17. Afghanistan Region
(see Map 17)
Fighting has escalated in and around Kabul, although elsewhere
the situation in Afghanistan is reportedly calm. Overall regional estimates of
those affected by events in Afghanistan remain at 3.1 million.
Kabul The Taliban forces have continued to attack Kabul
city throughout December and January inflicting many casualties. Since the
fighting between government and Taliban forces recommenced in September 1995
approximately 60,000 people have left Kabul. Prior to the renewed fighting an
estimated 200,000 people had returned to Kabul from Peshawar and Jalalabad since
April 1995. Current fighting has disrupted the normal pattern of trade and
commercial deliveries to the city resulting in food price inflation and
shortages of essential food commodities. International aid agencies in Kabul
have come together to implement an Emergency Winter Relief Plan [UNHAA 04/01/96,
14/01/96]. WFP have been delivering food to the capital via Jalalabad with much
of the food being used to feed orphans, widows, and the disabled.
Although an assessment of the nutritional situation in Kabul in
November found a much improved situation compared to ICRC surveys conducted
earlier in 1995, the situation for many is still believed to be precarious,
especially with the advent of winter. Much of the noted improvement has been due
to the displaced being housed properly and assimilated into the economy. The
survey found that levels of wasting in children under five were 5.6% with 1.2%
severe wasting. Prevalence of oedema was 0.6% (see Annex 1 17(a)). There was no
significant difference in levels of wasting between resident and displaced
populations. Most people were exclusively dependent on the local market with
only a small proportion of families having access to parcels of land or owning
animals. Only 3% had received food aid in the previous month. Although the vast
majority of resident and displaced families had some form of employment, income
was insufficient to provide even minimum food requirements. Many families have
therefore been forced to sell assets or borrow money [AICF 08/11/95].
Displaced in Jalalabad The situation around Jalalabad is
reportedly calm. However, the fighting in and around Kabul has led to large
scale displacement of people to Jalalabad. Recently up to 5,000 people per week
have been arriving although it is not clear whether these people are settling in
the local communities or the camps for the displaced [UNHAA 04/01/96].
A recent nutritional survey in New Hadda showed 4% wasting
and/or oedema with 0.6% severe wasting and/or oedema. The crude mortality rate
was 0.11/10,000/day (lower that a usual level) and the under-five mortality rate
was 0.17/10,000/day (see Annex 1 17(b)). These indicators show a relatively good
situation [MSF-H 13/02/96].
Refugees in Pakistan Repatriation is continuing for the
1.2 million refugees in Pakistan, many of whom are considered self-sufficient
and are no longer assisted with a general ration distribution. Assistance is
targeted to vulnerable groups including the disabled, the elderly, primary
school children and families without an able-bodied adult male. It is estimated
that 153,000 Afghan refugees repatriated in 1995. Plans for the further
repatriation of 250,000 in 1996 are underway [UNHAA 26/12/95, UNHCR 07/12/95,
Refugees in Iran Repatriation of the approximately 1.5
million Afghan refugees in Iran is continuing. Over 195,000 people repatriated
in 1995. It is expected that repatriation will slow down over the winter as
travel becomes more difficult [UNHAA 13/12/95, 26/12/95, UNHCR 12/02/96].
Overall, the population of Kabul can be considered to be
at nutritional risk (category IIa in Table 1). The remaining population affected
regionally is not currently thought to be at heightened nutritional risk
(category IIc in Table 1).
How could external agencies help? Funding
is required to help repair hospital and dispensary infrastructure throughout
Afghanistan. In Kabul, nutrition monitoring is necessary given the precarious
nature of food security for most residents in the city. Also, supplementary
feeding programmes need to be better targeted than is currently the case, e.g.
to moderately malnourished children. The recent nutrition survey in Kabul
identifies the need for more therapeutic feeding facilities for the severely