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close this bookEnvironmental Handbook Volume II: Agriculture, Mining/Energy, Trade/Industry (GTZ, 1995, 736 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderAgriculture
close this folder27. Plant production
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close this folder28. Plant protection
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close this folder29. Forestry
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View the documentAnnex: Glossary of selected terms
close this folder30. Livestock farming
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close this folder31. Veterinary services
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close this folder32. Fisheries and aquaculture
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close this folder33. Agricultural engineering
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close this folder34. Irrigation
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close this folderMining and energy
close this folder35. Reconnaissance, prospection and exploration of geological resources
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close this folder36. Surface mining
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close this folder37. Underground mining
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close this folder38. Minerals-handling and processing
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close this folder39. Petroleum and natural gas - Exploration, production, handling, storage
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close this folder40. Coking plants, coal-to-gas plants, gas production and distribution
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close this folder41. Thermal power stations
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View the document7. Appendices
close this folder42. Power transmission and distribution
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close this folder43. Renewable sources of energy
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close this folderTrade and industry
close this folder44. Nitrogenous fertilisers (raw materials, ammonia and urea production)
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close this folder45. Nitrogenous fertilisers (starting materials and end products)
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close this folder46. Cement and lime, gypsum
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close this folder47. Ceramics - Fine, utilitarian and industrial
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close this folder48. Glass
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close this folder49. Iron and steel
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close this folder50. Non-ferrous metals
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close this folder51. Mechanical engineering, workshops, shipyards
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close this folder52. Agro-industry
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close this folder53. Slaughterhouses and meat processing
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close this folder54. Mills handling cereal crops
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close this folder55. Vegetable oils and fats
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close this folder56. Sugar
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close this folder57. Timber, sawmills, wood processing and wood products
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close this folder58. Pulp and paper
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View the documentAppendix A: Tables
View the documentAppendix B: Glossary
close this folder59. Textile processing
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3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts

Plant protection measures have a wide variety of impacts on the environment. As there are no universally applicable concepts, methods must be assessed by comparing their environmental impacts. In order to weigh up alternative plant protection methods, assessment criteria are needed. This calls for indicators which convey qualitative and quantitative impacts - including their duration - as accurately as possible so as to permit comparison (cf. environmental brief Plant Production). The active ingredients, additives and conversion products of pesticides are analysed to establish their physical and chemical characteristics (persistence, evaporability, adsorption, desorption etc.). Reproducible measured values incorporating safety factors are used to determine their toxicity and residue properties (acute 50-values), chronic toxicity (no-effect level, acceptable daily intake [ADI]), maximum-quantity regulation (permissible level). The values serve as indicators or limits and must be compared with the actual contamination levels in foods and animal fodder, flora and fauna, soil, water and air. Synergistic and additive effects resulting from use of pesticides can be identified only by studying the relationships between environmental impacts (e.g. decline in particularly sensitive species, use of indicator plants, diversity studies etc.). These relationships are as yet known only in part and are to some extent obscured by the effects of other measures; in many cases they thus cannot be ascribed to plant protection measures alone.

Findings which have emerged during implementation of plant protection measures (e.g. depletion of resources or adverse social consequences resulting from such measures) provide pointers for additional assessment criteria.

Where negative environmental impacts are likely, it must be considered whether these can be remedied without excessive outlay. Risks of irreversible damage must be ascertained separately and assessed accordingly. Plant protection methods have an influence on employment structures (e.g. division of labour between men and women, workload and capital requirements). Further assessment criteria can be developed on the basis of their impacts on farm structures and production.