Cover Image
close this bookCommunity Emergency Preparedness: A Manual for Managers and Policy-Makers (WHO, 1999, 141 p.)
close this folderAnnexes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Project management
View the documentAnnex 2 - Hazard description tables
View the documentAnnex 3 - Emergency preparedness checklists
View the documentAnnex 4 - Personal protection in different types of emergencies

Annex 1 - Project management

There are three major parts to project management: definition, planning, and implementation (1).

Project definition

The project definition determines the project’s aim and objectives as well as its scope, authority, and context. In addition to providing a brief outline to others of the project’s intentions, the project definition gives a description of the project for those from whom funding may be sought. A project manager should be appointed to manage the project.

The aim is a statement explaining the project’s purpose. This should be a single-sentence statement describing the desired end result or outcome. Objectives are what must be achieved in order to satisfy the aim - they are the tangible outputs of the project. The objectives of the project should be:

- achievable and realistic (within the constraints of the project);
- mandatory (if a specific objective is not achieved, then the aim has not been satisfied);
- measurable (evidence that the objective has been achieved can be gathered).

Scope concerns where and to whom and what the project applies - it describes the boundaries and context of the project. Determining an appropriate scope is crucial to the success of any management activity. If the scope is too broad, it is possible that the project will not be completed within the required time. If the scope is too loosely defined, it is possible to stray into areas and topics that are not directly related to the subject and that will not contribute to the project. Authorization will be required for the project aim, objectives, and particularly the scope.

To determine the authority for the project, the following questions may be asked.

· Under whose authority does the project fall?
· To whom does the project manager report?
· Who will ensure the project’s implementation?

Context is crucial to planning and implementing an emergency preparedness programme. Before emergency planning and vulnerability assessment are carried out, it is necessary to:

- be familiar with the cultural background of the community;

- determine community attitudes to hazards and emergencies;

- identify local organizations with resources and expertise;

- analyse the political structure of the community and identify those who have power and influence.

The context of emergency preparedness is the “real world” within which the programme must function. If the programme is not adapted to this, it will fail.

A project manager for the emergency preparedness programme should be selected according to the following criteria:

- commitment to the project’s success;

- knowledge of the community’s culture;

- emergency management knowledge and skills;

- management skills such as team-building, delegating, managing performance, managing others’ involvement, communication, negotiation, and conflict resolution;

- problem-solving and decision-making skills;

- project management skills.

Project planning

Project planning is the process of sequencing tasks to achieve the project objectives and to ensure timely project completion and efficient use of resources. It involves determining tasks, assigning responsibilities, developing a timetable, and determining resource allocation and timing.

To determine tasks, the following steps can be taken:

· List the project tasks or steps.

· Determine the time required to complete each task.

· Identify the overall project starting date and project completion date if they have not already been determined.

· List the project tasks, and their starting and completion dates, in the order in which they need to be completed to meet the overall project completion date.

Responsibility for each task or group of tasks should be assigned to competent people. These people should communicate regularly during the performance of their tasks to ensure appropriate coordination. The timetable should take into account all the contributions and work required for the project and should thus be based on the project process and tasks. The timetable will partially determine the resource requirements by indicating the amount of work required, and, therefore, the cost. Resource requirements for the project means “what is needed to get it done?” The following should be listed:

- the expected outputs (some of which will be similar to the objectives);
- the things that need to be done (e.g. meetings, telephone calls, and travel);
- the inputs (resources) in terms of people, materials, time, and money.

Project implementation

The management of project implementation consists of project performance, monitoring, and control; and taking corrective action.

Project monitoring and control is the process of determining progress in accomplishing project objectives. Its purpose is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully and that problems and opportunities are responded to quickly. It also allows a quick return to the project plan if the project strays off schedule.

An effective project monitoring and control system depends on having a clear standard of performance and providing feedback on project performance so that effective action can be taken. Project monitoring and control systems are based on three fundamental steps:

- measuring the progress toward project objectives according to the project timetable;
- determining the cause of deviations in project progress;
- identifying corrective actions through the use of potential problem analysis.

Reference

1. Project management. Princeton, NJ, Kepner-Tregoe, 1987.

Annex 2 - Hazard description tables

Tables A2.1 to A2.9 on the following pages can provide assistance in describing some hazards.

Table A2.1. Beaufort scalea

No.

Wind speed

Descriptive term

Effects observed


km/h

knots


On land

On sea

0

<1

<1

Calm

Calm; smoke rises vertically

Sea like a mirror

1

1-5

1-3

Light air

Smoke drift indicates wind direction

Ripples are formed but without foam crests

2

6-11

3-6

Light breeze

Leaves rustle; wind vanes move

Small wavelets; crests have a glassy appearance and do not break

3

12-19

6-10

Gentle breeze

Leaves, small twigs in constant motion

Large wavelets; crests begin to break; foam of glassy appearance

4

20-28

11-15

Moderate breeze

Dust, leaves and loose paper raised from ground; small branches move

Small waves, becoming longer; fairly frequent white horses

5

29-38

16-21

Fresh breeze

Small trees in leaf begin to sway

Moderate waves; many white horses formed

6

39-49

21-27

Strong breeze

Larger tree branches in motion; whistling heard in wires

Large waves begin to form; white foam crests everywhere (probably some spray)

7

50-61

27-33

Near gale

Whole trees in motion; difficulty in walking

Sea heaps up; white foam from breaking waves begins to be blown in streaks

8

62-74

33-40

Gale

Twigs and small branches broken off trees; walking impeded

Moderately high waves of greater length; foam is blown in well-marked streaks

9

75-88

41-48

Strong gale

Slight damage to structures; slates blown from roofs

High waves; crests of waves begin to topple, tumble and roll over

10

89-102

48-55

Storm

Trees broken or uprooted; considerable damage to structures

Very high waves with long over-hanging crests; on the whole the surface of the sea takes on a white appearance; the tumbling of the sea becomes heavy and shock- like; visibility affected

11

103-117

56-63

Violent storm

Usually widespread damage

Exceptionally high waves; visibility affected

12

>117

>63

Hurricane

Usually widespread damage

The air is filled with foam and spray; sea completely white with driving spray; visibility seriously affected

aReproduced from reference 1 by permission of the publisher.

Table A2.2. Hurricane disaster potential scalea

No.

Central pressure (mbar)

Winds (km/h)

Surge (m)

Damage





On land

At sea

1

>980

120-150

1.2-1.5

Damage to shrubbery, trees, foliage and poorly anchored mobile homes. Some damage to signs.

Some low-lying coastal roads flooded. Limited damage to piers and exposed small craft.

2

965-979

151-175

1.6-2.4

Trees stripped of foliage and some of them broken down. Exposed mobile homes suffer major damage. Poorly constructed signs are severely damaged. Some roofing material ripped off; windows and doors might be affected.

Coastal roads and escape routes flooded 2-4 hours before hurricane centre arrives. Piers suffer extensive damage and small unprotected craft are torn loose. Some evacuation of coastal areas is necessary.

3

945-964

175-210

2.5-3.6

Foliage stripped from trees and many blown down. Great damage to roofing material, doors and windows. Some small buildings are structurally damaged.

Serious coastal flooding and some coastal buildings may be damaged. Battering of waves might affect large buildings, but not severely. Coastal escape routes cut off 3-5 hours before hurricane centre arrives. Flat terrain 1.5 m or less above sea level is flooded as far inland as 13 km. Evacuation of coastal residents for several blocks inland may be necessary.

4

920-944

211-250

3.7-5.5

Shrubs, trees and signs are all blown down. Extensive damage to roofing materials, doors and windows. Many roofs on smaller buildings may be ripped off. Mobile homes destroyed.

Flat land up to 3 m above sea level might be flooded to 10 km inland. Extensive damage to the lower floors of buildings near the coast. Escape routes cut 3-5 hours before hurricane centre passes. Beaches suffer major erosion, and evacuation of homes within 500 m of coast may be necessary.

5

<920

>250

>5.5

Increase on the extensive damage of the previous level. Glass in windows shattered and many structures blown over.

Lower floors of structures within 500 m of coast extensively damaged. Escape routes cut off 3-5 hours before hurricane centre arrives. Evacuation of low lying areas within 8-16 km of coast may be necessary.

aReproduced from reference 2 by permission of the publisher and the author.

Table A2.3. Frequency of tropical stormsa

Basin and stage

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sep.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Annual

North Atlantic


Tropical storms

*

*

*

*

0.1

0.4

0.3

1.0

1.5

1.2

0.4

*

4.2


Hurricanes

*

*

*

*

*

0.3

0.4

1.5

2.7

1.3

0.3

*

5.2


Tropical storms and hurricanes

*

*

*

*

0.2

0.7

0.8

2.5

4.3

2.5

0.7

0.1

9.4

Eastern north Pacific


Tropical storms

*

*

*

*

*

1.5

2.8

2.3

2.3

1.2

0.3

*

9.3


Hurricanes

*

*

*

*

0.3

0.6

0.9

2.0

1.8

1.0

*

*

5.8


Tropical storms and hurricanes

*

*

*

*

0.3

2.0

3.6

4.5

4.1

2.2

0.3

*

15.2

Western north Pacific


Tropical storms

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.4

0.5

1.2

1.8

1.5

1.0

0.8

0.6

7.5


Typhoons

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.7

0.9

1.2

2.7

4.0

4.1

3.3

2.1

0.7

17.8


Tropical storms and typhoons

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.9

1.3

1.8

3.9

5.8

5.6

4.3

2.9

1.3

25.3

Southwest Pacific and Australian area


Tropical storms

2.7

2.8

2.4

1.3

0.3

0.2

*

*

*

0.1

0.4

1.5

10.9


Typhoons/cyclones

0.7

1.1

1.3

0.3

*

*

0.1

0.1

*

*

0.3

0.5

3.8


Tropical storms and typhoons/cyclones

3.4

4.1

3.7

1.7

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

*

0.1

0.7

2.0

14.8

Southwest Indian Ocean


Tropical storms

2.0

2.2

1.7

0.6

0.2

*

*

*

*

0.3

0.3

0.8

7.4


Cyclones

1.3

1.1

0.8

0.4

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

0.5

3.8


Tropical storms and cyclones

3.2

3.3

2.5

1.1

0.2

*

*

*

*

0.3

0.4

1.4

11.2

North Indian Ocean


Tropical storms

0.1

*

*

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.5

0.3

3.5


Cyclonesb

*

*

*

0.1

0.5

0.2

0.1

*

0.1

0.4

0.6

0.2

2.2


Tropical storms and cyclonesb

0.1

*

0.1

0.3

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.4

0.5

1.0

1.1

0.5

5.7

a Reproduced from reference 1 by permission of the publisher.
b Winds >89 km/h (Beaufort 10).
* Less than 0.05.

Note: Monthly values cannot be combined because single storms overlapping two months were counted once in each month and once annually.

Table A2.4. Modified Mercalli scalea

No.

Descriptive term

Descriptionb

Acceleration(cm s-2)

I

Imperceptible earthquakes.

Not felt. Marginal and long-period effects of large

<1

II

Very slight placed.

Felt by persons at rest, on upper floor, or favourably

1-2

III

Slight

Felt indoors. Hanging objects swing. Vibration like passing of light trucks. Duration estimated. May not be recognised as an earthquake.

2-5

IV

Moderate

Hanging objects swing. Vibration like passing of heavy trucks or sensation of a jolt like a heavy ball striking the walls. Standing motor cars rock. Windows, dishes, doors rattle. Glasses clink, crockery clashes. In upper range of IV, wooden walls and frames creak.

5-10

V

Rather strong

Felt outdoors; direction estimated. Sleepers waken. Liquids disturbed, some spilled. Small unstable objects displaced or upset. Doors swing, close, open. Shutters, pictures move. Pendulum clocks stop, start, change rate.

10-20

VI

Strong

Felt by all. Many frightened and run outdoors. People walk unsteadily. Dishes, glassware broken. Knick-knacks, books, off shelves. Pictures off walls. Furniture overturned or moved. Weak plaster, masonry D cracked. Small bells ring. Trees shaken.

20-50

VII

Very strong

Difficult to stand. Noticed by motor car drivers. Hanging objects quiver. Furniture broken. Damage to masonry D, including cracks. Weak chimneys broken at roof line. Fall of plaster, loose bricks, stones, tiles, cornices. Some cracks in masonry C. Waves on ponds: water turbid with mud. Small slides and caving in along sand or gravel banks. Large bells ring. Concrete irrigation ditches damaged.

50-100

VIII

Destructive

Steering of motor cars affected. Damage to masonry C: partial collapse. Some damage to masonry B, none to masonry A. Fall of stucco, some masonry walls. Twisting, fall of chimneys, factory stacks, monuments, towers, elevated tanks. Frame houses move on foundations if not bolted down; loose panel walls thrown out. Decayed piling broken off. Branches broken from trees. Changes in flow or temperature of springs and wells. Cracks in wet ground, on steep slopes.

100-200

IX

Devastating

General panic. Masonry D destroyed; masonry C heavily damaged, sometimes with complete collapse; masonry B seriously damaged. Frame structures, if not bolted, shifted off foundations. Frames cracked. Serious damage to reservoirs. Underground pipes broken. Conspicuous cracks in ground. In alluviated areas sand and mud ejected, earthquake fountains, sand craters.

200-500

X

Annihilating

Most masonry and frame structures destroyed with their foundations. Some well-built wooden structures and bridges destroyed. Serious damage to dams, dykes, and embankments. Large landslides. Water thrown on banks of canals, rivers, lakes, etc. Sand and mud shifted horizontally on beaches and flat land. Rails bent slightly.

500-1000

XI

Disaster

Rails bent greatly. Underground pipelines completely out of service.

1000-2000

XII

Major Disaster

Damage nearly total. Large rockmasses displaced. Line of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into the air.

>2000


aReproduced from reference 1 by permission of the publisher.


bMasonry A:

Good workmanship, mortar and design; reinforced, especially laterally, and bound together using steel, concrete, etc.; designed to resist lateral forces.


Masonry B:

Good workmanship and mortar; reinforced, but not designed in detail to resist lateral forces.


Masonry C:

Ordinary workmanship and mortar; no extreme weaknesses like failing to tie in at corners, but neither reinforced nor designed against horizontal forces.


Masonry D:

Weak materials, such as adobe; poor mortar; low standards of workmanship; weak horizontally.

Table A2.5. Landslide damage intensity scalea

Grade

Description of damage

0

None

Building is intact.

1

Negligible

Hairline cracks in walls or structural members: no distortion of structure or detachment of external architectural details.

2

Light

Building continues to be habitable; repair not urgent. Settlement of foundations, distortion of structure and inclination of walls are not sufficient to compromise overall stability.

3

Moderate

Walls out of perpendicular by 1-2°, or substantial cracking has occurred to structural members, or foundations have settled during differential subsidence of at least 15 cm: building requires evacuation and rapid attention to ensure its continued life.

4

Serious

Walls out of perpendicular by several degrees; open cracks in walls; fracture of structural members; fragmentation of masonry; differential settlement of at least 25 cm compromises foundations; floors may be inclined by 1-2°, or ruined by soil heave; internal partition walls will need to be replaced; door and window frames too distorted to use; occupants must be evacuated and major repairs carried out.

5

Very serious

Walls out of plumb by 5-6°; structure grossly distorted and differential settlement will have seriously cracked floors and walls or caused major rotation or slewing of the building (wooden buildings may have detached completely from their foundations). Partition walls and brick infill will have at least partly collapsed: roof may have partially collapsed; outhouses, porches and patios may have been damaged more seriously than the principal structure itself. Occupants will need to be rehoused on a long-term basis, and rehabilitation of the building will probably not be feasible.

6

Partial collapse

Requires immediate evacuation of the occupants and cordoning off the site to prevent accidents from falling masonry.

7

Total collapse

Requires clearance of the site.

aReproduced from reference 2 by permission of the publisher and the author.

Table A2.6. Example of a damage probability matrix for landslidesa

(Failure probability for a slope of stability, summer conditions, earthquake shaking of various intensities)

Degree of slope failure

Probability of slope failure in earthquake ground-shaking intensity


VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

Light

40%

25%

15%

10%

5%

Moderate

30%

30%

35%

30%

20%

Heavy

25%

35%

40%

40%

35%

Severe

5%

10%

10%

15%

30%

Catastrophic

0%

0%

0%

5%

10%

a Reproduced from reference 3 by permission of the publisher.

Table A2.7. Tsunami intensity scalea

Intensity

Run-up height (m)

Descriptive term

Description

I

0.5

Very light

Waves so weak as to be perceptible only on tide gauge records.

II

1

Light

Waves noticed by those living along the shore and familiar with the sea. On very flat shores generally noticed.

III

1

Rather strong

Generally noticed. Flooding of gently sloping coasts. Light sailing vessels carried away on shore. Slight damage to light structures situated near coast. In estuaries reversal of river flow for some distance upstream.

IV

4

Strong

Flooding of the shore to some depth. Light scouring on man-made ground. Embankments and dykes damaged. Light structures near the coast damaged. Solid structures on the coast slightly damaged. Big sailing vessels and small ships drifted inland or carried out to sea. Coasts littered with floating debris.

V

8

Very strong

General flooding of the shore to some depth. Quay walls and solid structures near the sea damaged. Light structures destroyed. Severe scouring of cultivated land and littering of the coast with floating items and sea animals. With the exception of big ships all other types of vessels carried inland or out to sea. Big bores in estuary rivers. Harbour works damaged. People drowned, waves accompanied by strong roar.

VI

16

Disastrous

Partial or complete destruction of man-made structures for some distance from the shore. Flooding of coasts to great depths. Big ships severely damaged. Trees uprooted or broken by the waves. Many casualties.

aReproduced from reference 1 by permission of the publisher.

Table A2.8. Volcanic eruption scalesa

Volcanic explosivity index (VEI)

Volcanic intensity

Tsuya scale

Eruption rate (kg/s)

Volume of ejecta (m3)

Eruption column height (km)

Thermal power output (log kW)

Duration (hours of continuous blast)

0

V

I

102-103

<104

0.8-1.5

5-6

<1

1

VI

II-III

103-104

104-106

1.5-2.8

6-7

<1

2

VII

IV

104-105

106-107

2.8-5.5

7-8

1-6

3

VIII

V

105-106

107-108

5.5-10.5

8-9

1-12

4

IX

VI

106-107

108-109

10.5-17.0

9-10

1->12

5

X

VII

107-108

109-1010

17.0-28.0

10-11

6->12

6

XI

VIII

108-109

1010-1011

28.0-47.0

11-12

>12

7

XII

IX

>109

1011-1012

>47.0

>12

>12

8

-

-

-

>1012

-

-

>12

aReproduced from reference 2 by permission of the publisher and the author.

Table A2.9. Dangerous goods classesa

Class 1 - Explosives

-

-

Class 2 - Gases: compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure

Class 2.1

Flammable gases


Class 2.2

Non-flammable non-toxic gases


Class 2.3

Toxic gases

Class 3 - Flammable liquids

Class 3.1

Liquids with a flashpoint below -18°C (closed cup test)


Class 3.2

Liquids with a flashpoint of -18°C up to but not including 23°C (closed cup test)


Class 3.3

Liquids with a flashpoint of 23°C or more, up to and including 61°C (closed cup test)

Class 4 - Flammable solids

Class 4.1

Flammable solids


Class 4.2

Substances liable to spontaneous combustion


Class 4.3

Substances which emit flammable gases on contact with water

Class 5 - Oxidizing substances(agents) and organic peroxides

Class 5.1

Oxidizing agents


Class 5.2

Organic peroxides

Class 6 - Toxic and infectious substances

Class 6.1

Toxic substances


Class 6.2

Infectious substances

Class 7 - Radioactive substances

-

-

Class 8 - Corrosives

-

-

Class 9 - Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles

-

-

aReproduced and updated from reference 4 by permission of the publisher.

References

1. Technical insurance references. Mer Ruckversicherungs-Gesellschaft [Munich Reinsurance], Munich, 1984.

2. Alexander DE. Natural disasters. London, University College London Press, 1993.

3. Coburn AW et al. Vulnerability and risk assessment. Geneva, Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator and United Nations Development Programme, 1991.

4. International maritime dangerous goods code. Geneva, International Maritime Organization, 1986.

Annex 3 - Emergency preparedness checklists

The checklists in this annex can be used for developing or evaluating emergency preparedness programmes. Some parts of the checklists would also be of value during response and recovery operations.

Policy

· Have all emergency management parts of relevant legislation been located, and have the implications of this legislation been considered in community emergency preparedness?

· Have any inconsistencies in the legislation been reported to central government?

· Is there power for the following actions during emergencies:

- commandeering of resources?

- evacuation of people at risk?

- centralized coordination of emergency work at the national, provincial, and community levels?

Vulnerability assessment

· Is a vulnerability assessment available for emergency preparedness, as well as for emergency response and recovery work?

· Are there procedures for reviewing vulnerability assessment in the light of:

- community change?
- vulnerability change?
- hazards change?
- capacity/capability change?

Planning

· Have private organizations and NGOs been involved in the planning process?

· Has assistance or guidance in developing emergency plans been provided to government, private organizations, and NGOs?

· Are there emergency plans that are related to the community emergency plan?

· If such plans exist, what are the implications for your plans?

· Has contact been made with people in other organizations or jurisdictional areas who may be able to assist the community?

· Has the plan been approved by the chief executive of the community administration?

· Has the plan been endorsed by all relevant organizations?

· Has a person or organization been assigned responsibility for developing the community emergency plan?

· Who is responsible for keeping the emergency plan up to date and how often is it to be formally reviewed?

· Do people who hold existing plans receive amendments?

· Is a distribution list of the plan maintained?

· Have the community emergency management structure and organizational responsibilities been described?

· Who is responsible for the overall management?

· Who is responsible for the operations of particular organizations?

· Who is responsible for coordinating particular tasks?

· Are all the necessary tasks assigned to organizations and personnel?

· Are the responsibilities of all organizations described?

· Does the plan contain a summary of the vulnerability assessment?

· Has the relationship between different levels of planning been described?

· Have mutual aid and twinning agreements with adjacent communities been made?

· Is the plan consistent with related plans?

· Does the plan make reference to the legislation that establishes the legal basis for planning and carrying out emergency measures?

Training and education

· Who is responsible for the various training and education requirements of emergency workers and the public?

· Has a training needs analysis of emergency workers been performed?

· Have a number of different public education strategies been implemented?

· How quickly are new personnel in organizations made capable of working in emergency management?

· Is institutional memory being preserved? For example, do people have to “reinvent the wheel” or are past, practical lessons learned, documented, and passed on?

· Do the capabilities and capacities of organizations improve over time during the implementation of preparedness strategies?

Monitoring and evaluation

· Is there a procedure for reviewing emergency preparedness on a regular or as-required basis? How is it done and who is responsible?

· How often is the community plan to be exercised? Who is responsible?

· How are the lessons learned from exercises to be incorporated into plans?

· Are multi-organizational exercises run, as well as single-organizational exercises?

Communications

· What forms of communication are available?

· Are there backups?

· Who is responsible for communications maintenance and planning?

· Do people know the relevant radio frequencies and contact numbers?

· Are there contact lists (containing names, telephone numbers, etc.) for all emergency management organizations?

· Do the communications systems allow communication between all relevant organizations?

Search and rescue

· What rescue tasks may need to be performed?

· Who is responsible, who coordinates?

· Are there procedures for detecting and marking danger areas?

· How are search and rescue activities integrated with other emergency functions, in particular health?

Health and medical

· Have the ambulance and hospital services planned and been trained for the handling of mass casualties?

· Are they aware of each other’s arrangements?

· Are there emergency field medical teams?

· Who manages these on-site?

· Are there arrangements for counselling the public and emergency workers? Who is responsible for providing this service and who pays for it?

Social welfare

· Are the arrangements for feeding and accommodating people linked to the registration and enquiry system and the evacuation procedures?

· Is there any arrangement for expediting the assessment of damage to private and public property and payment for losses?

· Do the insurance companies have any cooperative arrangements among themselves?

· Where, when, and how do people have access to insurance companies?

· What is insurance company policy on makeshift repairs or repairs to minimize damage?

· Is there access to legal advisers during emergency response and recovery operations?

· Is there a system for providing legal advice to emergency-affected persons?

Transport and lifelines

· Who is responsible for each lifeline?
· What are the priorities for repairing damaged lifelines?
· How long should it take to repair each lifeline from the predicted levels of damage?
· How are alternative lifelines to be arranged if required?

Police and investigation

· Are there procedures to ensure that resources are reserved from the emergency response work to enforce law and order?

Alerting

· Who is responsible for receiving warnings from outside the community?

· Is there a clear system that ensures that all relevant organizations and personnel are alerted?

· Does this system:

- assign responsibility for initiating an alert?

- provide for a “cascade” method of alerting, whereby those alerted are responsible for further alerting where appropriate?

- describe the first actions required by those alerted?

- provide for the cancellation of an alert and the stand-down of organizations and personnel?

Command, control and coordination

· Is there a threat to the existence or continuity of government?

· Who is responsible for planning for continuity of government?

· Have all senior management personnel and elected officials been allocated a task?

· To whom do management personnel or officials turn for information?

· Are there procedures for ensuring the safety of government and administrative records (paper and computerized)?

· Have lines of succession been determined to ensure continuity of leadership?

· Have alternative sites for government organizations been identified?

· Have locations for emergency coordination centres been designated and promulgated?

· Are there alternative centres?

· Are they remote from areas likely to be damaged?

· Do they have adequate communications, feeding, sleeping, and sanitation facilities?

· Do they have backup power?

· Is the availability of backup communications equipment known?

· Is there an adequate water supply?

· Is there a designated centre manager and alternative and relieving managers?

· Do the centres have trained staff?

· Are there procedures for developing staff rosters?

· Are there procedures for activating and operating the centres?

· Is there adequate administrative support for the centres?

· Are functions of the centres succinctly described?

· Is there a procedure method for collecting, verifying, analysing, and disseminating information?

· Is there a procedure for recording events, requests for assistance, decisions, and allocating resources?

· Are there internal security arrangements for the centres?

· Has responsibility for day-to-day maintenance of the centres been assigned?

· Are there procedures within and between organizations for the briefing of personnel on an impending or actual emergency?

· Are there procedures for conducting single and multi-organizational debriefings following an emergency or alert?

Information management

· Are maps of the community (topographic, demographic, hazard, and vulnerability) available?

· Is a public information centre designated as the official point of contact by public and the media during an emergency?

· Are there provisions for releasing information to the public, including appropriate protective actions and devised responses?

· Have agreements been reached with the media for disseminating public information and emergency warnings?

· Are contact details for all media outlets (radio, television, and newspapers) available?

· Who is responsible for providing information to the media?

· Who is responsible for authorizing information?

· Who is responsible for emergency assessment and to whom do they report? How is the information recorded and who relays the information to those concerned?

· Who is responsible for issuing public statements about emergencies?

· Do they have public credibility and adequate liaison with other organizations who may also issue warnings?

· Who is responsible for providing warnings for each likely type of emergency?

· To whom is the warning supplied?

· At which warning level is response action initiated?

· What is the purpose of the warnings and what action is required of the public?

· Who will inform the public when the danger has passed?

· Is there a point of contact for members of the public wanting specific information, and is this point of contact publicly known?

· Is there a referral service for directing people to the appropriate sources of information?

· Is there a registration and enquiry system for recording the whereabouts of displaced, injured, or dead persons?

· Is there a system for providing this information to bona fide inquirers?

· Does the community know how to contact the registration and inquiry system?

· Is there a facility for multilingual message broadcasting and an interpreter service for incoming calls?

· Are there plans for establishing public information centres?

· Is the community aware of the existence of these centres?

Resource management

· Who coordinates resources within each organization?

· Who is responsible for supplying resources beyond the normal capabilities of each organization? Who records the use and cost of resources?

· Have arrangements been made with national or provincial military organizations for assistance in times of emergency?

· Is there agreed access to emergency funds?

· Who records the expenditure for future acquittal/repayment?

· What are the limits of expenditure for personnel?

· What tasks can be safely performed by unskilled volunteers?

· Who coordinates this work?

· Is it likely that some organizations will begin public appeals for donations to emergency-affected persons?

· How can these appeals be coordinated?

· How is equitable disbursement of appeal money to be ensured?

· Who coordinates the requests for assistance for the community?

· What sort of assistance is likely to be required?

· Where is this assistance likely to come from?

· Is there an expected form that the request should take?

· Is the following information available to help outside assistance:

- lists of organizations working in the country, with information on their competence and capacity to be involved in emergency response and recovery activities?

- lists of essential response and recovery items not available in the community that would need to be obtained abroad, with available information on potential international sources?

- information on customs and taxation regulations covering the importation and transit of response and recovery (and other) items?

· Is the following information available:

- lists of essential response and recovery items, with specifications and average costs?

- lists of local manufacturers and regional manufacturers or suppliers of response and recovery items, with information on quality, capacity and capability, delivery times, and reliability?

- information on essential response and recovery resources that will allow a rapid response, e.g. water supply systems, sanitation systems, health networks, alternative shelter sites and materials, ports and transport networks, warehouses, and communications systems?

Evacuation

· Does any person or organization have the authority to evacuate people who are threatened?

· Are there designated locations to which evacuees should travel?

· How many people may need to be evacuated?

· In what circumstances should they be evacuated?

· Who will tell people that it is safe to return? What will trigger this?

· Are staging areas and pick-up points identified for evacuation?

· Are evacuees to be provided with information on where they are going and how they will be cared for?

· Is there security for evacuated areas?

· How are prisoners to be evacuated?

· How are the cultural and religious requirements of evacuees to be catered for?

· Who is responsible for traffic control during evacuation?

· How are evacuees to be registered?

Response and recovery operations

· Has a community emergency committee been set up?

· Have response teams been organized?

· Is anything being done for isolated families?

· Have arrangements been made to pick up the injured and take them to the health centre or hospital?

· Have people been evacuated from dangerous buildings?

· Have steps been taken to resolve the most urgent problems for the survival of the victims, including water, food, and shelter?

· Has a place been assigned for the dead to be kept while awaiting burial?

· Are steps being taken to identify the dead?

· Has an information centre been established?

· Have communications been established with the central (regional, national) government?

· Has there been a needs assessment to consider the number of people needing assistance, the type of assistance required, and the resources locally available?

· Are steps being taken to reunite families?

· Have safety instructions been issued?

· Are steps being taken to circulate information on:

- the consequences of the emergency?
- the dangers that exist?
- facts that may reassure people?

· Are communications being maintained with the central government?

· Is information on requirements being coordinated?

· Are local volunteer workers being coordinated?

· Are volunteer workers from outside being coordinated?

· Is inappropriate aid being successfully prevented and avoided?

· Are response and recovery supplies being fairly distributed?

· Is contact being maintained with all family groupings?

· Have families who are living in buildings that are damaged but not dangerous been reassured?

· Has an appropriate site been chosen for temporary shelters?

· In setting up shelters for emergency victims, have family and neighbourhood relationships and socioeconomic and cultural needs been taken into account?

· Have the victims been organized in family groupings?

· Have the essential problems been dealt with:

- water supply?
- the provision of clothing, footwear, and blankets?
- food supply?
- facilities for preparing hot meals?
- the installation of latrines?
- facilities for washing clothes and pots and pans?
- collection and disposal of waste?

· Have short meetings been arranged in the community to discuss the various problems and find solutions to them?

· Have steps been taken to encourage solidarity, mutual assistance, and constructive efforts among the people?

· Have school activities started up again?

· Have initiatives been taken for community action by children?

· Have steps been take to combat false rumours?

· Have measures been adopted to ensure that there is no favouritism in the distribution of response and recovery supplies?

· Is care being taken to make certain that volunteer workers from outside do not take the place of local people but help them to take the situation in hand?

· Have the victims been encouraged and helped to resume their activities?

· Have initiatives been taken to facilitate economic recovery, putting local resources to good use?

· Have steps been taken to ensure that people participate in drawing up plans of recovery and development and that those plans are in line with needs and the local culture?

· Are arrangements in force to avoid:

- delays?
- crippling disputes?
- favouritism?
- speculation?
- dishonesty?
- violence?

References

1. Australian emergency manual: community emergency planning guide, 2nd ed. Canberra, Natural Disasters Organisation, 1992.

2. A guide for the review of state and local emergency operations plans. Washington, DC, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1992 (CPG 1-8A).

3. Capability assessment and standards for state and local government (interim guidance). Washington, DC, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1983 (CPG 1-102).

4. International Civil Defence Organisation. The international status of civil defence and the ICDO. International civil defence journal, 1993, 6(3):44-46.

5. Koob PC. Planning process II. Hobart, University of Tasmania, 1993.

Annex 4 - Personal protection in different types of emergencies

Introduction

In addition to considering action by rescuers, thought must be given to personal protection measures in different types of emergencies. While such measures may not directly contribute to saving casualties, they help to reduce their number. By taking precautions, the individual assists the collective effort to reduce the effects of an emergency. The types of emergency considered here are:

- floods;
- storms, hurricanes, and tornadoes;
- earthquakes;
- clouds of toxic fumes.

A number of measures must be observed by all persons in all types of emergency:

· Do not use the telephone, except to call for help, so as to leave telephone lines free for the organization of response.

· Listen to the messages broadcast by radio and the various media so as to be informed of development.

· Carry out the official instructions given over the radio or by loudspeaker.

· Keep a family emergency kit ready.

In all the different types of emergency, it is better:

- to be prepared than to get hurt;
- to get information so as to get organized;
- to wait rather than act too hastily.

Floods

What to do beforehand

While town planning is a government responsibility, individuals should find out about risks in the area where they live. For example, people who live in areas downstream from a dam should know the special signals (such as foghorns) used when a dam threatens to break. Small floods can be foreseen by watching the water level after heavy rains and regularly listening to the weather forecasts.

Forecasting of floods or tidal waves is very difficult, but hurricanes and cyclones often occur at the same time of year, when particular vigilance must be exercised. They are often announced several hours or days before they arrive.

During a flood

· Turn off the electricity to reduce the risk of electrocution.

· Protect people and property:

- as soon as the flood begins, take any vulnerable people (children, the old, the sick, and the disabled) to an upper floor;

- whenever possible, move personal belongings upstairs or go to raised shelters provided for use in floods.

· Beware of water contamination - if the taste, colour, or smell of the water is suspicious, it is vital to use some means of purification.

· Evacuate danger zones as ordered by the local authorities - it is essential to comply strictly with the evacuation advice given. Authorities will recommend that families take with them the emergency supplies they have prepared.

After a flood

When a flood is over, it is important that people do not return home until told to do so by the local authorities, who will have ensured that buildings have not been undermined by water. From then on it is essential to:

- wait until the water is declared safe before drinking any that is untreated;

- clean and disinfect any room that has been flooded;

- sterilize or wash with boiling water all dishes and kitchen utensils;

- get rid of any food that has been in or near the water, including canned foods and any food kept in refrigerators and freezers;

- get rid of all consumables (drinks, medicines, cosmetics, etc.).

Storms, hurricanes and tornadoes

What to do beforehand

Above all, it is vital that people find out about the kinds of storm liable to strike their region so that they can take optimum preventive measures, and:

- choose a shelter in advance, before the emergency occurs - a cellar, a basement, or an alcove may be perfectly suitable;

- minimize the effects of the storm - fell dead trees, prune tree branches, regularly check the state of roofs, the state of the ground, and the drainage around houses;

- take measures against flooding;

- prepare a family emergency kit.

During an emergency

· Listen to the information and advice provided by the authorities.

· Do not go out in a car or a boat once the storm has been announced.

· Evacuate houses if the authorities request this, taking the family emergency package.

· If possible, tie down any object liable to be blown away by the wind; if there is time, nail planks to the doors and shutters, open the windows and doors slightly on the side opposite to the direction from which the wind is coming so as to reduce wind pressure on the house.

· If caught outside in a storm, take refuge as quickly as possible in a shelter; if there is no shelter, lie down flat in a ditch.

· In a thunderstorm keep away from doors, windows, and electrical conductors, unplug electrical appliances and television aerials. Do not use any electrical appliances or the telephone.

· Anyone who is outside should:

- look for shelter in a building (never under a tree);
- if out in a boat, get back to the shore;
- keep away from fences and electric cables;
- kneel down rather than remain standing.

After an emergency

After the storm has subsided:

- follow the instructions given by the authorities;

- stay indoors and do not go to the stricken areas;

- give the alert as quickly as possible;

- give first aid to the injured;

- make sure the water is safe to drink and check the contents of refrigerators and freezers;

- check the exterior of dwellings and call for assistance if there is a risk of falling objects (tiles, guttering, etc.).

Earthquakes

What to do beforehand

The movement of the ground in an earthquake is rarely the direct cause of injuries; most are caused by falling objects or collapsing buildings. Many earthquakes are followed (several hours or even days later) by further tremors, usually of progressively decreasing intensity. To reduce the destructive effects of earthquakes a number of precautions are essential for people living in risk areas:

· Build in accordance with urban planning regulations for risk areas.

· Ensure that all electrical and gas appliances in houses, together with all pipes connected to them, are firmly fixed.

· Avoid storing heavy objects and materials in high positions.

· Hold family evacuation drills and ensure that the whole family knows what to do in case of an earthquake.

· Prepare a family emergency kit.

During an earthquake

· Keep calm, do not panic.

· People who are indoors should stay there but move to the central part of the building.

· Keep away from the stairs, which might collapse suddenly.

· People who are outside should stay there, keeping away from buildings to avoid collapsing walls and away from electric cables.

· Anyone in a vehicle should park it, keeping away from bridges and buildings.

After an earthquake

· Obey the authorities’ instructions.

· Do not go back into damaged buildings since tremors may start again at any moment.

· Give first aid to the injured and alert the emergency services in case of fire, burst pipes, etc.

· Do not go simply to look at the stricken areas: this will hamper rescue work.

· Keep emergency packages and a radio near at hand.

· Make sure that water is safe to drink and food stored at home is fit to eat (in case of electricity cuts affecting refrigerators and freezers).

Clouds of toxic fumes

What to do beforehand

People in a risk area should:

- find out about evacuation plans and facilities;
- familiarize themselves with the alarm signals used in case of emergency;
- equip doors and windows with the tightest possible fastenings;
- prepare family emergency kits.

During an emergency

· Do not use the telephone; leave lines free for rescue services.
· Listen to the messages given by radio and other media.
· Carry out the instructions transmitted by radio or loudspeaker.
· Close doors and windows.
· Stop up air intakes.
· Seal any cracks or gaps around windows and doors with adhesive tape.
· Organize a reserve of water (by filling wash basins, baths, etc.).
· Turn off ventilators and air conditioners.

After an emergency

· Comply with the authorities’ instructions and do not go out until there is no longer any risk.
· Carry out necessary decontamination measures.