|Crops and Cropping Systems (IIRR, 1992, 43 p.)|
FIG. 1. Rice paddy in upland areas
Upland rice paddy is the conversion of a portion of a live or intermittent creek or gully into an irrigated rice production areas. This addresses the problem of lack of suitable area for crop production, maximizing the use of space and full utilization of limited water supply.
The technology needs minimum inputs in terms of manpower and materials; however, it needs a longer time to finish. When constructing a series of rice paddies, it is recommended to start from the lowest portion of the creek or gully.
FIG. 1. Site Selection
Select a portion of a live or intermittent creek or gully for conversion into irrigated rice paddy based on the following: (a) creek or gully bed gently sloping; (b) the width and depth of the creek or gully is not more than three meters and one meter, respectively; (c) the soil of the area immediately adjacent to the site is a clay to clay loam type; and, (d) the area is not prone to flash flooding.
FIG. 2. Construction of Dike.
Lay out on the ground the dike with at least one meter base and half a meter top dimension. For a firmer support, excavate 0.25 to 0.5 m and/or until reaching the clay foundation. Construct the dike using readily available materials in the site. The dike can be either earth or mixed materials. Allow a small opening in the dike in order to drain excess water.
FIG. 3. Filling up the dike.
Dump all farm wastes into the dike, such as leaves, stems, husks and other trimmings. Hasten the filling up of the dike by loosening the soil in the adjacent area with the use of a plow or hoe and allow it to erode into the dike. Adjust the dike opening as it is being filled up with materials. While the dike is being filled up, it can be used as a fishpond, mud hole for working animals, crop production area for water-based plants and/or water catchments.
FIG. 4. Construction of Water-impounting Dam and Drainage Canal.
After filling up the dike and converting it into rice paddy, construct a water impounding dam above-the dike in order to control the water flow into the converted rice paddy.
5. Maintenance of the Dike, Water-impounding Dam and Drainage Canal. Regular maintenance should be conducted in the form of checking and repairing for water leakages for the waterimpounding dam, siltation and obstruction of drainage canals and breakages on the dike.
1. When completely finished, the area will serve as an additional area for the production of basic food needs of the household. It usually becomes the prime production area of the farm.
2. While still under construction, the area will serve any or all of the following: (a) dumping site for farm wastes; (b) wallowing holes for working animals; (c) catchment area for eroded soil; (d) fishpond; (e) crop production area for water-based crops; and, (f) water impoundment for watering other crops.
3. The area will also serve as soil erosion measures and will minimize siltation of rivers and streams as well as control the water flow.
1. When not properly constructed, the area will become a major source of soil erosion that may affect the downstream areas.
2. It takes a longer time (up to a year, in some cases) to fill up the dike, especially when not enhanced.