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close this bookNonformal Education Manual (Peace Corps, 1989)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIllustrations
View the documentPreface
View the documentAuthor's acknowledgments
View the documentChapter 1: What is nonformal education?
close this folderChapter 2: NFE in action
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View the documentSWAZILAND: Finding Space To Make School Uniforms
View the documentGUATEMALA: Improving Child Health Care
View the documentINDONESIA: Who can talk about family planning?
close this folderChapter 3: How adults learn
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close this folder1. Adults expect to be treated with respect and recognition
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View the documentAdult education theory: Malcolm Knowles
close this folder2. Adults want practical solutions to real-life problems.
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View the documentEducation theory: John Dewey
close this folder3. Adults can reflect on and analyze their own experiences.
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View the documentTheory: David Kolb: experiential learning cycle
close this folder4. Different adults have different learning styles.
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View the documentLearning style theory: David Kolb
close this folder5. Adults can be motivated by the possibility of fulfilling their personal needs and aspirations.
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View the documentTheory: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
close this folder6. Adults need the support of their peers
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View the documentTheory: feedback
close this folder7. Adults need to communicate their feelings in culturally appropriate ways
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View the documentTheory: cultural influences on personality: Erik Erikson
close this folder8. Adults are capable of making their own decisions and taking charge of their own development.
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View the documentTheory: Paulo Freire
close this folderChapter 4: Helping people identify their needs
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View the documentInsider - outsider views
View the documentResistance to change continuum
close this folderObservation techniques
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View the document1. Sequential reporting
View the document2. Reporting of selective themes
View the document3. Detailed description of an event
View the document4. Subjective observation
View the documentProcessing your observations
close this folderInformal discussion and interviewing
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View the documentInterviews
View the documentCommunity survey - situational analysis
close this folderGroup discussions
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View the documentProblem tree
View the documentThe balloon exercise
View the documentBrainstorming/prioritizing
View the documentHints for facilitating a group discussion
close this folderChapter 5: Planning
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close this folder1. Planning: deciding where you are going
View the documentSetting goals
View the documentDetermining objectives
View the documentDefining tasks
View the documentBefore and after pictures
View the documentStory With a Gap
View the documentDetermining resources and constraints
View the documentForce Field Analysis
View the documentCart and Rocks Exercise
close this folder2. Planning: figuring out how to get there
View the documentEasy pert chart
View the documentGantt chart
View the documentWeekly or monthly schedules
View the documentWork plans
View the documentSession plans
View the documentGaining support in the community
close this folder3. Planning: keeping track of how you're doing
View the documentReports
View the documentMinutes of meetings
View the documentKeeping simple financial records
View the documentFeedback
View the documentWhen planning doesn't go as planned...
close this folderChapter 6: Evaluation
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View the documentWho evaluates?
View the documentWhat to evaluate?
close this folderHow to evaluate?
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View the documentEvaluation for whom?
View the documentHow to communicate the findings?
View the documentLetting go and moving on
close this folderChapter 7: Some NFE techniques for working with groups
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View the documentIcebreakers
View the documentWarm-ups
View the documentRole plays
View the documentOpen-ended problem drama
View the documentCritical incidents
View the documentDemonstrations
View the documentField trips
View the documentPanel discussions
View the documentSmall group discussion
View the documentFishbowl
View the documentTraining of trainers (TOT)
View the documentEvaluation techniques for training workshops
View the documentGuidelines for planning participatory training programs
close this folderChapter 8: Developing NFE materials from local resources
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View the documentFlannel Board
View the documentCommunity Bulletin Board and Newsheets
View the documentChalkboard
View the documentAlternative Construction - Roll-up Blackboard
View the documentChalkboard Paint
View the documentChalk
View the documentLayout
View the documentPosters
View the documentPuppets
View the documentPaste and Paper Maché
View the documentModels: Dioramas, Sand Tables and Salt Maps
View the documentDioramas
View the documentSand table
View the documentSalt map
View the documentPens and Paintbrushes
View the documentInks, Dyes and Paints
View the documentModeling Clay
View the documentHectograph
View the documentMimeograph Board
View the documentSilk Screen Press
close this folderReferences
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View the documentAdditional Resources
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Problem tree

Suppose you are working with a group of mothers who are agreed that a major health problem for their children is malnutrition. Start by writing the problem at the top of the blackboard or sheet of paper: "Children Are Malnourished." (If members of the group are not literate, you can decide on a symbol together that stands for malnutrition - a stick figure with a sad face, for example). Tell the group that a problem is like a tree and that the causes of the problem are like roots reaching into the ground.

Next, ask the group why they think that children don't have enough to eat. After some discussion, the women may decide that there is simply not enough food in the village, or that the right kinds of food are not available, or that mothers don't give their children breast milk long enough. Write these responses (or use appropriate symbols) as roots branching off the original problem "tree."

Now, take each of the causes in turn and ask the group why they think it is happening. The group may decide that there is not enough food in the village because people don't have enough money to buy it, or because the soil in the fields is poor. Write these responses as other roots branching off the first reasons as in the diagram. Be sure to give participants sufficient time to discuss these problems, using your diagram only to remind them of what they have discovered rather than as an end in itself.


Figure

Finally, when the group has discovered the complexity of the problem (and, not incidentally, how much they already know about it), ask them to suggest possible solutions and write them - symbolically or in words, at the bottom of the problem tree. Be sure to stress that these solutions are only possibilities for action, not necessarily final decisions; this will encourage more creativity and less disagreement about what is feasible.