Cover Image
close this bookPhotovoltaic Household Electrification Programs - Best Practices (WB)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
close this folderExecutive summary
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentOvercoming the first cost barrier
View the documentEstablishing responsive and sustainable infrastructure
View the documentProviding quality products and services
View the documentThe role of governments and donors
View the documentAbbreviations and acronyms
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderThe place for photovoltaics
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe solar home system
View the documentThe cost of solar home systems
View the documentThe solar home system niche
View the documentConsumer perceptions
close this folderThe economics of PV household electrification
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSolar home systems vs. kerosene and automotive batteries
View the documentSolar home systems vs. grid-based power supply
View the documentLoad growth impact
close this folderBarriers to affordability
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFirst cost barriers
View the documentHigh transaction costs
View the documentMarket distortions
close this folderInstitutional models
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEnergy service company (ESCO)
View the documentLeasing arrangements
View the documentConsumer financing
View the documentCash sales
View the documentThe role of governments and donor agencies
View the documentRole of the world bank and other donors
close this folderAttaining financial sustainability
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTerms and conditions
View the documentPricing strategies
View the documentGrants and subsidies
View the documentEnforcing repayments
View the documentFinancing battery replacements
close this folderTechnical requirements
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHardware design
View the documentStandards and specifications
View the documentOther technical considerations
View the documentQuality control
View the documentMaintenance services
View the documentEducating users
close this folderBest practices: conclusions and recommendations
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentOvercome the first cost barrier
View the documentEstablish a sustainable infrastructure
View the documentQuality products and services
View the documentGovernment support
View the documentDonor support
close this folderAnnex 1 : ASTAE case studies in PV household electrification
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIndonesia
View the documentSri Lanka
View the documentThe Philippines
View the documentThe Dominican Republic
View the documentConclusions
close this folderAnnex 2 : Economic and financial comparisons of rural energy alternatives
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEnergy requirements
View the documentCriteria for village selection
View the documentRural energy alternatives
View the documentLeast-cost comparison (economic basis)
View the documentLeast-cost comparison (financial basis)
View the documentCase studies: productive loads and load growth
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentDistributors of World Bank Publications
View the documentRecent World Bank technical papers

Other technical considerations

7.26 Spare Parts. Fuses, light bulbs and other spare parts that need to be replaced frequently should be available locally from a dealer accessible to users. The minimum quantity of spares that should be stocked depends on the number of systems in the area and the location of distributors. Table 7-1 lists the recommended minimum number of spare parts for a local cooperative in Indonesia that serves 20~2,000 consumers.

Table 7-1. Suggested Spare Parts List for a Cooperative in Indonesia

Item

Recommended Quantity of Locally Stocked Spares

Photovoltaic Module

1 per 250 systems

Charge Regulator

10 per 250 systems

Battery

250 per 250 systems spread out over the 2nd and 3d year after installation

Wire, Connectors, Tape

50m wire and 50 connectors (varies with village ability to purchase additional appliances)

Lamp Ballast

25 per 250 systems

7.27 Battery Recycling. High priority should be given to battery recycling in order to minimize environmental contamination and safeguard users. Recycling is most effective in organized programs led by an ESCO or an intermediary. Current battery-recycling programs in the four country solar home system programs reviewed show mixed results. As part of the Solar Energy Program in the Philippines, NEA-GTZ introduced a successful battery-recycling scheme that allowed users to exchange old batteries (for which the manufacturer paid $4.00) through the rural electric cooperative. In West Java, Indonesia, old batteries are collected from each house and recycled by independent operators, who pay householders $2.50 per battery. (However, battery recycling is rare in other parts of Indonesia, where batteries are used less widely and transporting them is difficult.) In Sri Lanka, batteries can be taken to a dealer or a recharging center for recycling, but many users consider the recycling payment, which was about $1.00, too low to warrant returning the old batteries. To increase the volume of battery recycling, the payment was recently doubled. While there is no comprehensive battery-recycling program in the Dominican Republic, it is estimated that about 50 percent of the batteries are recycled.

7.28 Warranties. The four country case studies show that ten-year performance warranties for modules are commonly available from many suppliers and should be required in a solar home system program. Warranties for controllers and other electronic components may range from three months to three years and those for batteries from one year (for automotive batteries) to three years (for deep-cycle batteries). Overall system warranties are also offered for up to one year. However, realistic provisions for enforcing warranties must be in place in order to protect consumers.