| Boiling Point No. 25 - August 1991 |
GATE/GTZ Coordination & Advisory Centre for Integrated Household Energy Supply, Eschborn, Germany.
Agnes Kingshim, head of the "Integrated Household Energy Supply Project" at GTZ/GATE; :headquarters, carried out a study in Kenya to check the impacts of the "Women and Energy Project". This project was not only one of the first GTZ Stove dissemination projects having started :in 1983, it was also the very first one with an integrated approach. We can expect very: interesting results to be presented in the next BP issue.
In the series "Aus der Arbeit der GTZ": a special isue on "Improved Cookstoves" is prepared for publication. The work of operating GTZ projects with activities in the field of household energy supply is presented.
Women, Household Energy and the Tropical Forestry Action Plan
On behalf of GTZ/GATE, Ms. Gabriele Bargel a rural sociologist, analysed twelve TFAP country studies from three continents. Her evaluation focuses on one of the five proirity fields of the TFAP: Fuelwood and Energy . The methods used to measure fuelwood supply and demand are discussed, and the author questions how women's interest are taken into consideration. The study outlines methodological altematives for integrating the perspctive of women into the planning process of energy related projects within the scope of the TFAP.
The Solar :Cooker Study
GTZ/GATE has prepared a revised report on solar energy for publication entitled "New prospects in solar cooking''. The main report (36 pages) is accompanied by three annexes. The study points out the primary reasons why past solar dissemination programmes have had such little success:
- the lack of adaptation to the natural and social enviroment of the beneflciaries and
- technical shortcomings of the cookers such as low thermal performance, poor quality, complicated use etc.
A systematic survey of the possible solar cooker concept is made and the potential of these different concepts assessed Results are shown in a three-dimensional graphical representation of possible concepts. (Annex: 1 ). The map is also used to identify promising concepts that have not yet been looked into ("white spots" on the map).
160 past add present solar cooker concepts are preserved (Annex 2); and discussed in teens of the solar cooker map. Annex 3 contains a list of persons and institutions that have been directly contacted with a request for information concerning recent activities in solar cooking, Short summaries of the replies are given.
The first study by the same author where the map-method is used, is the publication about the Multi-energy-cooker entitled:
Multi-Energie-Kocher fur Institutionen Untersuchung geeigneter Konzepte Michael Grupp, Synopsis May 1991
The:study is published in German. It deals with multienergy cookers for institutions and surveys suitable concepts. promising multi-energy cooker systems are selected and described. The author concludes that based on these systems multi-energy cookers can be produced on the local market. To ensure local production, cooperation with local producers and traders should be established at an early stage.
People at Headquarters
The permanent team of the "Integrated Household Energy Supply Project" at GTZ/GATE consists of
- Agnes Klingshim (team leader)
- Ruth Hoffer
- Birgit Starkenberg
The team is reinforced by Elke Metzen a development sociologist until September 1991. She worked as a consultant at the Monitoring Division of the "Fuel Efficient Cooking Technologies" Project in Peshawar (see her article in BP 23). She is now continuing her work at headquarters being involved mainly with the Monitoring &Evaluating Manual.
Reports on Projects
Extract from a paper by Dr. Petra Wagner
In the last BP (No 24) we heard from Dr Petra Wagner about the doubts, difficulties and first successes of stove dissemination in Mali. Now we have more information about the dissemination approach
Its main element is the "causerie", an information event with discussions, cooking demonstrations and sales. These palavers are a traditional way of communication in Mali. The main subject of the information flow to the target group is "desertification - causes, consequences and possible actions". The presidents of the women's organization /UNFM (Union des Femmes du Mali) are the official organisers, who invite targed group. Without these women presidents the broad popularization could not have been achieved. The rather difficult first contact with the families is facilitated if the UNFM presidents are involved. After this step the women show enough interest to come to the cooking demonstrations.
Apart frorn one fundamentalistic Islamic sect there are no major religious or socio-cultural restrictions on the women's attendance at such events.
On the other hand close cooperation with UNFM poses some difficulties. Firstly there is a tendency for people to consider events led by the UNFM as "political" and correspondingly not interesting because most people in Mali are "politics-tired". Secondly there is the tendency of some members of UNFM to consider all success in stove dissemination as their own achievement.
But there are some more serious problems:
It is nearly impossible for the women to talk about negative experiences with the improved stoves. This is against the rules of politeness in communication between people in general and especially if strangers are involved. Explanations about the need and purpose of such criticisms of the project - to improve the stoves - are not welcomed by the women.
Another serious bottleneck for stove dissemination is the bad economic situation of many families in Mali. To get something into the cooking pot is (and has to be) more important than the fuel beneath it. Even a pay-back period of 2.7 months cannot be a convincing argument if people do not have the necessary cash to buy the stove.
In the meantime there has been a lot of change in Mali. As a consequence of the coup d'etat in spring 1991, UNFM no longer exists. How to continue in the changed situation will be discussed at a planning workshop in July. The project has come to its last project phase, focussing on the hand-over after another three years. There was a change of the team leader: Petra Wagner left to go to a German consulting agency ( but will be still involved in the workshop), and Anke Weimann started her work in June. We are very eager to get news about the further development of the project.
By Heini Schneiders
Improved renewable-energy technologies which arc expected to have a broad medium term effect on local production and dissemination should focus on the monetized share of fuelwood consumption for the following reasons:
Once woodfuel enters the money economy, the prospect of saving money by reduced fuel consumption becomes an incentive, quite apart from the beneficial effects to the environment.
The free gathering of woodfuel for cooking in rural areas by women and children mainly removes semi-dry twigs and branches from agticultural land or natural forest. Branches of up to 6 cm diameter suit the requirements for domestic cooking, and the lack of tools and strength prevents cutting of bigger trees. In contrast to this often harmless woodfuel gathering, the use of commercia1 fuelwood causes indiscriminate and even illegal clearing of old and valuable reserves. The reduction of commercialized fuelwood therefore directly supports the national efforts for the protection and recovery of natural forests.
Commercialized fuelwood is consumed either in locally concentrated large amounts (tobacco curing, brick burning) or in small quantities at locations with a high population density (charcoal for urban household cooking). In both circumstances efforts to improve technologies are justified and relevant. They either generate substantial savings at the sites of large consumption (single site technologies) or small unit savings by many households in densely populated areas.
Improved technologies for commercial fuelwood use must generate money savings and should eventually be self - sustaining through existing market structures without new and expensive extension services.
A potentially limiting factor for commercial dissemination of RE-technologies is the indirect public subsidy of purchasable fuelwood. Since the retail price of such fuelwood does not usually include replacement costs, commercial transport rates and taxes, the monetized fuelwood may in some locations be too cheap to justify high investments in more efficient RE-technologies.
At the same time, this indirect subsidy of fuelwood justifies initial public subsidy of RE technology projects in so far as it generates public expenditure savings by reduced wood consumption.
In the Project Progress Report No 3 (July to December 1990) there is a very interesting chapter about the sensibilisation campaign which is summarized as follows:
- to reach 80% of the urban households by the publicity campaign through mass media
- to inform 10% of the urban households through direct contact
- to have 30% of the households understood the message of the campaign
There are two different types of approach:
- direct instruction of the target groups in Niamey and
- a publicity campaign through the mass media.
Direct instruction in Niamey
Measures and methods for direct contact had already been agreed in the first six months of 1990. In the second half they were tested in five "quartiers" (town districts) and in two military camps. The following approach was chosen:
First, official contact was made with the Chef de Quartier as well as with the woman president of AFN (Association des Femmes de Niger). Then, interested merchants were listed and if their workshops had a suitable location they were chosen for three-months test sales. Another target group were women preparing and selling cooked food on the streets. They could use a metal stove for one month to test it.
At the same time promotion sessions were held in the "Mother and Child Centres" (PMI, Centre de Protection Maternelle et Infantile), where most of the women could be reached quite easily. There is a continuing follow-up in the centres, where the improved stoves were used 5 days a week to demonstrate the preparation of children's food. Panels showing the correct use of the stove were installed, and the instructors visited each centre twice after the installation of the stoves.
Comparative cooking demonstrations (traditional metal stove in comparison with "Mad Sauki" and "Multimarmite') took place at different places of the "quartier" where the training method of "GRAAP" and a "question-answer-game" were used.
Over a period of 6 months, 15 such events took place with 583 women participating. Out of 14 small street restaurant owners, 9 participated in the test. 28 stoves, mostly extra large size were produced by blacksmiths on individual requirements.
18 out of 28 shops got their first stoves (including a display panel "foyer ameliores - ici - point de vente") and whenever possible - introduced to the people of their quartier during cooking demonstrations.
At the end of July a campaign in the mass media had begun. The campaign started with "environmental TV-spots" for 2 weeks followed by spots about different stove models for a period of one month for each model. At the same time whole page advertisments were published in the newspaper. Finally, with some time lag spots about the correct use of the MAI SAUKI were shown on the television. The selling rate went up during the campaign. As a preliminary result it seems that longer spots with detailed comments are more effective than quick flashes.
The impact of the campaign is to be evaluated later this year.
We have received some very interesting information about project working on mud-stove dissemination in association with the German Volunteer Service (DED) engaged in other activities in the housing sector. The "Second Progress Report, I 991 of' "The Improved Ambo-Mud-Stove-Concept", written by Marius Bierig, is summarized as follows:
The Project has been involved in mud stove development since l986:
Two students were trained in the mud-stove-section in Burayo
1987 - 1988
Manufacture of Burayo Stoves started in the project region (in Ambo)
The Burayo moulds were modified
1989 - 1990
The Burayo system was abandoned and own wooden moulds were developed
The Ambo-Mud-Stove-Concept was improved and the project is now in a position to produce and sell stoves with out any major complications.
There are two different Ambo Stove models. Both have a chimney add are built of prefabricated mud-elements. One is called "One-pot-stove", suitable for normal daily cooking, the other "Injera stove" is adapted to bake "injera", which is done on average 9 times a month by each family.
Up to now about 100 stoves have been installed in about 50 households. A preliminary result of a first survey showed a reduction of firewood consumption of about 40%. The women pointed out as main advantages:
- reduction of firewood consumption (31%)
- that the fireplace Is closed (19%)
- that the new stove Is more comfortable (18%)
- reduction of smoke (18%)
The report gives detailed instructions on how to construct the two models, including technical drawings. A chapter about the economic aspects of Ambo Mud Stove Concept is added.
Two aspects of this project seem to be particularly interesting.
1. The whole concept is based on independent, private production units.
2. Most of the stoves disseminated have a chimney
A close follow-up with detailed infortnation about these aspects would be very interesting. We hope to get more information about this project.