kawaalya Secondary School. He is a very good footballer and is very popular in his class. Then his rival for popularity introduces marijuana into the class and convinces several of Araali’s best friends to start smoking it. It becomes the fashion in the class and those who have started smoking it laugh at the others for being so childish. Araali’s girlfriend has even smoked it twice and is putting strong pressure on Araali to give it a try. What should Araali do?

3. After each student has filled in the 3 Cs and made their decision for Araali, divide the class into groups to discuss their answers.

4. Groups report back to plenary for final discussion.

5. Conclude the activity with the discussion points below:

(i) What do you think of this model? Do you think it can help people make decisions?

(ii) How can you explore all the possible consequences of a choice before making a decision?

(iii) Which are more likely to help you make a good decision, your feelings or your thoughts?

(iv) How do you prioritise your choices?

(v) In what situations do you think this model might be useful to you? Why?

Learning Points

· Three C’s To Good Decision Making.

(i)

Challenge (or decision) you are facing.......................


Figure




(ii)

Choices you have.....................................................


Figure


Choice 1..................................................................



Choice 2..................................................................



Choice 3............................................................................





(iii)

Consequence(s) of each choice


Figure


Positive

Negative



................................................

..........................



................................................

..........................



................................................

..........................





(iv)

Your decision is........................................................


Hints

· Give enough time to all the students to come up with their choices and consequences. Do not hurry them otherwise the discussion will not take place properly.

· Other situations may concern whether to remain in school, love relationships, smoking etc. as well as issues of drug use and abuse.

Extension Activity

1. Ask students to produce similar scenarios where young people are faced by different choices. These can be used by the lecturer in later classes.

(introduction...)

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The previous section has provided examples of many activities that a teacher can use in promoting the development of life skills in her/his students in the course of teaching Health Education. However, these are only examples and teachers are encouraged to develop life skills promoting activities for every topic in the syllabus. This is not a difficult task. It requires a little creativity and commitment. The purpose of this section is to provide some guidelines and examples.

5.2 WHAT DOES IT TAKE?

The manual shows that the development of life skills requires active learning. The learner has to become actively involved in the lesson thereby participating in the discovery or acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and skills. It is suggested that while developing life skills promoting activities, the following points are kept in mind.

Ice Breaking

The group needs to loosen up. The learners may have been studying together for some time. They may know one another by name but may not have gone beyond that, except with close friends. The learners should be encouraged to mix in random pairs/groups. For example, each pair may tell each other something about themselves such as hobbies, dislikes, most valued childhood experience, most embarrassing moment with a teacher etc. The importance of the exercise is for the group to open up to one another. (See some of the icebreakers in Section Two of this manual).

Team BuildingMost of the life skills activities require team work and sharing of sensitive feelings and ideas. It is therefore good to start with activities that build up a sense of trust, frankness and mutual respect among the learners. It is also good at this stage to encourage the learners to come up with their own ground rules that will guide the work. (Suggestions for these can be found in Section Two).

Priorities

A number of life skills have been identified and described in Section One of the manual. In Section Three, under each topic, skills that can be developed have been suggested. You may not consider all those skills to be priorities for the target audience. It is also not possible to treat all the life skills at the same time. Select and prioritise those that best suit the needs of the learners so that they can be given the depth of treatment they deserve and the learners move beyond a superficial appreciation. By identifying the needs of the target audience in terms of skills development, activities may be produced to meet them.

Energisers

As the lesson progresses, learners may become fatigued. Afternoon lessons can be especially tough. Develop some short activities such as the ones described in Section Two of the manual that can be used as necessary.

Methods

As stated above, it is very important to use methods that promote full participation and enjoyment of the learners, and to use a variety of methods wherever possible in order to avoid monotony. Some suggested methods can be found in Section Two.

5.3 HOW TO PREPARE AN ACTIVITY

You can make your own activities by following these simple guidelines.

1. Section

2. Topic (or sub-topic)

3. Introduction

This gives the reasons why a particular topis is being taught and how it relates to the students and the life skills they require.

4. Activity title

Your topic may have more than one activity.

5. Objectives

These should be SMART.

· Specific.
· Measurable.
· Attainable.
· Realistic.
· Targetted.

6. Life skills to be taught

7. Materials

Activities may need a variety of materials in order to facilitate and provoke participation and discussion. The most common materials are large sheets of paper and marker pens. Where these are not available, the chalkboard can be used.

It is essential that these are prepared in advance, especially if there is a handout as nothing can kill participation and enthusiams more than lacking the right materials at the right time.

8. Time

All activities should be about 30-40 minutes in order to allow the lecturer or teacher space to introduce the topic and bring the lesson to a close.

9. Procedure

This outlines the steps of the activity.

10. Learning points

Prepare your checklist of points you want the students to learn from the activity, in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

11. Hints

These are points to remember so that the lessons are well organised. They also remind the lecturer or teacher of those factors which might hinder the achievement of the objectives.

12. Extension Activity

These are supplementary activities, either for the purpose of review or to provoke further activities and thought among students. Although time is often tight, such activities are very important as they help the students to practise on their own and internalise what they have been exposed to during the activity.

5.4 SAMPLE LESSON PLANS FOR SECONDARY

Sample Plan One

WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

Date:
Class: S2.
No of students: 40.
Time: 40 minutes.
Topic: Water and Environmental Sanitation.
Sub-topic: Proper Housing for Rural and Urban Areas.

Specific objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Explain the factors involved in choosing a house.
2. Argue rationally using the available evidence.
3. Make decisions based on available evidence.
4. Demonstrate how to select a housing site from limited possibilities.

Life skills to be developed

Critical thinking, negotiation, decision making.

Methods

1. Case study.
2. Small group discussions.
3. Classroom discussions.
4. Brainstorming.

Material/Learning Aids

1. Handout of case study ‘Selecting a Housing Site’.
2. Sheets of paper (to facilitate group reports).
3. Marker pens (if available) and masking tape (optional).

References

1. Secondary school Health Education syllabus.
2. Teacher’s Guide to Primary School Health Education.


Time

Teacher’s Activity

Students’ Activity

Step 1

3 mins.

Write students’ answers on chalkboard or large sheet of paper

Brainstorm on factors they would consider if they were to build their own houses

Step 2

5 mins.

Divide students into groups and distribute handout of case study.
Ask each group to discuss and reach a consensus on which site to select and why.

Each group chooses a leader and secretary. The leader acts as father in the home while the rest, children.

Step 3

15 mins.

Move around and listen to discussion.

Discuss.

Step 4

12 mins.

Ask groups to present findings to the rest of the class.
Write their reasons on chalkboard or paper.

Secretaries present findings.
Discuss.

Evaluation

5 mins.

Guide a classroom discussion based on the results.
Make concluding remarks bringing in other factors considered when selecting a site.

Discuss.

Self Assessment

· Did all the students meaningfully participate? Did they all get a chance to express their views to the full and try and persuade others?

· Was the content well grasped?

· Did the skills of critical thinking, negotiation and decision making feature?

Learning Points

1. Possible reasons for selecting sites

SITE A

SITE B

Flat land, no grading needed.

Well planned area.

Roofed structure already present.

Pleasant neighbourhood.

Walls and roof are permanent.

Roofed servant quarter available for emergency residence.

Cheaper.

Foundation for main house.


Large compound.


Likely access to water, electricity, good roads etc.

2. Reasons for rejecting

SITE A

SITE B

Crowded area.

Swampy area, difficult to drain.

Flat land and could be flooded if drainage is poor.

Swamps are health hazards, facilitating mosquito breeding.

Not planned - could easily be demolished.

High initial cost.

Extensive modifications could be expensive.


Small compound.


Domestic animals around could be a source of unpleasant smell and even pose a threat to health.


Hints

· Be open and accept all reasons that can be substantiated from the handout in addition to the examples given above.

· Without hurting the students’ feelings do not accept arguments that cannot be substantiated from the handout.

· Explain that each group should respect the decisions of other groups.

· Note the health and economic arguments advanced.

· Critical thinking, negotiation and decision making processes should come out during the group discussions.

Sample Plan Two

ORAL HEALTH

Date:
Class:
No of students:
Time: 40 minutes.
Topic: Oral Health.
Sub topic: Effects of diet on oral health.

Specific Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Distinguish the types of food that promote good oral health from those that promote poor oral health.

2. Identify peer influences that promote poor oral health.

3. Make decisions that lead to good oral health.

Life skills to be developed

Peer resistance, decision making.

Methods

1. Role play.
2. Group discussion.
3. Question and answer.

Materials

1. Container (i.e. big empty box).
2. Items to represent fruits (i.e. duster, books etc).

References

1. An Integrated Approach to Biology for East Africa by Sopers and Smith.
2. Primary Health Education by Bevery, Y. and Susan Durston.
3. School Health Education for Secondary Schools Teachers Guide.

Procedure

Time

Teacher’s Activity

Students’ Activity

Step 1

5 mins.

Review previous lesson questions:

(i) Name foods that promote good oral health.

(ii) Name foods that lead to bad oral health.

Answer the questions.

Step 2

10 mins

Write topic on chalkboard. Ask those who volunteered to do role play in previous lesson to present it to the class.

Watch role play.

Step 3

10 mins

Divide class into groups to discuss questions related to role play.

Discuss questions in groups.

Step 4

10 mins

Ask groups to reassemble.

Present responses.



Carry out guided discussion to collect and consolidate responses

Discuss.

Evaluation

5 mins

Ask students to write down four important points they have learnt from role play.

Write down the 4 points.

Self Evaluation

· Level of discussion
· Level of understanding of oral health
· Awareness of peer pressures and ways of coping with them.

Learning Points

· If a person eats sugar frequently, his teeth will be attacked by acid many times and gradually cavities will develop in the teeth.

· The most important factor is not the total amount of sugar that is consumed within a given period but the number of times sugar enters the mouth.

· Calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D are essential for the formation and development of teeth. Fluorides are important for prevention of caries.

Hints

· Ensure good time management.
· Promote the fresh foods commonly found in Uganda rather than packaged foods.
· It is possible to do the same activity as a case study rather than a role play.

Case Study and Questions

Role Play: “THAT’S NOT GRUB. WHAT WILL MY FRIENDS SAY?”

Today is a visiting day at Orogo Secondary School. David, an S.2 in the school, is looking forward to his mother’s visit and the usual ‘grub’: biscuits, sweets, chocolate, cakes, jam, orange squash, rice and chicken which make him popular among his friends. In fact, they won’t go for lunch today because they’re expecting to enjoy David’s grub as usual. David is their man!

When mother arrives, she is so pleased with herself for having supplemented David’s grub, as he requested on her last visit. From her ‘Kikapu’ she sorts out in front of David all she has brought for him: ‘bogoya’, ‘fene’, pawpaws, oranges, mangoes, avocados, sugarcane and pineapples. David is shocked. How could his mother do this to him? How does he walk back to the company of his friends? What will they say?

Questions

(i) Why did David worry about what his friends would say?
(ii) Why do you think David did not appreciate the types of food mother brought for him?
(iii) What kind of ‘grub’ do you normally like?
(iv) What adjustments would you make in your ‘grub’ in order to improve your diet?

Sample Plan Three

SMOKING

Date:
Class: S.2
No of students:
Time: 40 minutes
Topic: Smoking
Sub-topic: What influences people to smoke.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:

1. Explain the different ways of using tobacco.
2. Identify the environment which influences young people to smoke.
3. Use life skills, to help themselves and others make appropriate decisions concerning tobacco use.

Life skills to be developed

Self awareness, self esteem, critical thinking, decision making, peer resistance.

Methods

1. Question and answer.
2. Case study.
3. Group discussion.

Materials

Copies of case study and questions.

References

1. NTC/Secondary Life Skills Manuals.
2. Health Education Manual for Secondary Schools.
3. Health Education Teachers’ Guide Vol II, pp 5-7.

Procedure

Time

Teacher’s Activity

Students’ Activity

Step 1

3 mins.

Review questions

(i) What is tobacco?
(ii) Where is it grown?

Answer the questions.

Step 2

15 mins.

Write topic on board. Divide class into groups and distribute case study

Read case study in groups and answer the attached questions.

Step 3

10 mins.

Listen.

Groups present answers to the rest of the class for further discussion

Step 4

10 mins.

Show a cigarette advertisement to the class.
Ask how it tries to attract people to smoke.

Discuss.

Evaluation

2 mins

Hand out other advertisements for groups to discuss as an assignment.

Self-evaluation

To what extent were the students involved in the lesson and giving their real feelings?

Learning points

Cigarette advertisements often appeal to external issues such as popularity, power etc.

Hints

The best place to find cigarette advertisements is on hoardings.

Case Study

Ibara lived in Kabale. His parents grew and smoked tobacco. From his infancy, Ibara saw his mother smoke and chew tobacco. His father too used to put dried tobacco leaves in a big pipe and send him to light it with burning charcoal. it. Ibara would then smoke a little before handing it to the old man.

Ibara started smoking cigarettes when he was fourteen and soon became a chain smoker. He also chewed, sniffed and at times put dried leaves of tobacco in a pipe and smoked it like his father.

Questions

(i) How many different ways was tobacco used in Ibara’s home?
(ii) In your opinion, why did Ibara choose smoking?
(iii) If you were Ibara, would you have done any differently? Why?
(iv) What were the influences on Ibara’s decision to smoke tobacco?
(v) What is a chain smoker?

Questions for the assignment

(i) What is the message of the advertisement?
(ii) How is it trying to make smoking attractive?
(iii) According to the advertisement what is the advantage of smoking?
(iv) How realistic is the advertisement.

5.5 SUMMARY

Have you thought about?

DO’S

· Be constructive and supportive in your interaction with the students.
· Try to build up the self esteem of every child.
· Use interactive/ participatory methods.
· Include childrens rights issues.
· Include girl child problems.
· Be sensitive to gender issues.
· Be accepting of children’s answers even if you do not necessarily agree.
· Be time conscious.
· Bring out the necessary life skills clearly in each activity.
· Make sure that materials are available, accessible and adequate.
· Use clear and simple language.
· Develop your lesson in a logical sequence.
· Read the story, case study or letter, ahead of time.
· Prepare activities that provoke discussion and thought rather than preach.
· Distribute the questions and answers evenly among students.
· Vary the activities and methods in your lesson.
· Give homework to your students
· Give assignments for community service

DON’TS

· Use destructive behaviour

· Always ask the same students

· Use one activity only to cover the topic

· Use one method only in a class

· Show a video/film which you have not viewed beforehand

· Design an activity needing materials and then not collect them beforehand

· Design an activity without thinking of the life skills to be developed

· Use difficult language

· Employ the same method every time for grouping the participants

· Forget to include children’s rights, gender and girl child issues

· Be judgemental

· Be frightened to change methods that have always seemed to work for you but maybe are not appropriate for the children

· Be afraid to try

You can do it!

References

1. “When I am Grown: Life Planning Education for Grades 3 and 4”, The Center for Population Options, 1992.

2. “Life Planning Education. A Youth Development Programme”, Washington D.C. 1995, Revised Edition.

3. “Skills for the Primary School Child: Part 1 Foundation Programme.” TACADE.

4. “Skills for the Primary School Child: Part 2 Cross cultural Themes” TACADE.

5. “Energisers, Ice Breakers and Warm-Ups” TACADE.

6. “Talking With Children About Sex and Growing Up” Government of Uganda and UNICEF.

7. “Living With AIDS in the Community” TASO and UNICEF.

8. “The Adolescent Boy and Girl and Responsible Adulthood” ACFODE.

9. “Know Your Body” STD/AIDS Control Programme. Ministry of Health.

10. “Working with Young People. A Guide to Preventing HIVAIDS and STDs “WHO, Commonwealth Youth Programme and UNICEF.

11. “School Health Education to Prevent AIDS AND STDs. A Resource Package for Curriculum Planners” WHO/UNESCO 1992.

12 “Think about it. An AIDS Action programme for Schools” Curriculum Development Unit, Ministry of Education and Culture, Zimbabwe with assistance from UNICEF, 1995.

13. “The Socio-Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Youth” Daphne Topouzis Ph.D. Consultant, 1994.

14. “Life Skills Education in Schools” Division of Mental Health WHO, Geneva 1993.

15. “Sara Communication Initiative” UNICEF-ESARO, 1996.

16. Health Education Syllabus. P.T.C.

17. Health Education Syllabus. Secondary.

18. Health Education Syllabus. Primary.

19. Basic Science and Health Education. Teachers’ Guides Primary Volumes I and II.

20. Basic Science and Health Education. Pupils’ Books Primary 5-7.

21. “National Population Policy For Sustainable Development” Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. Government of Uganda, 1993.

22. “Policy Guidelines” Ministry of Health, Government of Uganda 1993.

23. “Children For Health” Child to Child Trust and UNICEF 1993.

24. “White Paper on Education” Government of Uganda 1994.

25. The Curriculum Review Task Force on Education.

26. Teacher Development Management Systems (TDMS) - Modules.

27. Situational Analysis’ Uganda Government and UNICEF 1993.

28. Country Programme (1995 - 2, 000) Government of Uganda/UNICEF.

29. Children’s Rights. N.C.C. /UNIPAC.

30. “First Call For Children” UNICEF 1990.

31. Education For All Jomtien Conference 1991.

32. “Into the 21st Century; Life Skills Manual” Ministry of Education/UNICEF 1995.

33. Life Skills Baseline Survey, 1996.

34. ‘“Life Skills Training” Hamburg, B.A. 1990.

35. “Facts for Life” UNICEF 1995/1996.

36. Life Skills Training Handbook - WHO.

37. “Life Skills Education for Behaviour Change among Youth of School Going Age. A Facilitators Manual” ACET 1995.

38. ACP Surveillance Report Ministry of Health 1993.

39. Uganda’s Children, Uganda’s Future - A strategy Paper.

40. Regional Life Skills Workshop 14-17 June, 1994, Uganda.

41. Uganda - The Socio-Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Families with an Emphasis on Youth.

42. Community Health Education in Uganda.

43. Preventing AIDS - A Curriculum for Middle School and Junior/Senior High School Students.

47. Child Health, Nutrition and Education Participation.

48. Policies, Practice and Potential - Health Education with Special reference to HIV/ AIDS Education, in Africa and Asia.

49. “Life Skills Teaching” Barrie Hopson and Mike Scally.

50 Reducing The Risk: Building Skills to Prevent Pregnancy, STDs and HIV.

51. When I’m Grown - Life Planning Education.

52. Draft for Field Trial Manual for Peer Educators - Life Skills for Youth.

53. A Study of the Sexual Experience of Young People in Eleven African countries - The Narrative research method.

54. Best Friends Programme Guide.

55. “Working with Uncertainty: A handbook for those involved in training on HIV and AIDS”, Hilary Dixon and Peter Gordon.

56. Adolescents, AIDS and HIV: The Center for Population Options Volume VII, January, 1994.

57. Stepping Stones, Alice Welbourn, 1995.

Printed and published with financial assistance from
UNICEF
and
NORAD

Printed by Uganda Printing and Publishing Corporation