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fechar este livroRefugee Nutrition Information System (RNIS), No. 14 - Report on the Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Populations (UNSSCN, 1996, 45 p.)
Ver o documento(introduction...)
Ver o documentoHIGHLIGHTS
Ver o documentoINTRODUCTION
abre esta pasta e visualiza o conteúdoSub-Saharan Africa
abre esta pasta e visualiza o conteúdoASIA - Selected Situations
Ver o documentoList of Sources for February 1996 RNIS Report
abre esta pasta e visualiza o conteúdoList of Tables, Figures and Annexes
abre esta pasta e visualiza o conteúdoList of Maps

HIGHLIGHTS

The overall number of refugees, returnees and displaced people in Sub-Saharan Africa has increased substantially over the last two month. This increase is mainly due to a revised estimate in the number of people affected in Mozambique and Southern Sudan. Both of these estimates have increased due to lower than expected harvests in the respective countries. However, the number of people at high nutritional risk (categories I and IIa in Table 1) has decreased due to an general improvement in the security situation in the Liberia/Sierra Leone region.

Angola The continued peace in Angola is leading to plans for an organised repatriation of refugees. Surveys continue to show that the nutritional status of the population is improving in accessible areas. However, wasting rates are still very high in those areas where poor infrastructure or mined roads prevents easy access for humanitarian aid agencies.

Burundi/Rwanda Region The high level of insecurity in north and north west Burundi has been impeding relief activities for the internally displaced and refugee populations and has also led to considerable population movements into neighbouring Tanzania and Uvira in Zaire. It can be assumed that populations in these insecure areas will be experiencing some degree of nutritional stress. There is also concern over the incidence of cholera in these areas and the lack of access to health care facilities. The relatively good harvest in Rwanda has, in conjunction with targeted food aid, helped stabilise the food security situation while adequate food deliveries to the Rwandan refugee populations in Zaire and Tanzania are ensuring a stable nutritional situation in the refugee camps. However, there is some concern over the lack of access to fuel in the Coma and Bukavu camps.

Liberia/Sierra Leone Although the ceasefire has generally held in Liberia, recent serious security incidents have led to suspension of ECOMOG deployment in some areas. Prior to this, relief activities had been extended to a number of areas newly secured by ECOMOG forces and allowed some spontaneous refugee repatriation. However, nutritional assessments in these newly accessible areas often show extremely high levels of wasting. Furthermore, recent poor harvests in Liberia will mean that food aid is needed for many months, especially for new returnees. There is also considerable concern over the lack of health infrastructure throughout Liberia, particularly given the confirmed outbreak of yellow fever. In Sierra Leone, the security situation is still very tense and has constrained food aid movement to many locations for long periods. This is repeatedly reflected by the high levels of wasting found in surveyed populations. There is also concern about outbreaks of yellow fever in the country.

Mozambique The rains for this years harvest have generally been good and there are no signs of faltering nutritional status in the country. However, cases of pellagra still continue to be reported in one district. The general ration programme has clearly been effective although there continue to be reported problems with the underestimation of beneficiary numbers and poor targeting borne out of logistical difficulties.

Somalia Although the “deyr” harvest has been fairly good, a variety of factors including persistent insecurity, poor environmental health and limited employment opportunities, interact to adversely affect the nutritional status of large numbers of Somalis. The most current nutritional survey results confirm those of other recent surveys in large urban centres which found high levels of wasting due to limited access to food and high levels of morbidity.

Sudan The 1995 harvest was far worse than the preceding years “bumper” harvest. Taken in conjunction with the high level of insecurity in the south, this will render many in southern Sudan vulnerable to food insecurity. Indeed, recent surveys of camps for the internally displaced in the south continue to show high levels of wasting. An annual survey of Ethiopian and Eritrean refugees in Eastern Sudan shows levels and patterns of wasting similar to those found in 1994. Elevated levels of wasting in some camps are worrying and should be investigated. High levels of vitamin A deficiency are currently being reported among the displaced populations around Khartoum.

Zaire A large proportion of the population displaced from the Shaba region who have settled in towns outside the area are becoming increasingly self-sufficient and as a consequence, aid agency support has been reduced. However, in some of these locations, e.g. Mwene Ditu, levels of wasting are still extremely high, reflecting mainly low agricultural productivity and poor economic assimilation amongst those displaced from Shaba.

Afghanistan Fighting is continuing in and around Kabul leading to an exodus of some of the population to Jalalabad. The remainder of the country is reportedly calm. However, many of those who have been displaced to Kabul in preceding months are now more permanently housed and better assimilated into the local economy. This is reflected in far lower levels of wasting than those recorded late last year. Nevertheless, the effect of the fighting on access to the city and food prices and the advent of winter is making food security increasingly precarious for many.

ADEQUACY OF FACTORS AFFECTING NUTRITION



Burundi/Rwanda Population in:






Factor

Angola

Burundi

Rwanda

Tanzania

Zaire

Liberia

Mozambique

Sierra Leone

Somalia

Sudan

1. Degree of accessibility to large population groups due to conflict

O

X

Ö

Ö

Ö

O

Ö

X

O

O

2. General resources












- food (gen. stocks)

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

?X


- non-food

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

?X

3. Food pipeline

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

X

?X

Ö

Ö

?Ö

4. Non-food pipeline

X

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

?Ö

5. Logistics

X

X

Ö

Ö

Ö

O

O

X

O

O

6. Personnel*

Ö

X

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

Ö

O

O

7. Camp factors**

Ö

O

na

O

O

Ö

na

?X

O

O

8. Rations - kcals

Ö

?X

Ö

Ö

Ö

X

Ö

X

Ö

O

- variety/micronutrients***

Ö

?X

Ö

Ö

Ö

X

X

X

Ö

O

9. Immunization

X

X

Ö

Ö

Ö

X

X

X

O

?X

10. Information

O

O

Ö

Ö

Ö

O

Ö

X

O

O

Ö Adequate
O Problem in some areas
X Problem
? Don't know
?Ö Don't know, but probably adequate
?X Don't know, but probably inadequate
na not applicable

* This refers to both adequate presence and training of NGOs and local staff where security allows.

**This refers to problems in camps such as registration, water/sanitation, crowding, etc.

*** Rations may be inadequate due to inaccessibility.

Note: Situations for which detailed information is available are included in this table. Other potentially critical situations (e.g. Ethiopia or Shaba, Zaire) are not currently included due to a lack of detailed information. They will be included as more information becomes available.