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close this bookSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Planting Trees - An Illustrated Technical Guide and Training Manual (ILO - UNDP, 1993, 190 p.)
close this folder8. Organizing the work
View the document(introduction...)
View the document8.1 Planning
View the document8.2 Workforce
View the document8.3 Labour requirements over the year
View the document8.4 Worknorms
View the document8.5 Coordinating the work
View the document8.6 Tools and equipment
View the document8.7 Supervision and control
View the document8.8 Records to keep

(introduction...)


Figure

8.1 Planning

Well organized work and good planning are essential for the success of larger-scale plantations. Lack of planning and poor organization lead to delays, waste of time, poor timing, misunderstanding, irritation and, above all, plantations of poor quality at excessive cost.

To get the work to run smoothly, it must be made certain that:

- funding is ensured (often a cause for delay);
- plants, transport and manpower are available;
- appropriate tools and other materials are available;
- the workers are instructed;
- work is properly organized and coordinated;
- working conditions are safe and productive.

Productive work requires good leadership, fair and regularly paid wages, clean drinking water, food and camps where required, safety precautions and first-aid.

To make sure that all points have been taken into account, annual plans should be drawn up specifying the type and volume of work, the location, the timing of operations, the need for manpower, equipment and material, and the working method to be used. Costs and available means should be indicated.

Planning


Organization and planning are essential

8.2 Workforce

The organization of the work depends on who will carry it out.

The planting workforce can be employed directly, or payed by a project or a company. The employers are then responsible for work organization, supervision and safety. A permanent skilled workforce is desirable for large, longer term plantation work. Forest workers are, however, often hired as casual labour, working only part of the year with forestry.

A contract can also be established with local groups, which are commissioned for a special task and payed after the task is fulfilled. In this case the work is organized by the individual group. The role of the forest service or the project is mostly to advise and to provide certain material. The cost of supervising is thus considerably reduced.

The planting may be carried out individually by the owner of the land and his/her family.

A group of people, for example a community, a school or an organization, may plant an area on common land for their own mutual benefit. In the latter two cases the landowner or the community contribute their labour without pay. It is then important that the long term tenure of the land is clear, as well as the distribution of benefits.

No matter which group does the work, it is essential to ascertain that enough suitable workers will be available for the various operations.

Workforce

Hired workers


Workers are employed


Contract is established with local groups

Planting on private or common land


The work is carried out by the owner of the land


Community planting of common land

8.3 Labour requirements over the year

Labour requirements and labour availability have seasonal and long term variations. The peak season for agricultural activities often clashes with the peak season for forestry activities. In the case of larger-scale tree planting projects this can be a problem. As much work as possible should be completed outside the agricultural season (i.e. surveys, clearance, soil conservation measures, etc.).

An example of a form to use for planning the monthly labour requirements over the year is given on the opposite page. To get an idea you need to know which area will have to be worked, at what time of the year this work is due and how many workdays are needed to complete a task (clear one hectare, plant 2,000 seedlings, etc.). The latter is known as a work norm. A further explanation is given on the following page. Planting is the most critical activity as far as timing is concerned. It should always be carried out at the beginning of the rainy season. All the other operations should be planned around the planting.

To ensure an adequate supply of labour, sufficient pay, good working conditions and job security are essential. Sudden recruitment drives or large-scale labour redundancies must be avoided. For this, planning is needed.

Example: MONTHLY LABOUR REQUIREMENTS

Operation

Area to be treated ha

Worknorm wd/ha

Total wd required

Estimated no. of full time workers

Time chart for operations and distribution of labour by workdays

YEAR 1.

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Survey

35

1

35

1.5

35












Clearance

35

10

350

10


130

130

90









Pegging out

30

4

120

10




40

80








Micro catchments

10

20

200

10





60

140







Planting

35

25

875

30






250

500

125





Weeding 1

35

20

700

30








225

275

200



Weeding 2

35

15

525

26









100

125

300


Total workdays - Year 1.

2805


35

130

130

130

120

390

500

350

375

325

300

-

YEAR 2.













Survival count

35

0.5

18

2

18












Replanting

10

16

160

15






120

40






Weeding 3

30

4.5

135

12







45

45

45




Total workdays - Year 2.

313


18

-

-

-

-

120

85

45

45

-

-

-

8.4 Worknorms

A worknorm is the time it normally takes to carry out a certain operation. In forestry worknorms are usually expressed as the number of days of work (8-hours per day) needed to complete a certain task for 1 hectare. Worknorms are necessary for planning labour requirements but also for budgeting and for determining wages if piecework or task work are used (see section 9.3).

The worknorms for different planting operations differ widely and it is impossible to establish general worknorms. The time needed for planting work depends among other things on site conditions, the number, type and size of plants, the distance to the road, the quality of work required, tools and techniques, and the workforce (training and motivation). They can also differ because the effective workday may be shorter or longer than the standard 8 hours.

In light soil, for example, one worker may dig 80 holes in one day, while if the soil is stony and difficult he may be able to dig only 30.

The number of workdays needed per hectare also depends on the spacing chosen, i.e. the number of plants per hectare.

Examples of worknorms given on the opposite page might be used as a reference for initial planning. These worknorms originate from large-scale plantation and do not include stafftime.

Every large-scale planting project should establish its own worknorms in order to be able to plan in the best possible way.

As a minimum, productivity (wd/ha) should be calculated from the records of the previous season (numbers of hectares planted: workdays for each operation). Where possible, norms should be calculated separately for different conditions (dense and wide spacing; slope and flat terrain, etc.). Even better are direct observations in the field.

Worknorms (workdays/ha)

Worknorms (workdays/ha)

China, afforestation on steep slopes (15-30 degrees), bare-rooted seedlings, mostly poplars, spacing 2 x 2 m, 2,500 pl/ha


Malaysia, pine plantation, spacing 3.5 x 5 m, 700 pl/ha


Site preparation


Site preparation


Terraces

135-240

Pegging

2-11.4

Planting holes

210

Planting


Contour ridges

45

Potted plants (including digging of holes

20-35

Planting

60

Stumps

2.4

Seed treatment and sowing

30

Replacement planting

1.5-24

Maintenance


Weeding

13.7-29.6

Weeding

45

Total

37.2-100

Prevention - mice, disease and insects

45

Nigeria, moist lowland forest, spacing 8 x 8 m, 156 pl/ha


Protection from grazing

45

Clearing

11.4

Total (terraces, planting and maintenance)

382

Collecting pegs Pegging

1.94

Rwanda, SPWP, 1,000 pl/ha




Pegging

2

Carrying (containerized seedlings - depot to site with headpans)

2.3

Planting

52

Planting


Total

54

Potted plants (including digging of holes)

5.7



Stumps

1.2-2 hour/ 100 stumps



Weeding Total

3.5-14.5




28.8-38.8

1) Yingmin, W. 1985. A report on worknorms and operational efficiency in soil and water conservation and planting of trees and fodder crops in Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomus Region China. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Olmotony, the United Republic of Tanzania, 14-27 January 1985. ILO.

(2) Information from a Special Public Works Project

(3) FAO. 1975. Plantation management procedures for large-scale plantations in penisular Malaysia.

(4) Allison C.E. & Egbuta L.U.. 1982. Standard times for operations in forest plantations in Nigeria. FAO.

8.5 Coordinating the work

The main work items in establishing a large-scale plantation are listed on the opposite page. Planting should start at the beginning of the rainy season. This date is therefore more or less fixed and inflexible. Dates for the other items have to be calculated backwards or forwards from the planting date.

Plants, tools and other materials can be ordered at the same time for all the plantations in the area. Transport of plants and, if needed, of workers should be coordinated. In many plantation programs transport problems are one of the major causes of work delay.

Manpower needs, recruitment and a training program should be planned at the management level. The building up of a skilled labour force with sufficient pay and job security is one of the best ways to ensure high quality and productive work.

When planting operations are to be carried out on a number of sites one particular year, sites in the same area or along the same road or trail should be given priority. This will facilitate the coordination of the work and efficient management. after before


Figure

8.6 Tools and equipment

The importance of suitable tools and equipment can not be over-emphasized. "Suitable" means "adapted to the work and the workers". Inappropriate, broken and poorly maintained tools and equipment slow down the work and may cause injuries.

It is preferable to provide the workers with the appropriate tools rather than asking them to bring their own several-purpose, agricultural tools to the workplace. People from different areas, males and females differ in body size. The tools should be adapted in size and weight to the different body sizes of the workers. Providing good tools is a relatively inexpensive way to raise productivity. Tools can be issued every morning and returned in the evening, or they can be issued for longer periods. A record should be kept of which tools are issued and to whom. An inventory of all tools and equipment should be made regularly. It is important not to reissue damaged or badly worn tools to the workers. Material and tools for maintenance should be available at the site.

With time and heavy use, blades will become blunt, will chip and even break. Blunt or broken blades affect productivity, apart from being uncomfortable to work with. Regular maintenance is important.

Loose handles are dangerous and should be fixed immediately. Raised safety grips on the handles reduce the force needed to guide the tool and prevent tools from slipping out of the hands. Repair or maintenance can be done by sharpening the blade with a file or, when the blade is extremely damaged, by cutting back the blade and then sharpening it again.

Check regularly that tools are in good working order. Supervisors play a major role in observing if the tools are suitable for the different tasks, if they are properly maintained and sufficiently durable.

Tools and equipment


Tools should be adapted to the body size of the workers

Tools should be maintained fix handles


1. Use a conical handle


2. Saw a small slot in the end of the handle


3. Push the blade in place


4. Hammer a wooden wedge into the slot


Handles should have raised safety grip


Sharp blade

8.7 Supervision and control

Supervisors and foremen are the key persons. They should ensure that the work runs smoothly in the field.

The bigger the workforce, the greater the need for supervision. One foreman is usually needed for ten to fifteen workers and one supervisor, usually a technician, has to be appointed for each worksite. The supervisor is responsible for organizing the workers, for giving clear instructions on the work to be done, for motivating and encouraging workers to perform well, and for controlling and correcting the work. The supervisor must know the methods and techniques used arid be able to demonstrate them.

The supervisor and/or the foremen should be responsible for controlling the quality of the work, the presence of the workers, instruction and training, the work achieved and the stock and maintenance of tools. The supervisor should also be responsible for checking that safety rules are kept, that working conditions are appropriate and that first aid equipment is available at the worksite. To effectively supervise the work, inspections have to be carried out on a regular basis at least once or twice a day. The work should be regularly checked and corrected. The better the control, the easier it is to correct problems when they are still minor.

To improve planning and coordination of the work, there must be regular feedback from the supervisors on the sites to the planners.

Supervision and control


Responsibility of the supervisor

8.8 Records to keep

Information about performance and about the cost of the different operations is essential for future planning. This information will help to improve work organization and forestry activities. A number of records has to be kept.

These include:

- daily worker attendance sheets and payrolls;
- records on silvicultural operations completed and costs (number of workdays/ha and other costs);
- records on inventories of plant performance (for different species and provenance).

A form summarizing performance and costs is given on the opposite page as an example. On this sheet it can be seen that that the total cost forecast agreed rather well with the actual cost. It can also be seen that pegging was carried out on only two-thirds of the area planned and that micro-catchments were constructed on a bigger area than planned. This might be taken into account for planning the next plantation.

The first part of the plantation plan is filled out at the planning stage (page 21). All operations and vital information should be added to this form and the associated map. A form containing the information for a two year old plantation is shown on the next page.

A copy of the plantation record, or for larger plantations a specification for each task, should always be available to the supervisor at the site. This should contain information on the type of activity, the scale and timing, the number of workdays planned, worknorms and the tools needed.

SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE AND COSTS (suggested contents)

TOTAL AREA: ____

YEARS: SITE:

SITE: ______________


Operations

Unit of Measurement

Quantity

Work days

Cost (15/Rp/workday)

Cost



Forecast

Actual





ha

no.

ha

no.

Forecast

Actual

Forecast

Actual

Rp/ha

unit

Brash clearing

(ha)

35


35


350

350

5250

5250

150


Pegging out

(ha)

30


20


120

93

1800

1395

70


Micro catchments

(ha & no.)

10

6250

15

9400

200

330

3000

4950

330

0.5

Planting

(ha & no.)

35

21875

30

19000

875

800

13125

12000

400

0.6

Weeding 1

(ha)

35


30


700

712

10500

10680

356


Weeding 2

(ha)

35


26


725

509

7875

7635

294


Weeding 3

(ha)

35


20


160

124

2400

3600

180


Replanting

(ha)

10


10


160

172

2400

3600

360


Overheads








6000

6000

170


Wet pay, Sick pay






100

123

1500

1845

53


Total

3390

3213

53850

56955

COST/HA 1627

Plantation plan

Village: Kovali

District: Tiruchirappalli

Site name: Batcha plain

Area: 35 ha

Owner:

Kovali village community

Type of plantation:

Soil conservation/fodder

Previous vegetation:

Waste land with scattered bushes (Cassia and Prosopis)

Terrain:

Flat

Main soil type:

Sandy loam

Method of clearing:

No clearing needed

Risks/needs for protection:

Grazing, termites

Transport:

Truck hired from Mr. Shultz

Tools required:

20 planting hoes (ordered 12.1.93, received 4.3.93)

Workdays required:

See attached workplan

Date of planting:

20 May to 26 April 1993

Nursery of origin:

Keela Kolathur village nursery

Spacing:

4 x 4 m

Water conservation measures:

None

Fertilizer:

Not applied

Species and number of plants:

Local name

Botanical name



Velvel

Acacia leocophloea

12,000


Vagai

Albizia lebbek

4,000


Usilam

Albizia amara

6,000



Seed lots No.:

Acacia leocophloea

A 12


Albizia lebbek

D 16


Albizia amara

E 24 and E23



Weeding 1:

5 - 15 June 1993

Weeding 2:

3 - 12 August 1993

Weeding 3:

10 - 14 Feb 1994



Survival count:

15 Feb 1994


Overall survival: 85 % Velvel 80 %


Vagai 87 %


Usilam 92 %

Beating-up:

28 May 1994 - Velvel - 400 plants



Average plant height:

Acacia leocophloea

2 year - 20 cm


Albizia lebbek

2 year - 60 cm


Albizia amara

2 year - 10 cm

Protection applied:

One guard employed by the village (contract attached)

Common mistakes in organizing the work

Arrival of funds delayed.

Insufficient planning leading to delays in the work due to, for example, lack of transport or lack of manpower.

Appropriate tools not available; use of poorly maintained agricultural tools results in low productivity.

Workers not motivated (by fair wages, training and information on the objective of the plantation).

Information from records, monitoring and work-studies not continuously used to improve work organization.