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close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans - Primary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 190 p.)
close this folderSection Four: Sample Activities
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.1 Unit One - OUR HEALTH
View the document4.2 Unit Nine - HIV/AIDS
View the document4.3 Unit Thirteen - FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS

(introduction...)

Part One of this section provides an introductory unit on health in which a few activities are provided and suggestions are given as to how to begin integrating the Sara Communication Initiative and Children’s Rights issues into the training programme from the outset. Part Two then provides sample lesson formats for some of the units, in line with the analysis of the syllabus in Section Three. Each activity has been prepared with emphasis on life skills education through interactive/participatory methodology. The activities have also taken into account the rights of children in Uganda, the needs of the Ugandan girl child and gender issues. The units covered are those on AIDS; and Family Health and Social Problems because they address key issues which require immediate intervention through life skills education.

The lessons are mainly aimed at student teachers, although with some modifications they may be used with other groups. It is up to the facilitator/tutor to decide which activities are most relevant to his/her group and what other activities s/he might use.

4.1 Unit One - OUR HEALTH

A clear understanding of health and how children perceive health and illness is very important for the student teachers. Therefore, student teachers should realise and appreciate that health is influenced by self awareness, beliefs, myths, attitudes, environment and finally the action taken by the individual, family and community as a whole.

Teachers are the custodians of our children in the 6 to 14 years age bracket at a time when they are amenable to change, and therefore, they should have a clear understanding of health at the earliest opportunity.

UNIT OBJECTIVES

By the end of the unit, students should be able to:

1. Describe and list the ways children perceive health and illness.

2. Identify and explain life skills that promote health.

3. Explain children’s rights concerning health.

4. Explain how children’s mental development affect their learning of health concepts.

5. Explain the concept of health and health education and how it can be promoted.

6. List various types of environment and describe their effects on health.

7. Describe different problems that may affect proper growth and development of a person at various stages.

8. explain the role of the individual, family, and community in the promotion of health.

TOPIC ONE

CONCEPT OF HEALTH AND LIFE SKILLS

Objectives

By the end of the topic, student teachers should be able to:

1. Learn and work with their fellow students on common tasks on a basis of mutual understanding and team work.

2. Explain the meaning of health in relation to the individual, family and community.

3. Adopt and demonstrate healthy behaviours.

ACTIVITY ONE

GETTING TO KNOW ONE ANOTHER

Life Skills to be developed

Friendship formation, interpersonal relationship, effective communication.

Time: 40 minutes

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers, pieces of cards with halves of towns in Uganda printed on them.

Procedure

1. Ask each student to pick one card which contains half the name of a town and tell them to find the person with the card with the other half of the name.

2. Each student sits with his/her partner. They tell each other the information about themselves:

· Name
· Age
· Place of Origin

· Favourite Musician
· Biggest Dislike

3. 3 pairs join together to form a group. Each member of the pair introduces her/his partner to the rest of the group.

4. Each group draws its own shield as demonstrated by the tutor on a large sheet of paper with a name and motto. Inside, the shield is divided into four parts:

(i) Names of student in the group,
(ii) Reasons for joining the teacher’s education.
(iii) Concerns, hopes and fears of the group and
(iv) Ground rules for effective class interaction.

5. Each group put up its shield on the wall and explains to the rest.

6. In plenary, discuss the importance of the activity bringing out the life skills such as friendship formation, interpersonal relationships and effective communication.

Learning Points

· This first session is an introductory lesson which aims at building up the students’ knowledge of and trust in one other as an essential pre requisite to later interaction throughout the year. It also introduces from the start the participatory nature of the course.

· It is important to know each other so that you work together effectively.

· Knowing each other helps to improve relationships by appreciating other peoples’ ideas, concerns, hopes and fears.

· Effective communication promotes good relationships.

Hints

· Prepare cards of different towns in Uganda before the activity. Cut the cards inhalf.
· Cards should be of the same size.
· Draw a sample of the shield as shown below:


Figure

Extension Activity

1. Encourage student teachers to continue learning about one another outside the class.

ACTIVITY TWO

WHO IS HEALTHY?

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, critical thinking.

Materials

Handouts containing pictures and descriptions of the four characters, case studies.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. The students are divided randomly into groups of 8 students.

2. In groups they discuss the four characters shown in the pictures using the questions below:

(i) Who is more healthy and why?
(ii) How could each character improve her/his health?
(iii) What factors lie within the control of each character and what factors do not?

3. Groups present their answers to the whole class for discussion

Learning Points: Some definitions of Health.

· Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not simply the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO, 1964).

· Our bodies are very complicated structures made of many parts each with its job. As long as each part performs its job correctly, at the right time, we are healthy. School Health Text (1984).

· A process of adaptation.... the ability to adapt to changing environments, to growing up and ageing, to healing when damaged, to suffering and to the peaceful expectation of death. Illich (1976).

Hint

· The aim of the first activity is to evaluate the perspectives from which me students view health in its broadest sense and to use the examples to build on that knowledge. Therefore, the tutor should bring out issues of mental, social and spiritual health if the students fail to do so.

Extension Activity

1. Ask students to work in their groups to define health and what is needed in order to maintain good health.

Picture 1: Mr Kizito: He is a fat man, obviously rich wearing expensive clothes. Although he is fairly old, a young woman is hanging on to his arm.

Description: Mr Kizito is 45 years old and he works in a parastatal. He is rich and lives with his family in a big house he has built just outside Kampala. In the morning he has no breakfast but when he gets to work he orders some well salted mchomo which he eats while he reads the newspaper. In the afternoon he usually has a leg of chicken and one beer. In the evening he drops into the local bar for ‘a few beers’ and discussion before going home. Sometimes he takes another girl but he insists on wearing a condom. On Sundays he goes to church and tries to stay with his family the whole day. At work, Mr Kizito is not popular because he always like to command the other workers. He has even been known to hit one of them.

Picture 2: Mrs Kaggwa: She is a peasant woman wearing a long colourless dress and a headscarf. She is not wearing shoes.

Description: Her husband was killed during the liberation war. She has a small farm of bananas, sweetpotatoes, beans and green vegetables. She has four children who alt go to school. Although Mrs Kaggwa works very hard, the children have a sweetpotato before going to school and then the main meal is in the evening. In the middle of the day they cannot eat.

The family eats green vegetables every day but Mrs Kaggwa keeps a few hens so that they can eat chicken on Sundays after going to church. She feels very lonely and abandoned without her husband. She gets her strength from her faith in God and her faith in her children who are all doing well at school.

Picture 3: Mr Okello. About thirty years old, well dressed and thin.

Description: He is the LC1 in his village. He used to work hard for the village but he has changed recently, since he believes that he has not received recognition for all the hard work he does. So he has taken to pocketing some of the village contributions for himself. He doesn’t drink but, ever since he was in the liberation war he has been smoking 20 cigarettes a day. Recently he divorced his wife and married a young girl in the village.

Picture 4: Martina: She is dressed in a secondary school uniform. She looks very smart.

Description: Martina is in S3. She is one of the best students in the class and everyone expects her to go to high school. She hates boys and refuses to go to any dances or other social activities. She spends all her time with the books. Maybe one reason why she hates boys is that she has a twisted leg which makes her feel that she looks ugly and so she is afraid that all the boys are laughing at her.


Picture 1


Picture 2


Picture 3


Picture 4

ACTIVITY THREE

HOW DO I REMAIN HEALTHY?

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, creative thinking.

Materials

Case studies for role plays, large sheets of paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Students brainstorm on all the factors in the physical and social environment that affect health.

2. In the same groups as in activity two above, students analyse which factors lie outside their control (NC), which they can partly control (PC) and which they have a great amount of control over (LC)

3. Tutor explains that life skills are those skills that enable individuals to have more control over their health and their lives

4. In groups, students prepare role plays on the following situations (one role play for each group).

(i) Paulina is in S2. She was Richard’s girlfriend for one year before agreeing to have sex with him when she realised that Richard was going out with one of her friends. Now she is pregnant with Richard’s baby. He is in S4. She goes to confront him.

(ii) Kato has been rejected by his girl friend, Rose, because he drinks too much. As a result, he starts drinking even more. He meets Rose on the road and tries to convince her forcibly to come back to him.

(iii) Mariamu is in S3. She comes from a poor family and has been going to discos every weekend in the hope of finding men to give her money. Her best lover was a 45 year old manager. She meets him on the street and he is very thin and obviously very ill.

(iv) Atieno left school in P7 to get married to a rich young man in the village who paid a big bride price to her father. She was soon pregnant. On her last visit to the clinic she was told that because she is still very young, she is in danger of losing her baby. She goes home to tell her husband (and her/his parents)

5. For each of these role plays, the students should discuss the following:

(i) What are the health or health related problems outlined?

(ii) To what extent are the problems caused by the situations in which they live?

(iii) What measures could they have taken to avoid their problems?

(iv) What life skills will be needed by each of the characters in order to improve their health and/or behaviour.

Learning Points

· A health problem is the actual illness e.g. malaria.

· A health related problem is an adverse/undesirable situation, which is not prevented or dealt with effectively will lead to actual illness e.g. in an under-five child, shortage of an adequate balanced diet is a health related problem.

Hint

· Each role play should not be more than 5 minutes. The aim is to start the students thinking themselves into the situations, not produce full dramas.

Extension Activity

1. Groups develop plays around the situations they role played, for later presentation to the class/college/community.

TOPIC TWO

FACTORS INFLUENCING HEALTH: GENDER AND ENVIRONMENT

Objectives

By the end of the topic, students should be able to:

1. Analyse differences in health problems facing men and women and the reasons for them.

2. Analyse their own feelings in relation to gender roles and how they are changing/may change.

3. Identify ways in which current imbalances can be addressed in their own lives.

4. Explain how the environment influences health.

5. Identify and adopt life skills for confronting and coping with external influences on health.

ACTIVITY ONE

WHO IS MORE AFFECTED?

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, creative thinking, empathy.

Materials

Questionnaires, large sheets of paper, markers, handouts.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Hand out the following questionnaire. Each student places their answer on a scale of 1 -5. 5 means that they fully agree and 1 means that they don’t agree at all.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

(i) Boys are stronger than girls.

1

2

3

4

5

(ii) Cooking is a girl’s job.

1

2

3

4

5

(iii) Girls don’t have time to study because of all their chores.

1

2

3

4

5

(iv) Girls wake up before boys.

1

2

3

4

5

(v) At school, girls do more work than boys.

1

2

3

4

5

(vi) Boys are more intelligent than girls.

1

2

3

4

$


“Girls don’t have time to study because of all their chores”


“Boys are stronger than girls”

2. Each person shows her/his answers to her/his neighbour and discusses it with her/him.

3. Students divide into groups according to sex and write down the different activities they do:

· on schooldays
· at weekends
· in the holidays

4. Each group presents a list of what each does.

5. Tutor asks the followingup questions.

(i) What do we learn from these lists?
(ii) What does it tell us about the health of boys and girls?
(iii) The Convention on the Rights of the Child, it states that:

States should ensure that no child is discriminated against on the basis of status, ethnic origin, religion, sex etc. (Article 2)

How is this relevant to the above discussion?

Learning Points

· In Uganda, men are generally considered heads of families and decision making is largely dominated by them.

· There are gender disparities in access to education, economic opportunities and health care in the country.

· There is bias in favour of education for boys coupled with issues of early pregnancy resulting in the high drop-out rate of girls from school.

· There are imbalances in employment by sector and sex. Within the agriculture sector, women are the major food producers.

· Women perform most of the household chores and are concentrated in low paying jobs.

· As a basic human right, there is need to improve women status, raise the level of income of individuals and family.

· People are born female or male, but learn to be girls or boys who grow into women and men.

· They are taught what the appropriate behaviour and attitudes, role and activities are for them, and how they should relate to other people. This learned behaviour is what makes up gender identity and determines gender roles

Hint

· Gender issues are sensitive and therefore the ground rules should be strictly observed in order to ensure that it is not just a fight between the boys and the girls.

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to identify the gender issues that affect the health of an individual, family and community.

2. Ask students to suggest types of communication activity which promote the behaviour change towards healthy living.

ACTIVITY TWO

ROLE PLAY: MRS BYAKIKA IS LATE

Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, problem solving, critical thinking.

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Prepare a few students to do the role play before the class

2. Ask the students to do the role play.


Mr Byakika is busy cleaning the house. He is carrying a baby on his back and a small child is pulling at his legs wanting something. He is obviously tired but dinner is also cooking on the fire. He talks about his problems as he works, that there may not be enough food when his wife comes home from work in the council.


After his situation is made clear, his wife returns. She is a little drunk and is angry that dinner is not ready. The children hide behind their father.

3. Students discuss in groups the following questions:

(i) What do you think about this situation?
(ii) How did you feel when you were watching the role play? Why?
(iii) What do our feelings show about how we view roles of men and women in society?
(iv) If the role play were the other way round, would we have felt differently? Why?

Learning Points

· Gender describes those characteristics of men and women which are socially determined in contrast to those which are biologically determined.

· The distinction between sex and gender is made to emphasise that most of the so-called differences in roles are socially determined.

· Many of the students’ reactions come from the way they have been socialised which leads to an unconscious gender stereotyping

· Many aspects of division of labour change from one place to another and one time to another. For example, men do cook when it is paid employment or the food is not regarded as traditional (such as roast meat and chips).

· Women and men must be given equal opportunity at all levels of health and development activities because it is both a matter of justice and a recipe for faster development.

Hints to Tutor

· Gender roles are very sensitive and therefore ground rules should be strictly observed.

· Avoid reinforcing stereotypes of men and women

· Be aware of your own, as well as your students’ assumptions about gender.

Extension Activities

1. Students read the dialogue from the beginning of The Special Gift:


IN THE COUNTRYSIDE NEAR A SMALL TOWN IN AFRICA THE HOT MID-DAY SUN 15 BURNING FIERCELY. WOMEN AND GIRLS ARE GATHERING NEEDED FIREWOOD. SARA AND HER FRIEND AMINA. TWO SCHOOL GIRLS, HAVE COLLECTED AS MUCH FIREWOOD AS THEY CAN FIND AND ARE HEADED FOR HOME WHERE MORE WORK AWAITS THEM. SARA’S PET MONKEY, ZINGO, IS ALSO GATHERING WOOD TO HELP SARA.


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure

2. In groups, discuss how Sara and Amina could convince their relatives to allow them more time for homework.

3 Role play the discussions.

4. Plenary discussion:

(i) How did you feel trying to convince your mother/uncle?

(ii) How easy is it to do so? Why? What other methods could they have used to convince their relatives? (e.g. calling in another adult, the teacher etc.)

ACTIVITY THREE

HOW ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS HEALTH

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, interpersonal relationships, problem solving.

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers, portable boards, chalk.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the students into six groups.

2. Each group answers the following questions.

(i) What are the physical environmental factors that can adversely affect health?
(ii) How do these factors affect health?
(iii) How can children participate in minimising these factors?
(iv) What are the social environmental factors that can adversely affect health?
(v) How do these factors affect health?
(vi) What is the role of children, the school and the family in minimising these factors?

3. Each group writes down their answers on large sheets of paper for presentation to plenary.

4. Each group chooses one of the factors and prepares a tableau to depict both the factor and how children can participate in minimising the factor.

Learning Points

· This activity is intended to remind students that the environment plays a major role in determining the quality of health. Improving the environment should improve the health of those who live in it.

· The increasing population and demand for natural resources has led to a marked destruction of the environment especially the forest cover.

· The environment influences the individual from conception to death.

· Air pollution strikes the young more harshly than the old, affecting their respiratory system.

· Active participation of the individual, family, school and community is required in the promotion and maintenance of a healthy environment.

· Some diseases/conditions have hereditary/congenital bearing.

Hints

· Guide the students to explain what Health Education is in relation to environment.

· Emphasize that Health Education should be integrated with everything that we do because basically all that we do is for sustaining life; which can only happen if we promote health.

· The groups discussing biological factors should come up with among others, how they affect health.

· The group discussing social factors should come with amongh other dindings behavioural factors such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, adversely affect health.

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to visit various communities to find out the following:

(i) Their water source

(ii) Health facilities in terms of types, use/attendance and common illnesses


Protected spring


Piped water source

2. Ask students to visit primary schools look into the conditions of:

(i) sanitation and water sources.
(ii) buildings.
(iii) feeding.
(iv) school health services.
(v) common illnesses.

TOPIC FOUR

HEALTH AND THE SCHOOL

Objectives

By the end of the topic the students should be able to:

1. Explain what a health promoting school is and how it affects the pupils and teachers who attend it.

2. Analyse schools and colleges from the perspective of a health promoting school and identify problems which need to be addressed.

3. Identify behaviours which they as teachers should have in order to facilitate a health promoting school.

4. Prepare materials for use in class that build on the knowledge the pupils already have.

5. Explain the Sara Communication Initiative and how it relates to them as future teachers.

6. Explain the role of the individual, family, school and community in the promotion of health.

ACTIVITY ONE

GETTING TO KNOW YOUR CLASS

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, creative thinking, problem solving.

Materials

Pictures of Ms Matata, Sara, Amina and Juma, brochure on Sara Communication Initiative.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Groups discuss how they would teach about environment and health to a P7 class.

(i) What do they want to teach the pupils?
(ii) How will they teach it? (i.e. what methods will they use?)

2. Two groups present their answers to the class. Facilitator writes main points on the board.

3. Facilitator presents materials on Sara and her friends.

4. Students read and discuss the following questions in groups.

(i) What picture do you get of these three children?

(ii) What do you think they know about health?

(iii) In the light of having such pupils in your class, would you like to revise the way you would teach your lessons?

(iv) How does Sara contribute to the promotion of Health?

5. Groups revise how they would teach their lessons. Plenary discussion.

6. Facilitator points out that Ms Matata’s class will be the class they will be learning about and interacting with throughout the course, especially Sara and her two friends, Amina and Juma. S/he explains the Sara Communication Initiative and says that, if the students are interested there are stories, comic books etc. S/he also explains that, as they are student teachers, Ms Matata is a good role model in the way she tries to discover and develop her students’ talents by using participatory methodology. That is one reason why Sara and her friends already know so much.


Ms Matata handout

Hello. My name is Ms Matata and I am the class teacher for P7. I am very happy that you have come to join us as trainee teachers for the whole of this year. I am sure you will want to know about the pupils you are going to teach.


Sara handout

Sara is 14 years old. She lives with her mother and younger brothers and sisters in the compound of her uncle who is a farmer. Her father is in town where he is trying to save money to buy a farm and build a house. He sends money home for the education of his children. He is very proud of Sara because she is his first daughter and she is doing so well in school.

Sara wants to be a scientist and she has already shown that she can be. Together with her friends, Amina and Juma, she has built a smokeless stove which has become the model for the whole village because it improves the kitchen environment by reducing the amount of smoke and also reduces the amount of time women and girls have to spend looking for firewood. She says that her aim it to be either a doctor or an animal doctor so that she can help her village in the future.


Amina handout

Amina is an orphan. Both her parents died three years ago and she lives with her sister who works in the local bar. Amina is very good at mathematics but she sometimes get discouraged at school because of her home problems. Recently she decided to go to town to look for a job as a domestic worker but she was cheated by a lorry driver and, if Juma and Sara had not arrived in time to save her, she was in danger of being raped. Since then, she helps Juma’s brother with his accounts for which he helps her with her school fees. At the same time, she has set up a health club, together with Sara in order to discuss how they can best grow up.


Juma handout

Juma lives with his parents and his elder brother Themba who drives a pick up truck. His mother also runs a shop. He is very good at languages and is one of the best footballers in the school. Some students say that he wastes his time playing football but he argues that people who are fit or who have healthy bodies can study better.

Maybe because Juma does not have a sister, he and Sara are like sister and brother and they do most of their homework together. Last year they did a joint project on the jobs done by different members of the family which won first prize at the school.

Learning Points

· It is important to know your class, what they need to learn and how they effectively they should be taught.

· Sara is a good role model for girls.

· Every individual, family, school and community has a role to play in the promotion of Health.

· Environment influences the health situation of the individual, family school and community.

Hint

· In teaching this activity it is important to promote the linkages between health, the environment, life skills and the Sara Communication Initiative.

Extension Activity

1. Ask your students what they want to learn in various topics in Health Education.

ACTIVITY TWO

THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL

See Section Two of the manual for this activity.

ACTIVITY THREE

WHAT IS IN OUR HEADS?

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, self awareness.

Materials

Picture of an empty head.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Draw a picture of an empty head on the blackboard. Discuss what is in that head (e.g. experiences, religion, father’s attitudes, education etc).

2. Ask each student to draw a similar head and write down or draw what is in their heads and where it came from.

3. Students show their heads to one another in groups. An example of what such a drawing may appear is shown.

4. Ask the class:

(i) How can we find out what is in other people’s heads?

(ii) How do you know that you have really found out (eg many people do not like to tell the truth about sensitive issues or ones that they know might regard others to look down on them).

(iii) What is the relevance of this to teaching children about health? How much do they know already? How do we get them to express their real ideas and concerns?


Figure

Learning Points

· Our heads store a lot of information and experiences etc.

· It is important to use appropriate methods to generate students/pupils ideas and experiences for discussion.

· The body needs to be well protected.

4.2 Unit Nine - HIV/AIDS

RATIONALE

The HIV/AIDS scourge is most prevalent in the 15 to 45 years age group to which the student teachers belong. There is a notable gap between knowledge and behaviour with particular reference HIV/AIDS, hence the need for a life skills oriented approach to facilitate and reinforce behaviour change even among student teachers and to prepare them to equip their future pupils with the life skills required. They will be expected to be role models who will provide a good example and guidance to their pupils.

UNIT OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit, student teachers should be able to:

1. Identify their level of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices concerning HIV/AIDS.

2. Explain HIV/AIDS transmission and the role of the individual, family and community in its prevention.

3. Explain and highlight the rights of children and the problems of the girl child in relation to HIV/AIDS.

4. Identify cultural and social practices that may promote or prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS.

5. Explain the socio-economic and political implications of HIV/AIDS to the individual, family, community and nation.

6. Identify the needs of people with HIV/AIDS and ways of helping them.

7. Explain the possible consequences of personal behaviour and life styles in relation to HIV/AIDS.

8. Continually assess their own life styles and goals and display appropriate life skills in view of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

9. Facilitate the acquisition of appropriate life skills in student teachers and school children with reference to HIV/AIDS.

TOPIC ONE

TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION OF HIV/AIDS

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. Identify their level of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices concerning HIV/AIDS.

2. Explain HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention

3. State Life skills critical for avoiding or preventing the spread of AIDS.

4. Describe and counteract dangerous myths concerning HIV transmission and prevention

5. Identify and risk taking behaviour, the reasons for such behaviour and the effects in relation to HIV/AIDS

6. Recognize risk situations and develop strategies on how to cope with them.

7. Examine critically the process of choice and decision making in relation to HIV/AIDS and identify the most healthy choices.

ACTIVITY ONE

BRAINSTORMING HIV/AIDS

Brainstorming the level of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices concerning HIV/AIDS.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, and critical thinking.

Materials

Statement cards, flash cards, chalk board.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Tutor places cards labelled AGREE, DISAGREE, NOT SURE in three different corners of the room.

2. Tutor reads and flashes a statement card and tells students to make quick decisions and move to the corner of their choice.

3. While in the comers of their choice, student teachers and tutor discuss the reasons for the choice.

4. After the discussion, tutor asks students to change their positions if they so wish.

5. Tutor repeats steps 3 and 4 with other statement cards.

6. In plenary, tutor summarizes the salient points on each of the statements given.

SAMPLE FLASH CARD STATEMENTS

(i) HIV/AIDS is a disease in which the body’s defence mechanism against infection has been damaged.

(ii) HIV/AIDS is curable in the early stages but not in the later stages.

(iii) HIV can be transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected person.

(iv) HIV can be transmitted by sharing facilities such as toilets, glasses and sheets.

(v) Insects (e.g. mosquitoes) transmit HIV/AIDS.

(vi) There is no danger in sharing razors with others

(vii) HIV/AIDS can be transmitted by an infected mother to her baby during pregnancy or at birth.

(viii) You can get HIV/AIDS by donating blood.

(ix) HIV/AIDS can be transmitted by bewitching.

(x) It is dangerous to play sports with people who are HIV+

(xi) If a person tests positive for the HIV they are infectious for the rest of their life.

(xii) If a person tests positive to the virus that causes AIDS it means that the person has AIDS.

(xiii) It is possible to avoid the virus that causes AIDS by getting married.

(xiv) Even if people test negative once for HIV, it is possible they have the virus.

(xv) You cannot get or transmit HIV/AIDS if you use a condom during sexual intercourse.

(xvi) Asking a partner to use a condom shows lack of trust.

(xvii) You can get HIV/AIDS if you have one boy/girl friend.

(xviii) You can’t get HIV if you are a virgin

(xix) HIV/AIDS education is a waste of money and other resources.

(xx) If a person has TB or chronic diarrhoea, it means that s/he has HIV/AIDS

(xxi) It is okay to have sexual intercourse with a girl below 15 years of age because she is free from HIV/AIDS.

Learning Points

· AIDS is caused by HIV.

· HIV/AIDS is an infection which attacks and damages the body’s defence mechanism and makes it too weak to fight infection. AIDS is the end result of the breakdown of the body’s defence mechanisms which makes it vulnerable to a combination of illnesses.

· AIDS is one of the sexually transmitted infections (S.T.I). In addition, the presence of an STI increases the risk of catching HIV.

· You cannot tell whether somebody has HIV/AIDS just from their appearance. A blood test taken at officially recognized centres is the only reliable indicator.

· A person is said to be having AIDS when s/he has characteristic signs and symptoms of the disease.

· There are many diseases with characteristics similar to those of AIDS e.g. Tuberculosis (T.B), meningitis, diarrhoea, etc.

· HIV is mainly transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person. It is also transmitted through receiving infected blood, being cut/pierced with unsterilised instruments such as needles, syringes, and razors that have been in contact with the blood of an infected person and from a mother to her baby. Women with the HIV virus have about a 50% chance of giving birth to a baby with the virus.

· There is no known cure for AIDS at the moment, although some drugs in current use can relieve some of the signs and symptoms and prolong life.

· It is possible to avoid catching HIV/AIDS or infecting others by abstaining, sticking to one faithful partner or being assertive and saying No in situations of risk.

· Where people find they cannot avoid sexual contact, they should practice safer sex by using protectors/condoms..

Hints

· Give a chance to each participant to state why he/she make that choice.

· Encourage participants to be influenced by their own feelings and not those of their friends.

· Choose statements (or create new ones) which you think are the most relevant to bringing out the knowledge, beliefs, myths, attitudes and practices of the students concerning HIV. Avoid too many statements of the same type as the activity can drag on for too long.

· Prepare enough flash cards, statement cards.

Extension Activity

Ask students to:

1. List down at least three main ways HIV/AIDS can be transmitted.

2. List down at least three ways in which HIV/AIDS can not be transmitted.

3. Explain how life skills such as assertiveness, negotiation, peer resistance etc. are related to AIDS prevention at individual and community level.

ACTIVITY TWO

BARANTAGA GAME

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, negotiation.

Materials

Statement pieces of paper, chalk board.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Choose 2 students and inform them in secret that they have a disease called Barantaga which is spread by bodily contact. Each time they shake hands with someone they tell him or her “Barantaga, pass it on”. You could be the third one infected to show that you are part of the situation.

2. Inform the class that there is a competition to see who is the most popular. The more people one shake hands with the more points they get. The one with the most points is the winner. Each time you shake hands you must whisper something to them. If anyone tells you to pass something on you must do so.

3. When you see that the disease has spread to nearly everyone, stop the game and ask the following questions:

(i) How many times did each of you shake hands?
(ii) How many have Barantaga?
(iii) Can someone explain to the others about Barantaga?
(iv) Why was it so easy for people to get Barantaga?
(v) Who is the winner?


Figure

4. Educate your class that Barantaga is a disease that is spread by bodily contact. When you play the game again, 2 students in the group will already have Barantaga.

5. Students choose a statement pieces of paper. All the cards say. “I hope you enjoy the game” except three pieces of paper.

A You have Barantaga. But you don’t care. Try and convince others to shake hands with you.

B You don’t have Barantaga. But you are determined to win the competition. Try and convince others to shake hands with you.

C You have Barantaga. You are not happy. Don’t try to convince others but don’t refuse to shake hands with others.

6. Tell the students to play the same game.

7. After a few minutes, stop the game and divide the students into groups. Giver each group the following questions.

(i) How did you feel playing the game this time?
(ii) Did your behaviour change? How? Why?
(iii) How did you feel when you got Barantaga this time?
(iv) Did you still try to shake peoples’ hands? Why?
(v) How is this connected with HIV/AIDS?

Learning Points

· People must develop life skills such as critical thinking, decision making and negotiation in Relationships to enable them avoid the risk of being infected with the HIV.

· It is possible to avoid catching HIV/AIDS or infecting others by abstaining, sticking to one faithful partner or being assertive and saying No in situations of risk.

· Where people find they cannot avoid sexual contact, they should practice safer sex by using protectors/condoms.

· The more sexual partners you have, the greater the risk of being infected by one of them.

· The more partners your partner has, the greater the risk you will be infected.

· Apart from protecting yourself and your partner, you can also help to protect others against HIV/AIDS by making sure they know the facts and can practise the life skills to avoid spreading the infection.

· If infected with HIV/AIDS, one has a responsibility not to pass it on to others but, when some people know they have HIV/AIDS they react differently -fear, denial, or even a determination to infect others.

Hints

· Make it very clear that Barantaga is an imaginary disease which does not exist. It has been used to provoke the students into thinking about their behaviours. You cannot catch HIV/AIDS through handshaking

· Make sure that the game is played twice. The second time is directed at the students assessing their own behaviour in a situation of risk.

· Read current books on sexually transmitted life infections including HIV/AIDS.

Extension Activity

1. Ask the students to write down life situations/scenarios related to HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention in their local community in which they have to think critically and make appropriate choices and decisions.

TOPIC TWO

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PRACTICES THAT PROMOTE OR PREVENT HIV/AIDS

Objectives

By the end of the topic students should be able to:

1. Identify cultural practices which contribute to the spread or prevention of HIV/AIDS

2. Demonstrate life skills to overcome practices that promote the spread of HIV/AIDS.

3. Explain the meaning of the term negotiation and its application in every day life, especially in relation to HIV/AIDS

4. Identify some common principles which promote effective negotiation.

5. Identify positive and negative influences from peers..

6. Put into practice different ways of resisting peer pressure.

ACTIVITY ONE

SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION ON CULTURAL PRACTICES

Life Skills to be developed

Peer/social pressure resistance, assertiveness, decision making, critical thinking.

Materials

Case study about Musa and Rehema paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide students into four group and give each group the following case study:

At the age of sixteen, Musa is strong, active and still at school. His elder brother dies leaving Rehema, the widow, 3 children, a car, cattle and a well stocked shop. During the last funeral rites, the elders decide that Musa should inherit the widow, children and the property.

2. Give two of the groups the (A) questions and the other two the (B) questions [write the questions on a large sheet of paper] for discussion.

A (i) If you were Musa what would you do?

(ii) What problems are you likely to face?

(iii) How would you deal with the problems?

B (i) If you were Rehema what would you do?

(ii) What problems are you likely to face?

(iii) How would you deal with the problems?

3. In plenary, each group presents its findings for discussion.

4. Tutor summarizes the issues of inheritance.

5. Students brainstorm on other cultural practices that may promote or prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Tutor writes down the practices on the board.

Learning Points

· Inheritance of widows can promote spread of HIV/AIDS
· The need for critical thinking on the part of the widow and the inheriting in-law.
· The need to pay attention to the children’s rights so that they are not abused.
· The development of life skills to cope with cultural pressures.

Hints

· The tutor should prepare the case studies on papers before hand.
· Tutor should monitor the group discussions.
· Tutor should not show bias.
· It may be better sometimes to have single sex groups to discuss these issues.

Extension Activity

1. Students explore examples of practices that may promote or prevent spread of HIV/AIDS in their communities.

ACTIVITY TWO

NEGOTIATING

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, negotiation, decision making, assertiveness.

Materials

Copies of Jane’s letter, paper, pens and pencils.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Tutor reads the following letter to the students:

Dear Auntie,

I am a 15 year old girl. I always used to get a lift to school from an old man who comes from my home area. Last week he stopped the car before we reached school and said I must pay him for the lifts. I had no money so he made me have sex with him.

What do I do now Auntie? I have always been told that in our culture you must marry the first man you have sex with. But I don’t love him and I never wanted to have sex with him.

Now I have started having some vaginal discharge. I think it is AIDS.

Please help me.

Jane

2. Ask the groups to discuss the following questions:

(i) Why did Jane accept the lifts from the old man?

(ii) What cultural issues are shown in this story?

(iii) What were the potential danger points which ended in the girl being raped? Why did Jane not realise they were danger points?

(iv) How do you think Jane could have avoided this situation? How easy is it?

(v) How do you think she could have saved herself?

3. Groups present their answers to the plenary for further discussion.

Learning Points

· Some people take advantage of cultural norms for their own selfish ends.
· Students and pupils need to develop their life skills to cope with potentially dangerous situations

Hint

· Tutor should bring out the relationship between cultural norms and life skills and how life skills can be developed in this.

Extension Activity

1. Prepare a role play where a young person has to use appropriate negotiating skills with our elder person.

PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR AND LIFE STYLES IN RELATION TO HIV/AIDS

Objectives

By the end of the topic, students should be able to:

1. Explain the possible consequences of personal behaviour and life styles in relation to HIV/AIDS.

2. Set realistic, personal goals for themselves, particularly in areas of keeping themselves safe and healthy.

3. Put into practice the life skills needed to achieve those goals.

4. Identify the choices and decisions they make each day and what influences them.

5. Identify and risky situations and behaviours that minimise the risk.

ACTIVITY ONE

CHOOSING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOURS

Life Skills to be developed

Negotiation, self awareness, decision making, resistance to peer and society pressure.

Materials

Copies of case studies, large sheets of paper, markers, chalk board. 15 cards each of Red, Blue and Green.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Ask students to pick one card (red, blue or green. Divide the class into groups according to the colour they have chosen.

2. Give each group a situation and ask them to prepare a role play.

A. Naigaga (30 yrs) is married to a junior civil servant in Kampala. They have 3 children and they find great difficulty in making ends meet. Naigaga works in a bank. Her manager offers to promote her to manager if she agrees to make love to him.

(If she agrees) her husband finds out later.

B. Maggie is in S2. Her parents have great difficulty in paying for the school fees and she doesn’t have any nice clothes to wear, so her fellow students laugh at her. One day, she meets an older man who is already married. He is very nice to Maggie and for the first time she begins to enjoy life and have some good things of her own. After giving her several dresses, the man asks her to go with him to a lodge.

C. John is quite a shy person in S4. Recently a young widow has befriended him saying that John is like a son to her. She often gives him a little money to go to school with. One day, she invites him to her house. When John enters the house, he finds her sitting on the couch, almost naked.

3. Students present their role plays.

4. After each role play discuss with the students:

(i) What would be the reasons for accepting the offers in each situation?
(ii) What would be the reasons for saying no.
(iii) What would be the most important factors to consider in making that decision?
(iv) What pressures did the each person face? How easy was it resist them.

5. Explain to the students that there is no simple answer to each of the situations. Even in terms of negotiations, the person being pressurized can either refuse (and stick to his/her refusal), delay the decision (by changing the subject, etc) or bargain (by negotiating a more acceptable alternative. In some cases the best solution is to withdraw as quickly as possible (or run away).

6. Ask the students to draw in cartoon style examples of refusing, delaying or negotiating in each of the above situations.

7. Students show and explain their cartoons for discussion.

Learning Points

· Economic well-being is a very important part of life skills. Youth, parents and communities must do their best to ensure that the basic necessities are covered as far as possible.

· Sometimes our wish for immediate gain (or acceptance of favours) can lead to dangerous situations).

· Negotiating skills go hand in hand with assertiveness, critical and creative thinking.

· People need to predict risky or dangerous situation and avoid them.

· People need to appreciate and value what they are and what they have.

Hints to the Tutor

· It is very important that the tutor does not moralize or take a position in these situations. S/he should rather ensure that the students’ real feelings come out first, by playing devil’s advocate if necessary. Economic pressures should not be underestimated.

· In looking at negotiating strategies, the Tutor should also ensure that all possibilities are covered.

· The tutor could also find other situations for the students depending on the most pressing issues in that community.

Extension Activity

1. Ask the students to imagine other situations where one might either refuse, delay or negotiate and present them in cartoon form.

TOPIC FOUR

AIDS AND GENDER

Objectives

By the end of the topic, students will be able to:

1. List the specific pressures and risks facing men and women in relation to HIV/AIDS.

2. Identify gender stereotypes and myths and explain why they are false or true.

3. List ways in which women and girls can overcome the specific problems facing them in relation to HIV/AIDS.

ACTIVITY ONE

BRAINSTORMING ON STEREOTYPES AND MYTHS

Life Skills to be developed

Resistance to peer and society pressure, empathy, assertiveness.

Materials

Questionnaire handout.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Give the following questionnaire to the students and ask them to fill in A if they agree, D if they disagree, and? if they are not sure against each of the statements. Tell them that you are not interested in who gives what answer but rather to find out what the group thinks as a whole.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

(i) Girls are more likely to get HIV than boys.

(ii) Girls get themselves into trouble because they are always wanting men to give them money.

(iii) Girls wearing mini dresses or who put on a lot of make up are asking to be raped.

(iv) Girls who carry condoms are prostitutes.

(v) Below the age of 18, the sexual organs of a girl are not fully developed and can easily tear.

(vi) When a girl/woman says no, she really means yes.

(vii) It is wrong for a girl to refuse a man when he wants to make love.

(viii) To have sex with a girl below the age of 18 is defilement and is against the law.

(ix) If a girl accepts a man’s gifts/drinks, it means she has accepted to have sex with the man.

(x) Rape is usually carried out by a relative or a friend, not a stranger.

2. Divide the students into single sex groups (girls together and boys together) and ask them to discuss their answers and come to a group consensus where possible.

3. Each group presents its answers to the plenary for discussion.

Learning Points

· Girls are 6 times more likely to get HIV than boys between the ages of 10 and 24.

· Stereotypes about girls (and boys) may have an element of truth but they are not helpful in understanding why people behave the way they do.

· The sexual organs of a girl are not fully developed before the age of 18. She therefore runs a much greater risk of tearing the lining of the vagina, thereby exposing herself to HIV/AIDS.

· The law in Uganda states that having sex with a person below the age of 18 years is defilement and can be punishable by the courts.

· Parents must talk to their children about AIDS and how to avoid it.

· If an HIV positive woman becomes pregnant, her condition tends to deteriorate.

· Women in marriages are especially vulnerable as their socialization, and the general expectations of society, make it impossible for her to raise the question of her own protection in the light of her husband’s infidelity. This needs to be brought into the open.

· Some other factors leading to women being more vulnerable to HIV infection include:

· women have less access to education and therefore jobs

· women often do jobs that cannot be evaluated economically. Even where a woman generates an income this is in many instances taken away from her.

· socialization from birth has meant that women tend to be less assertive and less self-reliant.

· Women have the same right as men to determine when, whether, why and with whom they express their sexuality. Sexual and social relationships between women and men must be governed by principles of equity, non-coercion and mutual respect and responsibility.

Hints

· You can use the questionnaire to explore attitudes, discuss stereotypes and their origin (e.g. socialization) and also ensure that the students have correct factual information (e.g. that girls are more liable to get HIV/AIDS than boys, and that sex below 18 is defilement according to the law).

· While emphasizing the gender aspect of AIDS, it is important not to make the boys feel that they are somehow not involved. It can be discussed with regard to their feelings about girls etc. rather than being a sermon on gender.

Extension Activity

1. Ask the students to write songs, plays and poems related to gender and HIV/AIDS.

ACTIVITY TWO

GROUP DISCUSSIONS ON THE SITUATION OF WIVES

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, empathy, assertiveness.

Materials

Poster of a woman washing clothes, chalk board.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Show the students a large picture of a woman washing clothes. She is holding the trousers of her husband in one hand, and in the other she is pulling a condom out of the back pocket.

2. Divide the students into single sex groups again to discuss the following questions:

(i) Does the man love his wife?
(ii) What should the woman do in this situation?
(iii) How can the woman protect herself against HIV/AIDS?

3. Students give their answers in the plenary for discussion.

4. Ask the students ‘suppose the trousers belonged to the woman’s son (or daughter), what should she do as a mother?’

5. Ask students to identify other situations where a man/boy or woman/girl is especially at risk and discuss how such situations can be dealt with.

Learning Points

· Women in marriages are especially vulnerable as their socialization, and the general expectations of society, make it impossible for her to raise the question of her own protection in the light of her husband’s infidelity. This needs to be brought into the open.

· Men also have a personal and social responsibility, for their sexual behaviour and fidelity for their behaviours affect the lives and well being of their spouses and children.

· Parents also need to be open with their children about love and sex.

Extension Activity

1. Ask the students to discuss the consequences of personal behaviour and life styles with their families and communities in relation to HIV/AIDS.


Figure

ACTIVITY THREE

SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE GUISE OF FRIENDSHIP

Life Skills to be developed

Assertiveness, resistance to peer/society pressure, decision making.

Materials

Case study of a letter to SYFA, chalk board, large sheets of paper, markers.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups and ask each group to read the letter to SYFA from Sara below:

I am in P7 and my classmate, Agatha, is a great friend of mine. She has a brother called Mukama in S2 at Ibanda Senior Secondary School. I often got to do homework with Agatha at her home and Mukama usually assists us. He is good at Mathematics and Science. But these days, he has started showing an interest in me and even Agatha says there is nothing wrong in him being my boyfriend. But I want him as a friend not a boy friend. I appreciate his help but my first aim is to become a doctor. Please, what should I do?

Sara.


Figure

2. Ask each group to reply to the letter emphasising the kind of negotiation skills that Sara could use.

3. Each group presents their reply in the plenary for further discussion.

Learning Points

· A girl can be a friend to a boy without necessarily having sexual relationships.
· A girl should be assertive and know what to do in case of problems like Sara did.
· Students should have a goal in life and build confidence in themselves.
· Parents should be talking to their children about such issues.

Hints

· Reply should show empathy.
· Tutor should be conversant with guidance and counselling skills.

Extension Activity

1. Ask students to discuss with their families about personal behaviour and enlist their help in thinking critically.

TOPIC FIVE

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF HIV/AIDS

Objectives

By the end of the topic, the students should be able to:

1. Identify the socio-economic and political implications of HIV/AIDS with regard to the individual, family and community

2. Describe some of the life styles that promote the spread of HIV/AIDS and how they can be altered.

3. Identify the qualities of good friendship and explore the importance of good friends.

4. Examine their fears and anxieties about HIV/AIDS and PWAs and how they can overcome them.

5. Explain the concept of positive pressure and ways of helping and supporting each other.

6. Explain the importance of counselling and community based health care for PWAs

7. Adopt and practise healthy life styles.

ACTIVITY ONE

COPING WITH AIDS

Life Skills to be developed

Coping with stress and emotion, empathy, self awareness.

Materials

Copies of stories of Isaac paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups and give each group a copy of the story of Isaac. Ask them to read the story below and on the next page and answer the questions that follow:

A story: Isaac

Isaac was a married man with two children. He had a well paying job, many friends, relatives, a fleet of cars, and all the wealth you can imagine.

In the month of June, 1994, Isaac fell sick and was treated. The sickness resisted for some time and Isaac decided to take blood test. Doctors told him that he was HIV positive. After the results, Isaac begun to keep aloof. His friends and the wife begun to suspect that something had gone wrong with Isaac.

Isaac tried to share his secret first with a close relative who was shocked and cut off all contact with him. As a result, Isaac was afraid to tell his wife and children, which made the atmosphere in the home very tense. However, with time, the sickness intensified. Isaac finally told his family and made a will. By this time, much of the money was spent in visiting local doctors in search of a cure and he also became too weak to work. He started selling some of his properties.

The wife and relatives did all they could to save Isaac’s life but in vain. Finally, he died.

2. Questions.

(i) How do you think Isaac got HIV/AIDS? Do you think this is common?

(ii) Why do you think Isaac’s relative cut off the relationship? Was he justified?

(iii) How did Isaac getting HIV/AIDS affect him and his family?

(iv) List the positive and negative steps which Isaac took for his own benefit and that of the family?

(v) How do you think Isaac’s wife and children felt? Why were they able to continue helping Isaac until he died?

(vi) What are the needs for people who have HIV/AIDS?

3. In plenary, each group discusses their findings.

Learning Points

· We need to think of the consequences of our actions and life styles.

· Reactions from family and friends are a very important issue. Love and understanding are vital in the care and management of PWAs. While people may feel an instinctive emotional rejection, they have to try and overcome it.

· Importance of positive living for PWA’s

· Importance of making a will even for people without HIV/AIDS

· Taking a test for HIV/AIDS helps us to get the right treatment and support and to plan for our lives and families.

Hint

· Loss of parents due to HIV/AIDS is a sensitive matter and should be handled with care.

Extension Activity

1. Students identify and describe programmes assisting infected and affected persons in their communities.

ACTIVITY TWO

HOW DO WE FEEL ABOUT AIDS?

Life Skills to be developed

Coping with stress and emotion, empathy, friendship formation.

Materials

None.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Whole class brainstorm on the following questions.

· What would you do if you discovered that:

(i) Your best friend is HIV+?
(ii) A family member is HIV+?
(iii) Your boyfriend/girlfriend is HIV+?
(iv) You are HIV+?

· In (iv) above, what would you want from friends, neighbours etc?

2. Tutor writes answers on the chalk board and tries to find some commonalities in the answers for discussions.

Learning Points

· People have varied feelings towards people with AIDS but should try to be positive.
· Need for empathy
· Importance of positive living
· Determining one’s status by taking an HIV test.

Hints

· One question should be handled at a time.
· Topic is sensitive to those who could be infected or affected.

Extension Activity

1. Investigate and describe how HIV/AIDS counsellors carry out their work.

ACTIVITY THREE

FILM/VIDEO SHOW ABOUT HIV/AIDS

Objectives

By the end of the lesson student teachers should be able to:

1. Explain the possible consequences of personal behaviour and life styles in relation to HIV/AIDS.

2. Examine their own life styles and goals

3. Identify and put into practice appropriate life skills in view of HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Life Skills to be developed

Effective communication, decision making, problem solving.

Materials

Video machine and tape.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Shows the film to students. Tell the students to note down issues raised concerning HIV/AIDS using the following guiding questions:

(i) What do you learn from the film?
(ii) What life styles are portrayed in the film?
(iii) From the film, what personal behaviour put you at risk of catching HIV/AIDS?
(iv) From the film, what personal behaviour prevent you from catching HIV/AIDS?
(v) What life skills do we learn from the film show?

2. At the end of the show, tutor and students discuss the film in general.

3. Tutor highlights and summarises the salient points in the film.

Learning Points

· The effect of HIV/AIDS on an individual is reflected in the family, the community and the nation as a whole.

· There is need to improve on socio-economic status of the people in the country in order to minimise further spread of HIV/AIDS.

· Some of the socio-economic and Political implications of HIV/AIDS on individual, family, community and nation include: Orphans, widows, widowers, stigmatization, loss of friends/relatives, loss of jobs, reduced man power;

Labour force adversely affected, reduced production; de-population and national programmes affected.

· Ways of coping with the socio-economic and political implications of HIV/AIDS include:

· Encourage female education
· Parents to talk to their children about sex and AIDS.
· Encourage correct and proper use of the condom (protectors).
· Encourage income generating and recreational activities for women and youths.
· Encourage the development of Health Club in schools and colleges and communities.
· Encourage life skills related to positive behaviour like peer pressure resistance, decision making, negotiation skills, assertiveness, coping with stress/emotions, friendship formation, Problem solving, self awareness and effective communication.

· It is easier for the HIV/AIDS virus to pass from a man to a woman than it is from a woman to a man.

· Some women who are HIV positive may pass the virus to their babies.

· Sometimes girls are defiled by men or boys and can be infected by HIV

· Tutor should encourage student teachers to use formal, non formal, and informal education in promoting behaviour change in view of HIV/AIDS endemic.

Hints

· Prepare the room for the film/video show in advance and ensure power supply.

· Film/video tapes can be obtained from video libraries; UNICEF, DMO’s office; Health Education Division, Ministry of Health.

· You may show the film in the evening if it takes more than one hour.

· Tutor identifies and collects different films/videos about HIV/AIDS e.g. Ndiwulira and Gampisi by Bakayimbira dramactors; The Lutaya film; and “It is not easy”.

· Tutor should view the films before the lesson while noting down the main points. S/he should also note the life skills and lifestyles portrayed.

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to choose one way of showing good friendship to a close friend and put it into practice at home.

2. Ask students to write a motto or slogan about caring for people with HIV/AIDS.

3. Ask students to find out how people affected with HIV/AIDS are being supported.

4. Ask students to think about the qualities of good friendship within family life and the community.

5. Ask students to write a code of friendship to display in class.

6. Ask students to write scenarios or stories about a lonely child who finds a new friend in the community.

Community Service

1. Through school health clubs, construct plays, playlets, poems, songs, stories about HIV/AIDS. Write, rehearse and act to the community and/or rest of the school. Discuss with the community members to bring out the salient points about HIV/AIDS and the life skills required to continue to lead healthy lives.

2. Through the school health club, identity people with AIDS (PWAs) to talk to the school and community about their experiences.

3. Students carry out a survey on personal behaviour and life styles of the people in their local community.

4. Students identify and explain how people affected with HIV/AIDS are helped or supported in the community.

4.3 Unit Thirteen - FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS

RATIONALE

The family is the basic unit of society. The state of the family greatly affects the growth and development of its members who depend on one other for their health i.e. physical, mental and social wellbeing. Therefore, it is important student teachers as individuals, generally understand their roles in promoting healthy relationships in the family.

On the one hand, they are youth facing a lot of pressure and influences from peers, relatives and community on how they should behave. They need life skills education. They are aged 18 years and have had at least 11 years of formal education. They have rich experience of facing challenges at home and in their schools and communities. They need to reflect and build upon these experiences in order to translate them into healthy life styles of their own.

At the same time, these student teachers are potential professional educators who can have a lot of positive influence on school children and youth in the community. They are potential agents of change in the entire education system and society. Therefore, they need skills and abilities to identify and cope with different social problems in the school and the community.

UNIT OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Describe different types of families and their characteristics.

2. Describe the factors and circumstances that promote or inhibit healthy relationships in the family and community.

3. Explain the role of the individual, family, community and the school in promoting healthy relationships.

4. Explain the causes, consequences, prevention and management of:

· juvenile delinquency.
· alcohol and drug abuse.
· smoking.

5. Explain the children’s rights and the problems and challenges facing the girl child as well as her opportunities in the family and community.

6. Explain the importance of good marriage relationships in the family and community.

7. Identify and practice life skills that promote good relationships in the family, school and community.

TOPIC ONE

A FAMILY

Objectives

By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Define a family
2. Describe the different types of families found in Uganda
3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of different types of families.
4. Explain the effects of different family types on the individual, family and community.
5. Demonstrate their own life skills more effectively in real life situations.

ACTIVITY ONE

ANALYSING FAMILY TYPES IN UGANDA

Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, self awareness, critical thinking and coping with stress.

Materials

Papers, pens/pencils.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Tutor divides the students into 3 groups.

2. Tutor asks students to discuss and present in a diagram or picture form on a large sheet of paper the following:

Group A: “The family I would enjoy living in.”
Group B: “The family I would not enjoy living in.”
Group C: “The minimum requirements for a happy family”.

3. In plenary each group will present their work, identifying the people and the things/items found in the family they have drawn and why.

4. The tutor summarizes the activity by leading a discussion on the following:

(i) Family types and memberships identified.
(ii) Aspects that make certain families easier to live in them others.
(iii) Aspects that make certain families more difficult to live in than others.
(iv) Children’s rights and responsibilities in families.
(v) How common is the ideal family?

Learning Points

· It is difficult to define a family in the current Ugandan situation. The extended family has largely broken down, especially in the town leaving a wide variety of families including monogamous and polygamous families as well as single parent families, step parents, children living with their relatives permanently

· Aspects that make a happy family: love, fidelity, honesty, good character, education, adequate income, good goals, healthy life styles etc.

· Aspects that make certain families difficult to live in: large family size, inadequate income, poor character of members, poor hygiene, alcohol abuse, domestic violence etc.

Hints

· Drawings do not have to be elaborate

· Discussion should bring out the content.

· It will probably become clear from the drawings that students see families in a broader sense than mere family relationships. The quality of life of the family is essential.

· Emphasise that since the ideal is not common, all family types can be turned into relatively healthy and happy ones or vise versa depending on the behaviours of the family members.

Extension Activity

1. Discuss with your best friend the things that do not make you happy in your families and describe how you can improve them.


Figure

ACTIVITY TWO

RANKING CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD FAMILY

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making.

Materials

Paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class into four groups.

2. Each group agrees upon the nine most important characteristics of a good family. The characteristics should be serially numbered (10 minutes).

3. Using the diamond ranking method groups, rank the characteristics they have identified to show their order of priority (10 minutes) The characteristics of highest priority are the ones that are most essential for creating a good family for example:


Figure

4. Groups present and discuss their work in plenary giving reasons for their ranking (10 minutes).

5. Tutor summarizes the presentations bringing out the salient aspects.

Learning Point

· The ideal family is not common, however, all types of families can be turned into relatively healthy and happy ones or vice versa depending on the behaviours of the family members.

Hints

· Refer to the diamond 9 ranking exercise in Section Two for a more detailed description of the methodology

· There is no single correct order of ranking the characteristics but the groups should be able to defend their rankings.

Extension Activity

1. Discuss with your friend how to build an ideal family. How do you think such a family would prioritise its use of the family income.

TOPIC TWO

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS

Objectives

By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the role of each family member in promoting healthy family relationships-
2. Identify barriers to happy family relationships and ways of resolving them.
3. Adopt behaviours that promote healthy family relationships.

ACTIVITY ONE

A STORY: KATO’S FAMILY

Life Skills to be developed

Interpersonal relationship, friendship formation, decision making.

Materials

Copies of the story, paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class in groups of eight and give each group copies of the story.
2. Ask groups to read the story and discuss the given questions.

KATO’S FAMILY

Kato is a happily married man who lives with his wife and three children. The first born, Matata is a trained teacher, aged 23 years. The second, is a 16 year old boy in S.2 and the last one is a girl, aged 12 years in Primary seven.

Kato is a Ministry of Education and Sports employee. He doesn’t earn a lot of money but he managed to put up a house for his family and always provides clothing, protection and medical care to them. At the same time, his wife is innovative and very creative. Despite being a housewife, she started a poultry and tailoring project which supplements the husband’s income. She has trained some people from the community in tailoring and others have acquired more knowledge and skills on poultry keeping and tailoring. Besides, people from other villages near and far come to see the projects. They openly appreciate the projects and family relationships between the husband and wife and children.

Mr. and Mrs Kato love their children and always guide and direct them positively. This couple is free and open to the children and on several occasions Mr. and Mrs. Kato consult them on matters pertaining to home management, education, and lifestyles.

Once in a while the family organises outing to visit grand parents, aunts, uncles, friends, distant relatives and educative interesting places. The children love and respect their parents and all other elders in their village. Boys and girls help with domestic chores equally and they really confide in one another. Soon Matata is getting married to her fianchom she met at school. The whole family is involved in preparations. The aunts, uncles and grand parents have been invited to come and give advice and guidance to the bride. The whole family is happy and collectively looks forward to seeing Matata marry properly.

Questions:

(i) How do Mr. and Mrs Kato relate to one another?
(ii) In your opinion what life skills do Mr. and Mrs Kato apply in their family?
(iii) How do Mr. and Mr. Kato relate to their children?
(iv) Why did Matata decide to get a fiancBR>(v) How does one arrive at getting a fiancianc

3. In the plenary, groups present and discuss their findings.

4. Tutor summarises important points in the story on good family relationships

Learning Points

· Responsibilities of each family member in promoting good relationship in the family. Parents/guardians provide love, security, shelter, care, clothing, financial support etc. Children provide love to parents and other people in the family, help on another etc.

· Importance of children’s rights in a good family relationship:

· a caring environment.
· they get basic necessities.
· they are involved in decision making.
· not discriminated against sex, origin etc.

· All children regardless of sex share chores equally.

· Some aspects that could promote good family relationship in a family.

· caring for one another
· working together
· interpersonal relationship
· accepting one another

Hint

· Tutor should avoid bias on matters pertaining to husband and wife relationship and nature of families. The story portrays one example of a good family; explore more.

Extension Activity

1. Students discuss contributions that parents and children can make to promote good family and community relationship.

ACTIVITY TWO

IRRESPONSIBLE PARENTHOOD

Life Skills to be developed

Coping with stress and emotion, empathy, negotiation, interpersonal relationship.

Materials

Copies of the case study, paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class in four groups.
2. Ask them to read the case study and discuss the given questions.

Case Study: Amon

Amon is a business man. He is married to Jane who is not employed. They have five daughters, aged between five and fifteen. Amon’s mother, Yunia, is a widow and stays with Amon. Amon enjoys going to parties and night clubs with friends. He normally comes home after midnight and wakes up his wife to give him warm water for bathing, food and news about his mother. He always leaves early in the morning before 6.00 a.m. Sometimes, Amon does not come home at all for days. He leaves some money with his mother who decides how to spend it for the family. Jane often attempts to explain to her husband the problems in the family but he does not listen. Occasionally, they end up fighting. The children too are not happy with their father.

Questions:

(i) How does Amon relate to his wife?
(ii) If you were Jane, what would you do? Why?
(iii) If you were Amon, what problems are you likely to encounter?
(iv) If you were one of the children what would you do?
(v) Why do you think Amon gives money to his mother to run his family matters?
(vi) What do we learn from the case study?

3. In the plenary each group presents their findings for discussion.

4. Tutor highlights the salient points in the case study.

Learning Points

· Unacceptable behaviour of one family member leads to serious problems, e.g. distrust, alcohol abuse, infidelity.

· Consequences of abnormal family relationship to parents, children and community.

· Parents: separation of divorce, constant fighting, alcohol abuse, loss of weight, etc.

· Children: juvenile delinquency illiteracy, poor hygiene and nutrition etc.

· Importance of good family relationship in the family and community, e.g. poverty eradication, goals attained, healthy life styles etc.

Hints

· Tutor should avoid bias.
· S/he should create a free environment for discussion.

Extension Activity

1. Students discuss the cause and consequences of abnormal family relationship in their community.

ACTIVITY THREE

DIFFERENT FAMILIES

Life Skills to be developed

Coping with stress and emotion, negotiation, decision making, interpersonal relationship.

Materials

Paper, pens, pencils, chalk board.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the students into six groups.

2. Explain to the students that they are to produce a short role play which shows their feelings about different kinds of families. Give each group one family to role play.

Group One: “Growing up with mum alone.”
Group Two: “Growing up with dad alone.”
Group Three: “Growing up with auntie.”
Group Four: “Children growing up alone.”
Group Five: “Growing up with all our relatives.”
Group Six: “Growing up with the housegirl.”

3. Discussion of each group’s presentation in plenary using the guiding questions below:

(i) How realistic was the presentation?
(ii) How stereotyped was the presentation?
(iii) How do we ensure good relationships in all family type variations.

4. Tutor summarizes positive and negative points portrayed in the role plays e.g. over protection, over dependency, stereo typing, neglect, rejection, love, proper care etc.

Learning Point

· There will probably be a stereotyped presentation of most of the family types. The teacher should counteract this with examples of positive behaviours in all kinds of families.

Hints

· Tutor should be aware that this activity is sensitive. S/he should not show bias.
· Role plays should not take more than five minutes.

Extension Activity

1. Students identify two family type variations in their community and describe how the members relate to one another.

TOPIC THREE

COPING WITH PARENTS AND GUARDIANS

Objectives

By the end of the topic, students will be able to:

1. Identify ways they can cope with emotions caused by problems at home

2. Explain the effects of bad relationships on children

3. Negotiate better in difficult family situations

4. Develop and demonstrate their self-esteem whatever family they belong to.

ACTIVITY ONE

ANALYSING CHILDREN’S FEELINGS TOWARDS DIFFICULT PARENTS

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, self awareness, coping with stress and emotion, empathy.

Materials

Paper, pens/pens, task cards writing papers prepared before hand.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide students into groups of six to eight.
2. Give each group two tasks to discuss and write down their findings (10 minutes).

WHAT WOULD YOU DO IF:

(i) Mother is drinking too much?

(ii) You never see your father because he always comes home late?

(iii) You stay with your mother/father and she/he won’t let you see your other parent?

(iv) You want to go out to a disco with your friend on Saturday night i but your parents won’t let you go?

(v) Your mother keeps taking you out of school to help at home?

(vi) You live with an orphaned relative but your father/mother is not treating her/him well?

(vii) Your mother is very unhappy and she tells you that your father has another woman?

(viii) One of our parents/guardians is terminally ill?

(ix) You are brought up by a stepmother?

(x) You are brought up by a stepfather?

3. Groups present their findings in plenary for discussion (10 minutes)

4. Brainstorm on factors that cause parents/guardians to be difficult (5 minutes)

5. Tutor summarizes the main aspects in dealing with difficult parents or guardians e. g. tolerance, negotiation, using a sympathetic adult, seeking advice etc.

Learning Points

· Factors that may cause parents or guardians to be difficult include:

· their nature.
· inadequate income.
· too many responsibilities or demands.
· large family size.
· poor relationships etc.

· Values for the children include:

· negotiation.
· assertiveness
· tolerance
· critical thinking

· Children’s rights related to safety and security at home.

· Specific problems of the girl child such as work load, son preference, early marriage, push out of school etc.

Hint

· Ensure participation of all students in the groups.

ACTIVITY TWO

DEBATE: “THE STRONGEST STEEL IS THE ONE THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH FIRE”

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, empathy, creative thinking, problem solving, effective communication.

Materials

Paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Tutor reviews the previous lesson on coping with difficult parents and guardians - what they do/don’t do and how children try to cope.

2. Whole class brainstorms on the meaning of the topic for the debate.

3. Divide the class into two groups; PRO and CONTRA. Each group chooses their two main speakers.

4. Each group prepares the speeches to be given by their main speakers.

5. The two groups debate in plenary by the chairmen presenting their points of view. Each side is given 5 minutes.

6. If there is time, speeches from the floor are allowed.

7. Tutor summarizes the salient aspects raised by the debate.

Learning Points

· Growing up with difficult parents or guardians can have terrible consequences which greatly outweigh some incidental seeming benefits on the child.

· “Training” the child for life does not mean or require creating very difficult conditions for him/her.

· Children’s rights, for both boys and girls.

Hints

· It may be necessary to allow a double class for this activity
· It is a debate - there is no right or wrong side.
· Tutor should use the opportunity to examine children’s rights.

Extension Activity

1. Visit a primary school and collect from teachers real life examples of children whole behaviour was affected by difficult parents/guardians.

TOPIC FOUR

ORPHANS

Objectives

By the end of this topic, students should be able to:

1. Explain some of the problems facing orphans and analyse the reasons for them.
2. List ways of improving the orphan situation
3. Act as responsible teachers to those who are orphans in their class

ACTIVITY ONE

STORY: MUSA

Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, coping with stress and emotion, self esteem.

Materials

Copies of the story about Musa, paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide students into groups.

2. Give each group a copy of the story about Musa and ask them to read and discuss the given questions.

Musa

Evening always found Musa very tired at home. After school he had to fetch water, bring in the goats, sweep the court yard and heat bath water for the children.

However Dina would complain to her husband about Musa. “Musa is an eater and not a producer”, she said. “He doesn’t want to work, yet he doesn’t miss any meal!”

Musa always had tea without milk or sugar though the rest of the children had these. “If Musa wanted milk, why didn’t he come with a cow?” she retorted when her husband pointed out that Musa’s tea had no milk in it.

“Mother, please give Musa some sugar with his tea,” Jane implored her mother. “We don’t have a sugar depot!” Dina spat out.

Musa drank his brown hot water suppressing a desire to cry. He must do what brought him to Kyeera and not let food divert his aims. He was determined to abide by his father’s parting words.


Figure

Questions:

(i) Draw the family diagram showing how Musa fits into the family.

(ii) Explain how Musa’s health is affected;

· physically
· mentally
· socially

(iii) How does Dina attempt to break Musa’s esteem?

(iv) Could Dina’s husband have done more?

(v) Could Jane have done more for Musa? If you were Jane, what would you have done?

(vi) Where has Musa’s father gone? What is meant by ‘parting words’? What do you think were his parting words?

(vii) How does Musa try to cope with his situation?

3. In plenary, groups present and discuss their findings.

4. Tutor summarizes salient points about caring for orphans and other extended relatives in a family.

Learning Points

· Problems of orphans:

· lack of basic necessities e.g. food, shelter.
· no proper medical care.
· no parental love.
· pushed out of school etc.

· Improving the orphan situation:

· provide love, shelter, education, clothing, medical care, food etc.

· Musa’s position in the family.


Figure

Hint

· The topic is very sensitive to students who are orphans. Tutor could help them cope up with stress and emotions.

Extension Activity

1. Students carry out a debate based on Musa’s story. One group supports Dina and the other oppose her.

TOPIC FIVE

Objectives

By the end of this topic, the student teachers should be able to:

1. Avoid the habit of smoking if they have not already started.
2. Assist other non-smokers to avoid the habit of smoking.
3. Stop smoking if they already smoke.
4. Assist other smokers to stop smoking.
5. Promote and protect children’s rights against smoking.

ACTIVITY ONE

NEGOTIATION ROLE PLAYS

Life Skills to be developed

Decision making, peer pressure resistance, friendship formation, negotiation.

Materials

Rolled papers to resemble cigarettes, match boxes, manila paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Students are divided into two groups A and B.

2. Group A prepares arguments in favour of smoking and Group B prepares arguments against smoking. Each group chooses 2 members who will role play on their behalf in an argument about smoking.

3. Students role play the argument.

4. Students divide into small groups of six to eight participants to discuss the following questions.

(i) What have you learnt from the role play?
(ii) Who were more forceful in their arguments? Why?
(iii) Which side modified its position in any way? How?
(iv) Which side was most successful in arguing? Why?
(v) Which was more effective, confrontation or negotiation?

5. Groups present their findings to the plenary for discussion.

6. Tutor summarizes salient points.


Figure

Learning Points

· Smoking is a habit which has serious consequences to an individual, family and community. For example it is a health hazard and a financial drain on individual and family budgets.

· A person starts smoking due to several influences. For example, a child may get curious and tries to find out what her/his father/mother gets out of smoking. Another youth may take to smoking when s/he visits places where many patrons smoke, for example bars, night clubs and video cinemas. Being in the company of those who smoke may persuade a person to smoke just to keep up with them.

· Smoking is mostly started during teenage years.

· Breaking the habit of smoking requires a strong will to stop because nicotine is physically addictive. Guidance and counselling may assist.

Hint

· Encourage the role players to bring out, each of the intended life skills as much as possible.

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to identify and approach some smokers in the college or the local community ask them:

(i) When they started smoking.
(ii) How they started smoking.
(iii) How much they smoke everyday.
(iv) Whether anybody ever complains about their smoking.
(v) Whether they would like to give up smoking.

ACTIVITY TWO

POEMS ON THE PREVENTION OF SMOKING

Life Skills to be developed

Effective communication, decision making, critical thinking.

Materials

Manila paper, markers, copies of a poem “Ring of Death”.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. The students are each given a copy of the poem which they study on their own.


Figure

When I light up a fag,
I feel like a King
Among all my peers,
to smoke is the thing
I inhale and I blow
a lovely smoke ring
I whistle, I laugh
with joy as I sing
But the song is of death,
The death of the ring
The death of my cash
I blame on the ring
Family crash
I blame on the ring
Collapse of my lungs
was caused by the ring
Departure of breath
Death of the ring.

2. In groups discuss the following questions.

(i) According to the poem, what are the effects of smoking?

(ii) Do you think the poem has given a fair picture of the effects? Why?

(iii) What can be done:

· to encourage smokers to stop smoking?
· to discourage other people smoking?
· to reduce other people’s rate of smoking?

(iv) How can children be protected against smoking?

(v) Identify and explain life skills which can be used to prevent or control smoking.

Learning Points

· Smoking is a habit which has serious consequences for individuals, families and communities. For example it is a health hazard and a financial drain on individual and family budgets.

· Nicotine a chemical found in Tobacco is a drug that leads to dependence.

· Advertisements in support of smoking are just fallacies.

· Smoking constantly damages the lungs and other respiratory organs. This affects the body and functions and is especially noticed in sports or manual labour.

Hint

· If copies of the poem are not enough or available, it can be written on a chalk board.

Extension Activity

1. Each group is asked to compose a short poem conveying a particular message on a short poem.

2. The poems are written on a manilla paper/newsprint and displayed around the classroom.

3. The students go around the classroom identifying the major messages in each poem.

ACTIVITY THREE

WHAT COMES FIRST

Life Skills to be developed

Peer pressure/resistance, friendship formation, assertiveness.

Materials

Manila paper, markers, a copy of the story.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Tutor reads the following situation to the class.

Richard was not a smoker. He used to spend a lot of his time with Maria. She was so charming and he really enjoyed her company. But his friends laughed at him and told him that if he wanted to remain friends with them, he had to smoke. So he smoked but when he went to see Maria later, she wrinkled her nose in disgust.

‘Richard, you’ve been smoking.’

“Yes”

‘I hate cigarette smoke. I’m sorry but if you want to be my friend, you’ll have to give up smoking.’

2. Students buzz with their neighbours as to what they would do if they were Richard.

3. In plenary, tutor asks the students to examine their own emotions on the issue by answering the following questions:

(i) Do you think Maria is being reasonable to Richard?
(ii) Who are more important, Maria or the other boys?
(iii) What is the best alternative for Richard?

Learning Points

· Non smokers can be affected by smokers.
· Smokers who give up smoking can gradually regain their health.
· The main causes of smoking are peer pressure, imitation, poor decision making and lack of critical thinking.

Hints

· The story may be read by one of the students.
· Making a firm decision gives a basis for negotiation.
· At times negotiation is difficult because it involves independence, trust and power.

Extension Activity

1. Students discuss the following questions:

(i) What are the causes and consequences of smoking?
(ii) How can smoking be prevented?

2. State and explain life skills which can be used to prevent and control smoking.

3. How can we promote/protect children’s rights in relation to smoking?

TOPIC SIX

JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

Objectives

By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the causes, consequences, prevention and management of juvenile delinquency.
2. Develop life styles that are beneficial to themselves, their families peers and the community.
3. Identify and develop life skills beneficial within peers, family and community.

ACTIVITY ONE

INTRODUCING THE PROBLEM OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

Life Skills to be developed

Interpersonal relationships, self awareness, critical thinking.

Materials

Cards or newsprint cut in pieces of 10 x 20 cm, pens, pencils.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups of 5 and distribute cards and markers to each group.

2. Ask each group to discuss and agree on the definition of “Juvenile” and “Delinquency”.

3. The agreed definitions of each team are written on separate cards.

4. Tutor collects the cards and pins them up for discussion, and an agreed definition of Juvenile delinquency is arrived at.

5. Each group discusses the causes of juvenile delinquency and agrees on the five most critical ones. These are then written on separate cards.

6. The groups pin up their cards for discussion.

7. After studying the cards, students group them according to the following categories.

(i) Those to do with physical causes of Juvenile delinquency e.g. lack of food.
(ii) Social causes of Juvenile delinquency e.g. need for independence.

8. Tutor summarizes the work pointing out the importance of catering for the physical and social needs of juveniles.

Learning Points

· Juvenile delinquency - anti-social behaviour of children below 18 years of age.

· Examples of juvenile delinquency can include:

· Lying.
· Truancy (avoiding school).
· Stealing.
· Violence.
· Arson.
· Alcohol/Drug abuse.
· Loitering.
· Sex offences.

· Causes of Juvenile delinquency can include:

· Standards which are too high.
· Standards which are too low.
· Inconsistency in rewards and punishments.
· Disturbed homes.
· Poor social environment.
· Conflicting values in social groups.


Figure

ACTIVITY TWO

THE PRODIGAL SON

Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, critical thinking, peer pressure resistance, self awareness.

Materials

Copies of the story of the prodigal son.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups and give copies of the story to each group.

The Prodigal Son

He asked his father for the share of the wealth that should go to him which his father did willingly. In a far off country he squandered this wealth merry making with friends. Soon he was without money and all the friends he knew had disappeared. Hunger drove him to look for work. He even ate what was meant for his master’s pigs.

When he came to his senses he returned to his father from whom he asked for forgiveness. There was a great feast in honour of his return.

2. Groups answer the following questions. Each group answers either A or B or C.

A What could have caused the son to ask for his share of the wealth from his father? Give as many causes as you can think of.

B Imagine you were the prodigal son, narrate your experiences in the far away country before your wealth dried up.

C Imagine you were the prodigal son and your wealth has dried up. Narrate how you would prepare an apology to your father.

3. The groups present their answers to the plenary for discussion.

4. Tutor summarizes the presentations.

Learning Point

· The reaction of the father shows one very positive way of reclaiming delinquents.

Extension work

The groups can write and perform role plays on delinquency involving boys and girl children delinquents.

TOPIC SEVEN

ALCOHOLIC DRINKS

Objectives

By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Avoid taking alcoholic drinks, if they have not already started.
2. Assist other non-alcoholic drinkers to avoid the habit of drinking.
3. Stop drinking alcohol, if they already drink
4. Assist other drinkers to stop drinking.
5. Promote and protect children’s rights with regard to alcohol.
6. Explain the effects of alcohol.

ACTIVITY ONE

A DRINK TO SLEEP

Life Skills to be developed

Coping with emotions, critical thinking, decision making.

Materials

Manila paper/newsprint, markers, copies of the cartoon story.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Students are divided to groups of 5-6.

2. Each group is given a copy of the cartoon story below to interpret and later discuss the given questions.

Questions:

A (i) What type of a family can this be?

(ii) Why can’t the man sleep without a drink.

B If you were the son:

(i) how would you have reacted to your father’s order to look for waragi?
(ii) how would you have found out good quality waragi?
(iii) how would you have reacted when the father fell asleep?

3. Groups present their findings to the plenary for discussion.

Learning Points

· The potent component in all alcoholic drinks is ethanol.

· Some distillates, e.g. crude waragi, may contain some toxic components, e.g. methanol, which have a dangerous cumulative effect on health.

· Alcoholic drinks, even those from which toxic components have been removed, are bad for health if their consumption is not carefully controlled e.g. damage to brain, sight, nervous system.

· Alcoholic drinks consumption may make a big drain a personal and family income.

· The children’s rights violated include

· exposure to night dangers
· exposure to alcoholics in the drinking places.
· tempting the child to drink to drink to determine quality.

· Alcoholics can be helped by counselling them to develop a will to stop on their own, first of all.

Hint

· Where it is not possible to reproduce the cartoon story, the situation could be presented in the form of a role play.

Extension Activities

1. Students should produce short stories in cartoon form, depicting how children’s rights and safety in families are abused.


A Drink to Sleep (Cartoon Story)

ACTIVITY TWO

MAJALA (CASE STUDY)

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, negotiation, coping with emotions.

Materials

Copies of the play, newsprint, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class into groups and give each group a copy of the following case study to read and later discuss the given questions.

Majala is a married man, with six children. He is employed in a big private company. He and his family stay in their family house in an electoral constituency. Majala stands for elections. He borrows and spends a lot of money buying alcohol, during the campaign period, to solicit for support.

(i) What are the likely effects of alcohol on the voters?

(ii) Do you think Majala will win?

(iii) If you were a voter, what would you feel about being given free drink? Would you vote for Majala?

(iv) If you were Majala,

· How else would you have solicited for votes?
· How would you feel before the votes were counted?
· How would you feel if you lost? Who would you blame?
· What would you do after losing the elections?

(v) If you were Majala’s wife, how would you react when Majala tells you that he is going to stand for elections? How would you feel if he lost the election? What would you do?

(vi) What problems do you think Majala is facing? How can you advise Majala to solve these problems?

2. Each group presents their findings to the plenary for discussion.

3. Summarise the main points.

Learning Points

· Events like elections raise a lot of feelings like expectations, hope, excitement, anxiety, joy, disappointment, despair among those participating in them.

· To win peoples’ support, one should rely on honest appeal, persuasion, negotiation and demonstration that you can assist them, using legal means, to overcome their problems. Bribing through such offers as alcohol should be avoided. Not only do bribes prevent people from assessing you objectively but their lives and productivity is impaired.

· All family members should be consulted and allowed to give their opinion on any activity where family resources are involved.

Hint

· To save some time, different questions on case study can be handled by different groups.

Extension Activities

1. Each group prepares a role play on case study which can be presented in next lesson.

ACTIVITY THREE

THE SHIELD

Life Skills to be developed

Coping with emotions/stress, empathy, peer resistance.

Materials

Newsprint, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. The class brainstorms on:

(i) the dangers of alcohol abuse.
(ii) the signs of alcohol abuse
(iii) treatment of alcohol abuse

One of the students writes the points on the board.

2. The tutor divides the class in an even number group of groups of 5-6 students.

3. Each group designs an outline of an emblem and a motto.

4. Half of the groups write in the four corners of their shields how alcohol abuse can be prevented by the:

(i) individuals/self
(ii) family members
(iii) community members
(iv) government

These groups each compose a motto about prevention of alcohol abuse. The other groups write, in the four corners of the shields how a victim of alcohol abuse (an alcoholic) can be helped by the:

(i) individuals/self.
(ii) family members.
(iii) community members.
(iv) government.

They then compose a motto about helping a victim of alcohol abuse (an alcoholic)

5. The groups present their shields and mottos for discussion.


Figure

Learning Points

· Dangers of alcohol abuse include:

(i) Tolerance - drinking more and more alcohol as time goes on.

(ii) Dependence - failure to function without having taken alcohol.

(iii) Developing diseases of the liver, the digestive system, the brain.

(iv) Family problems - family neglect, child and spouse abuse, maladjusted children, loss of income - e.g. losing a job.

(v) Community problems - one may become violent, rape and defile, damage property, cause accidents.

· There are children’s rights related to alcohol, e.g. children should not be exposed to:

(i) places where alcohol is sold and drunk
(ii) situations that may tempt them to take alcohol.

· Signs of alcohol abuse include:

(i) Physical appearance - e.g. red mouth, swollen cheeks,

(ii) Behaviour - e.g. loss of body coordination, loss of memory, loss of appetite, shaky hands

(iii) Mental change - e.g. impaired speech, loss of memory.

· Prevention of alcohol abuse can be achieved by the:

(i) Individual through self discipline, e.g. controlling emotions and stress, resisting peer pressure, having self respect, making the right decision.

(ii) Family members through advising and counselling the individual, listening to problems and suggesting better solutions, showing exemplary behaviour.

(iii) Community members - through immunizing situations that will make the individual an alcoholic, e.g. alcohol sellers to prefer an individuals well being then money, peers to resist pleasing the individual through offering excessive drinks; community leaders to counsel the individual.

(iv) Government to enact guidelines and laws to prevent alcohol abuse.

· Assisting a victim of alcohol abuse can be achieved by the:

(i) Individual - through convincing oneself about the need to stop drinking and developing a will strategy to do so and implementing the strategy.

(ii) Family members - through encouraging, advising and supporting the alcoholic.

(iii) Community - through encouraging, advising and supporting the alcoholic.

(iv) Government - through offering appropriate heath education and care to the victim.

Hint

· This activity should be based on the learners’ personal experiences.

Extension activity

1. Students could compose songs based on the mottos they wrote.

TOPIC EIGHT

DRUG ABUSE

Objectives

By the end of the topic, students should be able to:

1. Describe and explain the disadvantages and consequences of drug addiction on the health of the individual, family and community.

2. Practice decision making and assertiveness skills in order to prevent and control drug abuse

3 Identify and explain children’s rights with respect to the prevention and control of drug abuse and drug trafficking.

ACTIVITY ONE

DISCUSSION ON DRUGS, THEIR EFFECTS AND PREVENTION

Life Skills to be developed

Assertiveness, self esteem, effective communication, empathy, critical thinking.

Materials

Paper.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide students into four groups and give each group one of the following to discuss.

A

(i) What is drug abuse?


(ii) What factors encourage drug abuse?


(iii) How can drug abuse be prevented?

B

(i) List the practices that lead to drug abuse.


(ii) What are the effects of drug abuse on the individual, family and community?

C

(i) What is drug addiction?


(ii) What is drug dependence?


(iii) How can it be prevented and controlled?

D

(i) What is drug trafficking?


(ii) What are its consequences?


(iii) How can it be prevented and controlled?

2. In plenary groups present their findings for discussion.

3. Tutor highlights outstanding points and aspects on the topic.

Learning Points

· Drugs are medicinal substances that can prevent, cure or reduce symptoms of disease. However it is essential that they are prescribed and used properly.

· Differentiate between medical and illegal drugs.

· Drug abuse is when drugs are used wrongly whether they are legal or illegal. It does harm to body and cause many psychological and social problems to the individual.

· Drug dependence is a result of drug abuse and prolonged use of the drug. The body and mind become dependent on taking the drug, the taker feels s/he cannot live without it and s/he suffers withdrawal symptoms when s/he stops taking the drugs.

· Drug trafficking is the dealing or buying and selling of illegal drugs.

· The factors which influence drug abuse include the biological effect of the drug, pressure from the social group and the individual’s personality.

· The following life skills are useful in the prevention and control of drug addiction. Resisting peer pressure, self-esteem, decision making, critical thinking.

· Children have the right to be protected against drug addiction: for example drugs should help out of children’s reach, and they should be taught the effects of drugs and how to resist peer pressure.

Hints

· Ensure that discussion brings out the learning points and life skills.
· Bring out promotion and protection of children’s rights.

Extension Activity

1. Carry out a survey among adults and youths with regard to the use of illegal drugs in village.