Cover Image
close this bookAction Against Child Labour (ILO, 2000, 356 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
close this folder1. National policies and programmes
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder1.1 STRATEGIC ACTION AGAINST CHILD LABOUR
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe problem
View the documentPrevention, removal and rehabilitation
View the documentPriority target groups
View the documentPhased and multi-sectoral strategy
close this folder1.2 DEVELOPING POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES ON CHILD LABOUR
View the documentWhy a policy on child labour?
View the documentPolicies, programmes and projects
View the documentILO standards and action through IPEC
View the documentThe first steps in policy and programme formulation
close this folder1.3 SETTING PRIORITIES FOR ACTION
View the documentEspecially vulnerable groups
View the documentMain policy and programme directions
View the documentDirect action and capacity building
View the document1.4 CREATING A BROAD SOCIAL ALLIANCE
View the documentAppendix 1.1 Terms of reference for a comprehensive report on child labour
View the documentAppendix 1.2 Ideas for group work in national planning workshops on child labour
View the documentAppendix 1.3 Example of a national plan of action on child labour, Cambodia, 1997
View the documentAppendix 1.4 Pointers to project design
close this folder2. Towards improved legislation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
View the document2.1 LEGISLATION AND THE FIGHT AGAINST CHILD LABOUR
View the document2.2 SOURCES OF LAW ON CHILD LABOUR
close this folder2.3 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentNational policy
View the documentCoverage of the law (scope of application)
View the documentGeneral minimum age for admission to employment or work
View the documentMinimum age for light work
View the documentMinimum age for hazardous work
View the documentConditions of employment
View the documentForced labour
View the documentEnforcement
View the document2.4 NEW INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS ON THE WORST FORMS OF CHILD LABOUR
View the document2.5 OTHER INTERNATIONAL TREATIES
View the document2.6 INITIATIVES TO IMPROVE CHILD LABOUR LEGISLATION
View the document2.7 LESSONS LEARNED
View the documentChecklist 2.1 General principles
View the documentChecklist 2.2 Improving national legislation
View the documentChecklist 2.3 Legislation on bonded labour
View the documentChecklist 2.4 Involving employers' and workers' organizations, and others
View the documentAppendix 2.1 ILO Conventions on child labour and forced labour (as at 31 July 1999)
View the documentAppendix 2.2 Minimum ages in ILO Conventions
View the documentAppendix 2.3 Ratification of ILO Conventions on child labour and forced labour (as at 31 August 1999)
View the documentAppendix 2.4 Chart of ratifications of ILO Conventions on child labour and forced labour by country (as at 31 August 1999:
View the documentAppendix 2.5 Excerpts from selected ILO standards on child labour
close this folder3. Improving the knowledge base on child labour
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder3.1 CHILD LABOUR STATISTICS: METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
View the documentData requirements
View the documentSurvey methodologies
close this folder3.2 BASIC RESULTS
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHousehold survey
View the documentEstablishment survey
View the documentSurvey of street children
View the documentThe time-use approach
close this folder3.3 RECOMMENDATIONS ON CONDUCTING SURVEYS
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHousehold-based surveys
View the documentSurveys of employers (establishments or enterprises)
View the documentSurveys of street children
close this folder3.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERVIEWING CHILDREN
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCreating the right setting
View the document3.5 FURTHER RESEARCH
View the documentAppendix 3.1 List of detailed variables in child labour surveys
View the documentBibliography on child labour surveys, statistics and related matters
close this folder4. Alternatives to child labour
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder4.1 STRATEGIES IN EDUCATION
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEducating children about their rights and about child labour issues
View the documentInvestment in early childhood development programmes
View the documentIncreasing access to education
View the documentImproving the quality of formal and non-formal education
View the documentNon-formal education as an entry, a re-entry or alternative for (former) working children
View the documentApproaches to vocational education
close this folder4.2 PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES FOR CHILDREN FROM ESPECIALLY VULNERABLE GROUPS
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentChild victims of bondage, commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking
View the documentGirls
View the documentChildren living and working on the streets
View the documentChildren of indigenous groups and other minorities
View the document4.3 EDUCATION PROGRAMMES AND INCOME OPPORTUNITIES FOR PARENTS
View the document4.4 WORKPLACE AND COMMUNITY MONITORING
close this folder4.5 LESSONS FROM EXPERIENCE: PLANNING ACTION PROGRAMMES
View the documentIdentifying priority target groups
View the documentConcerted action
View the documentSetting programme objectives
View the documentChecklist 4.1 Identifying target groups and selecting children
View the documentChecklist 4.2 Planning vocational skills training programmes
View the documentChecklist 4.3 Measuring the impact of action programmes
close this folder5. Strategies to address child slavery
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder5.1 THE PROBLEM OF CHILD SLAVERY
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe nature of the problem
View the documentThe extent of the problem
close this folder5.2 INTERNATIONAL ACTION AGAINST CHILD SLAVERY
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInternational Labour Organization
View the documentUnited Nations
close this folder5.3 NATIONAL LEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENT
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentLegislation prohibiting forced and bonded labour
View the documentProblems in enforcement
close this folder5.4 ACTION AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreventing child slavery
View the documentAction against slave owners
View the documentTargeting children in bondage
View the documentIntegrated action to address child slavery
close this folder5.5 DEVELOPING COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMMES OF ACTION
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentStrategy for action against child bondage
View the documentStrategy for action against child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children
View the documentBibliography on child slavery
close this folder6. Strategies for employers and their organizations
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder6.1 STRATEGIES FOR EMPLOYER ACTION
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPlanning for action at the national level
View the documentBuilding alliances
View the documentKey issues in project design
View the documentTen steps to enhance employer action on child labour
close this folder6.2 EMPLOYER ''BEST PRACTICES'' ON CHILD LABOUR
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAwareness-raising and policy development initiatives
View the documentEmployer action to combat child labour in specific sectors
View the documentDirect support for the removal and rehabilitation of child workers
close this folder6.3 CORPORATE INITIATIVES ON CHILD LABOUR
View the documentLabelling or certification schemes
View the documentCorporate codes of conduct
View the documentIndustry codes of conduct
View the documentIOE views on voluntary codes of conduct and labelling
View the document6.4 KEY LESSONS FOR FUTURE ACTION
View the documentAppendix 6.1 IOE General Council Resolution on Child Labour
close this folder7. Trade unions against child labour
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder7.1 WHY CHILD LABOUR IS A TRADE UNION ISSUE
View the documentThe history and role of trade union involvement
close this folder7.2 HOW TRADE UNIONS ARE FIGHTING CHILD LABOUR
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTrade unions strengthen their capacity to address child labour issues
View the documentTrade unions support children, their families and communities
View the documentTrade unions raise awareness on child labour issues
View the documentTrade unions gather and disseminate data on child labour
View the documentTrade unions include child labour concerns in collective bargaining agreements
View the documentTrade unions advocate for codes of conduct
View the documentTrade unions work in partnership with NGOs, employers' organizations and governments
View the documentThe international trade union movement plays a major role
close this folder7.3 WHAT A TRADE UNION CAN DO
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTen-point action guide
View the documentBibliography on trade union action
close this folder8. Awareness-raising
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderINTRODUCTION
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAspects of communication
View the documentProcess of communication
close this folder8.1 THE MESSAGE
View the document(introduction...)
View the document''Action against child labour can be taken now''
View the document''Prioritize the most harmful, often invisible, forms of child labour''
View the document''Positive action and international cooperation are needed''
View the document''Tradition cannot justify the exploitation of children''
View the document''Prevention is better than cure''
View the document8.2 THE AUDIENCE
View the document8.3 MEANS OF COMMUNICATION
View the document8.4 THE NEED FOR A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
View the documentAppendix 8.1 Informing the public
View the documentAppendix 8.2 Popular theatre as an effective communications tool
close this folder9. Action by community groups and NGOs
View the document(introduction...)
View the document9.1 CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS AND CHILD LABOUR
close this folder9.2 PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE OF NGOs IN COMBATING CHILD LABOUR
View the documentTypes of NGO action
View the documentExamples of NGOs in action
View the document9.3 LESSONS LEARNED
close this folder10. Resources on child labour
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folder10.1 GENERAL PUBLICATIONS ON CHILD LABOUR
View the documentILO reports for the International Labour Conference (ILC) and Governing Body (GB)
View the documentReports of the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)
View the documentPolicy studies
View the documentInformation kits, training manuals and guidelines
View the documentAudiovisual materials
View the document10.2 SPECIAL THEMES
View the documentOther ILO publications
View the documentBack Cover

Trade unions work in partnership with NGOs, employers' organizations and governments

Over the past years collaboration between agencies has been increasing worldwide as more experience is being gained in carrying out successful measures against child labour and, as a result, trust develops between partners. The bringing together of employers' organizations (see also Chapter 6), NGOs, governments and trade unions creates a powerful tool to identify child labour abuses and eradicate them. There is a growing recognition that the complex social, cultural and economic issues underlying child labour present dilemmas to all those working in the field and that it is essential to share experience, and carefully consider, plan and implement strategies. Trade unions are well placed as a pressure group towards both employers and governments, and at the same time local trade union branches increasingly cooperate in community-based activities with a wide range of NGOs (see also Chapter 9).

Box 7.8. Code of Labor Practice for

PRODUCTION OF GOODS LICENSED by the

SYDNEY ORGANISING COMMITTEE FOR THE OLYMPIC GAMES
and the
SYDNEY PARALYMPIC ORGANISING COMMITTEE

A greed between the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG), the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee (SPOC), the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) and the Labor Council of New South Wales. Having concurred on the necessity for effective monitoring to ensure that the Code is respected at all levels, the above organisations are continuing discussions on practical measures to achieve these objectives.

PREAMBLE

In accordance with the goal of the Olympic Movement to contribute to building a peaceful and better world by educating youth through sport practised without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which requires mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play, SOCOG/SPOC recognises its responsibilities to consumers for the quality of products produced under its licensing arrangements, and workers involved in the making of SOCOG/SPOC licensed products and the conditions under which these products are made.

Each licensee awarded the right to use the SOCOG/SPOC name or logo in the manufacture and/or supply of licensed product to SOCOG/SPOC has been audited to ensure that they have appropriate standards of operation and has, as a condition of license agreement, confirmed in writing that employee work conditions meet the relevant industrial regulations.

Licensees further agree to ensure that these conditions and standards are observed by each contractor and subcontractor in the production and distribution of SOCOG/SPOC licensed products. Licensees should, prior to placing orders with suppliers or engaging contractors and subcontractors, assess whether the provisions of this Code can be met.

Each SOCOG/SPOC licensee, and each contractor and subcontractor engaged by the licensee, shall compulsorily implement and respect the following principles in the production and/or distribution of products bearing the SOCOG/SPOC name and/or SOCOG/SPOC authorised marks. Furthermore, each licensee shall warrant that these principles shall be equally imposed upon all those employed or delegated by such licensee.

EMPLOYMENT IS FREELY CHOSEN

There shall be no use of forced or bonded labour (ILO Conventions 29 and 105).

THERE IS NO DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT

Equality of opportunity and treatment regardless of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, nationality, social origin or other distinguishing characteristics shall be provided (ILO Conventions 100 and 111).

FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND THE RIGHT TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING ARE RESPECTED

The right of workers to form and join trade unions and to bargain collectively shall be recognized and respected (ILO Conventions 87 and 98).

FAIR WAGES ARE PAID

Wages and benefits paid shall meet at least legal or industry minimum standards and should be sufficient to meet basic needs and provide some discretionary income.

HOURS OF WORK ARE NOT EXCESSIVE

Hours of work shall comply with applicable laws and industry standards.

WORKING CONDITIONS ARE DECENT

A safe and hygienic working environment shall be provided, and best occupational health and safety practice shall be promoted, bearing in mind the knowledge of the industry and of any specific hazards held by licensees, contractors and subcontractors.

THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP IS ESTABLISHED AND TRAINING PROVIDED

Employers should endeavour to provide regular and secure employment. Appropriate training should be available for all employees.

IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING

Licensees, their contractors and subcontractors shall undertake to support and cooperate in the implementation and monitoring of this Code by:

· Prior to engagement, the licensee shall provide SOCOG/SPOC with written confirmation that the licensee, as a minimum, adheres to relevant international labor force standards; providing SOCOG/SPOC or its agent with relevant information concerning their operations; permitting inspection at any time of their workplaces and operations by approved SOCOG/SPOC personnel; maintaining records of the name, age, hours worked and wages paid for each worker and making these available to approved inspectors on request; refraining from disciplinary action, dismissal or otherwise discriminating against any worker for providing information concerning observance of this Code.

Any licensee, contractor or subcontractor found to be in breach of one or more terms of this Code of Labor Practice shall be subject to a range of sanctions up to and including withdrawal of the right to produce or organise production of SOCOG licensed goods as per the contractual provisions. Furthermore, licensees who fail to ensure that their contractors or subcontractors abide by the Code of Labor Practice shall be subject to the same range of sanctions.

A joint Committee comprising Representatives of the ACTU; Labor Council of NSW; SOCOG staff and the SOCOG Board shall meet as required to review reported breaches of this code and make recommendations to the SOCOG Board for action as appropriate.

Box 7.9. Code of conduct by the International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA)

"One of the trail-blazing codes of conduct... was that agreed between FIFA and the international trade union movement... it grew out of the exposure of stories... about the widespread employment of children in the stitching of footballs, mainly in Pakistan but also in India."

(Neil Kearney, General Secretary of the International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation (ITGLWF))

The Code of Labour Practice negotiated with FIFA provides that FIFA authorized marks cannot be given to footballs produced with child labour. The code includes provision for effective monitoring and consideration is being given to the provision of education and training for child labourers displaced by the implementation of the code.

The code includes a preamble stating FIFA's commitment to fair play and ethical conduct. The preamble also recognizes responsibility to customers for the quality of the product, and to workers involved in the production of FIFA licensed products. The key features of the code include:

· employment is freely chosen (no forced or bonded labour);

· no discrimination in employment (equality of opportunity and treatment);

· child labour is not used;

· freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining are respected;

· fair wages are paid;

· hours of work are not excessive (hours of work shall not generally exceed 48);

· working conditions are decent (safe and hygienic);

· the employment relationship is established (regular and secure employment);

· no excessive use of temporary or casual labour, no labour-only subcontracting;

· no abuse of apprenticeship schemes, and education and training for younger workers;

· implementation and monitoring (including licensees, their contractors and sub-contractors);

· monitoring to include:


· relevant information concerning operations;

· inspection at any time;

· maintaining records of workers - age, hours worked;

· wages paid for each worker - for inspection;

· informing workers about the code; and

· no disciplinary action to be taken against any worker who gives information relating to observation of the code;

· severe penalties for breach of the code; and

· interpretations of meaning of the code's provisions to be resolved by the Memorandum of Understanding on the Code of Labour Practice between FIPA and the ICFTU (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions)/ITGLWF (International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation)/FIET (International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical Employees).