Cover Image
close this bookAction Against Child Labour (ILO, 2000, 356 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
close this folder1. National policies and programmes
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder1.1 STRATEGIC ACTION AGAINST CHILD LABOUR
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe problem
View the documentPrevention, removal and rehabilitation
View the documentPriority target groups
View the documentPhased and multi-sectoral strategy
close this folder1.2 DEVELOPING POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES ON CHILD LABOUR
View the documentWhy a policy on child labour?
View the documentPolicies, programmes and projects
View the documentILO standards and action through IPEC
View the documentThe first steps in policy and programme formulation
close this folder1.3 SETTING PRIORITIES FOR ACTION
View the documentEspecially vulnerable groups
View the documentMain policy and programme directions
View the documentDirect action and capacity building
View the document1.4 CREATING A BROAD SOCIAL ALLIANCE
View the documentAppendix 1.1 Terms of reference for a comprehensive report on child labour
View the documentAppendix 1.2 Ideas for group work in national planning workshops on child labour
View the documentAppendix 1.3 Example of a national plan of action on child labour, Cambodia, 1997
View the documentAppendix 1.4 Pointers to project design
close this folder2. Towards improved legislation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
View the document2.1 LEGISLATION AND THE FIGHT AGAINST CHILD LABOUR
View the document2.2 SOURCES OF LAW ON CHILD LABOUR
close this folder2.3 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentNational policy
View the documentCoverage of the law (scope of application)
View the documentGeneral minimum age for admission to employment or work
View the documentMinimum age for light work
View the documentMinimum age for hazardous work
View the documentConditions of employment
View the documentForced labour
View the documentEnforcement
View the document2.4 NEW INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS ON THE WORST FORMS OF CHILD LABOUR
View the document2.5 OTHER INTERNATIONAL TREATIES
View the document2.6 INITIATIVES TO IMPROVE CHILD LABOUR LEGISLATION
View the document2.7 LESSONS LEARNED
View the documentChecklist 2.1 General principles
View the documentChecklist 2.2 Improving national legislation
View the documentChecklist 2.3 Legislation on bonded labour
View the documentChecklist 2.4 Involving employers' and workers' organizations, and others
View the documentAppendix 2.1 ILO Conventions on child labour and forced labour (as at 31 July 1999)
View the documentAppendix 2.2 Minimum ages in ILO Conventions
View the documentAppendix 2.3 Ratification of ILO Conventions on child labour and forced labour (as at 31 August 1999)
View the documentAppendix 2.4 Chart of ratifications of ILO Conventions on child labour and forced labour by country (as at 31 August 1999:
View the documentAppendix 2.5 Excerpts from selected ILO standards on child labour
close this folder3. Improving the knowledge base on child labour
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder3.1 CHILD LABOUR STATISTICS: METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
View the documentData requirements
View the documentSurvey methodologies
close this folder3.2 BASIC RESULTS
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHousehold survey
View the documentEstablishment survey
View the documentSurvey of street children
View the documentThe time-use approach
close this folder3.3 RECOMMENDATIONS ON CONDUCTING SURVEYS
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHousehold-based surveys
View the documentSurveys of employers (establishments or enterprises)
View the documentSurveys of street children
close this folder3.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERVIEWING CHILDREN
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCreating the right setting
View the document3.5 FURTHER RESEARCH
View the documentAppendix 3.1 List of detailed variables in child labour surveys
View the documentBibliography on child labour surveys, statistics and related matters
close this folder4. Alternatives to child labour
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View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder4.1 STRATEGIES IN EDUCATION
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEducating children about their rights and about child labour issues
View the documentInvestment in early childhood development programmes
View the documentIncreasing access to education
View the documentImproving the quality of formal and non-formal education
View the documentNon-formal education as an entry, a re-entry or alternative for (former) working children
View the documentApproaches to vocational education
close this folder4.2 PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES FOR CHILDREN FROM ESPECIALLY VULNERABLE GROUPS
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentChild victims of bondage, commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking
View the documentGirls
View the documentChildren living and working on the streets
View the documentChildren of indigenous groups and other minorities
View the document4.3 EDUCATION PROGRAMMES AND INCOME OPPORTUNITIES FOR PARENTS
View the document4.4 WORKPLACE AND COMMUNITY MONITORING
close this folder4.5 LESSONS FROM EXPERIENCE: PLANNING ACTION PROGRAMMES
View the documentIdentifying priority target groups
View the documentConcerted action
View the documentSetting programme objectives
View the documentChecklist 4.1 Identifying target groups and selecting children
View the documentChecklist 4.2 Planning vocational skills training programmes
View the documentChecklist 4.3 Measuring the impact of action programmes
close this folder5. Strategies to address child slavery
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close this folder5.1 THE PROBLEM OF CHILD SLAVERY
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View the documentThe nature of the problem
View the documentThe extent of the problem
close this folder5.2 INTERNATIONAL ACTION AGAINST CHILD SLAVERY
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInternational Labour Organization
View the documentUnited Nations
close this folder5.3 NATIONAL LEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENT
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentLegislation prohibiting forced and bonded labour
View the documentProblems in enforcement
close this folder5.4 ACTION AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreventing child slavery
View the documentAction against slave owners
View the documentTargeting children in bondage
View the documentIntegrated action to address child slavery
close this folder5.5 DEVELOPING COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMMES OF ACTION
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentStrategy for action against child bondage
View the documentStrategy for action against child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children
View the documentBibliography on child slavery
close this folder6. Strategies for employers and their organizations
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder6.1 STRATEGIES FOR EMPLOYER ACTION
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPlanning for action at the national level
View the documentBuilding alliances
View the documentKey issues in project design
View the documentTen steps to enhance employer action on child labour
close this folder6.2 EMPLOYER ''BEST PRACTICES'' ON CHILD LABOUR
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAwareness-raising and policy development initiatives
View the documentEmployer action to combat child labour in specific sectors
View the documentDirect support for the removal and rehabilitation of child workers
close this folder6.3 CORPORATE INITIATIVES ON CHILD LABOUR
View the documentLabelling or certification schemes
View the documentCorporate codes of conduct
View the documentIndustry codes of conduct
View the documentIOE views on voluntary codes of conduct and labelling
View the document6.4 KEY LESSONS FOR FUTURE ACTION
View the documentAppendix 6.1 IOE General Council Resolution on Child Labour
close this folder7. Trade unions against child labour
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder7.1 WHY CHILD LABOUR IS A TRADE UNION ISSUE
View the documentThe history and role of trade union involvement
close this folder7.2 HOW TRADE UNIONS ARE FIGHTING CHILD LABOUR
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTrade unions strengthen their capacity to address child labour issues
View the documentTrade unions support children, their families and communities
View the documentTrade unions raise awareness on child labour issues
View the documentTrade unions gather and disseminate data on child labour
View the documentTrade unions include child labour concerns in collective bargaining agreements
View the documentTrade unions advocate for codes of conduct
View the documentTrade unions work in partnership with NGOs, employers' organizations and governments
View the documentThe international trade union movement plays a major role
close this folder7.3 WHAT A TRADE UNION CAN DO
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTen-point action guide
View the documentBibliography on trade union action
close this folder8. Awareness-raising
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderINTRODUCTION
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAspects of communication
View the documentProcess of communication
close this folder8.1 THE MESSAGE
View the document(introduction...)
View the document''Action against child labour can be taken now''
View the document''Prioritize the most harmful, often invisible, forms of child labour''
View the document''Positive action and international cooperation are needed''
View the document''Tradition cannot justify the exploitation of children''
View the document''Prevention is better than cure''
View the document8.2 THE AUDIENCE
View the document8.3 MEANS OF COMMUNICATION
View the document8.4 THE NEED FOR A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
View the documentAppendix 8.1 Informing the public
View the documentAppendix 8.2 Popular theatre as an effective communications tool
close this folder9. Action by community groups and NGOs
View the document(introduction...)
View the document9.1 CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS AND CHILD LABOUR
close this folder9.2 PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE OF NGOs IN COMBATING CHILD LABOUR
View the documentTypes of NGO action
View the documentExamples of NGOs in action
View the document9.3 LESSONS LEARNED
close this folder10. Resources on child labour
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder10.1 GENERAL PUBLICATIONS ON CHILD LABOUR
View the documentILO reports for the International Labour Conference (ILC) and Governing Body (GB)
View the documentReports of the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)
View the documentPolicy studies
View the documentInformation kits, training manuals and guidelines
View the documentAudiovisual materials
View the document10.2 SPECIAL THEMES
View the documentOther ILO publications
View the documentBack Cover

Trade unions include child labour concerns in collective bargaining agreements

The National Federation of Workers in Agriculture (CONTAG), in Brazil, conducted training courses for trade union leaders on how to incorporate and improve clauses on children's rights, including child labour, in their collective bargaining agreements. An analysis of existing agreements was undertaken to see how child labour clauses could be incorporated into bargaining agreements. This has been a successful strategy, and other trade unions have followed their example.

The clauses relating to child labour focus on prohibiting the employment of children under 14 years of age. They also state that the employment of minors over 14 years is subject to national legislation which offers protection and restriction in relation to the employment of children and adolescents in Brazil.

Other clauses, as in the coffee plantation agreement, state that there shall be equal remuneration for men, women and minor workers above 14 years. Other agreements include educational provision for the children of workers. The collective agreement for cane plantation workers in Pernambuco provides that employers engaging more than 50 workers must guarantee free primary schooling for the children of their workers, unless there is a school within 1 kilometre of the workplace.

Box 7.6. Data collection and dissemination by trade unions

Although the gathering of data in these examples does not always directly involve trade unions at the initial stage, trade unions are none the less critical in the dissemination of information in the fight against child labour.

The economic implications of replacing child labour with adult labour were examined in the carpet and glass industries by the Centre for Organizational Research and Training, Baroda, India, in cooperation with the ILO's Employment Department. The results were presented at a workshop for the Government, trade unions, employers' organizations and NGOs. The data showed that the cost of replacing child labour with adult labour was not very great, and that some successful carpet manufacturers were able to run their businesses without child labour. Information from the major markets such as the United States indicated that the small increase in production costs would not impact on sales. The workshop also addressed other issues that encourage the employment of children, such as children's greater docility and acceptance of longer working hours. The findings also broke the myth that the nimble fingers of children are necessary for carpet making, because adult strength is needed to make high-quality carpets. This information was confirmed in an ICFTU (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) study on child labour in 1994 which reported:

"In our interviews with managers of carpet weaving workshops, we asked in particular whether children's small hands were a necessary prerequisite to rapidly produce quality work. The answer was negative.... As regards quality, measured in terms of knots per square centimeter, it is in fact the adult weavers, whose strength helps them to... produce the best-quality carpets."1

1 Quoted in Institute for Applied Social Science and Norwegian Institute of International Affairs: Child labour and international trade policy (Oslo).

The same finding was made in the gemstone industry in India, where children work under hazardous conditions. Again, children produce goods of medium quality and adults are needed for the best work.

In Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, trade unions undertook a study on child labour in brassware production:

"Our survey found that in and around Moradabad, there are 22,000 children under 14 who work from the age of 5 or 6. Many of the poor parents earnestly wish to send their children to school but poverty and a general lack of schools prevents them from doing so. Trade unions have come forward to combat child labour. I know our limitations infighting this serious problem. We are trying to help set up non-formal schools for working children."

(Z.M. Naqvi, lawyer and local AITUC leader in Moradabad)

The General Federation of Nepalese Trade Unions undertook a survey in the tea plantations in Nepal, to examine the nature and extent of child labour and provide the information needed to develop an action programme for the elimination of child labour in tea plantations. The results of the survey were published as a booklet entitled LIFE - Inside Dhurmas.

Box 7.7. An agreement in Uganda

The Memorandum of Understanding signed between the National Union of Plantation and Agricultural Workers (NUPAW) and the Uganda Tea Association (UTA) includes a clause on child labour, which reads:

"UTA and NUPAW agree that employment of children under the age of 18 years is not condoned and therefore the management shall not directly employ or allow the employees to bring their children in the Estates to work their task."