| Boiling Point No. 33 - May 1994 Number 33 |
From the Non-Conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy, Government the Philippines.
A joint study by the UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) and the Philippines Department of Energy, entitled 'Defining an Energy Strategy for the Household Sector' suggests that the use of biomass fuels in this sector appears to be sustainable for the foreseeable future. The quantities of biomass materials available for fuel far exceed existing and potential demand, and there is little evidence that current patterns of fuel use give cause for widespread concern on either economic or environmental grounds.
Behind this favourable assessment, however, lie several specific areas in which more careful attention needs to be paid to the ways in which biomass fuel resources are managed and used. There is no fuelwood crisis at the national level, but there are signs of emerging stress in some specific environments.
Conventional estimates of the national energy balance do not include the contribution of wood fuels and other forms of biomass. However, the Department of Energy has recently updated its energy plans and programmes for the years 1993 to 2000. This has led to a recognition of the contribution of biomass fuels, which make up an estimated 20 per cent of total national energy consumption.
Implications for stoves
From the study of the biomass fuel sector there emerge three important points relating to the formation of a national cookstove programme:
1. Almost half of all energy used in the Philippines is consumed in the household sector. This is due to the relatively inefficient use of fuelwood and charcoal, which are the dominant cooking fuels in households outside the capital, Metro Manila.
2. At mid-1990 fuel prices, fuelwood and LPG were the lowest-cost cooking fuels (in economic terms) for urban households. The urban fuelwood-supply system is a large employer of rural labour and is tied directly to the rural economy.
3. Even in regions showing early signs of fuel-resource stress, the loss of forest cover results in only marginal and seasonal shortages in the supply of household fuels. Forest lands, woodlands and agricultural trees can continue to provide biomass fuels if managed properly. Deforestation is caused by commercial logging and the conversion of forest lands for agricultural activities, rather than by woodfuel harvesting. To safeguard the sustainable supply of woodfuels the Government should encourage farmers to adopt sound land-management practices and target these efforts at areas currently showing early signs of biomass-resource stress.
The participation of the Department of Energy in the ARECOP-initiated Cookstoves Consultation Meeting in Indonesia in 1992 led to the formation of a National
Working Committee to implement the recommendations of the ESMAP/DOE study. The NWC set out to create an integrated national structure for stove development, and has drawn up the following programme for 1995 to 2000, in which it plans to involve both governmental and non-governmental agencies:
• To develop a national Improved Cookstove(ICS) programme to promote fuelwood conservation and reduce fuelwood costs.
• To promote the commercial dissemination of ICS that are technically and economically viable and acceptable to target beneficiaries.
The Non-Conventional Energy Division will oversee the implementation of the five-year programme and clarify the roles of the participating bodies. The programme, which will have a total funding of 18 million pesos (equivalent to about US$ 643 000) will have six major areas of concentration: programme development; ICS promotion and commercialization; ICS dissemination schemes; training; the development of ICS product standards and quality control; and monitoring and evaluation. The main components of these are listed below.
A. Programme development
1. Formulate criteria and guidelines for selecting areas for pilot testing of ICS.
2. Identify these areas and assess their needs in terms of biomass fuels.
3. Assist NGOs and user groups in developing proposals for ICS programmes.
B. Promotion and commercialization 1. Carry out a campaign to increase public awareness of cookstoves.
2. Highlight the role of women in ICS dissemination.
3. Strengthen the cookstoves network.
4. Facilitate access to financing institutions and develop financing schemes.
5. Develop brochures, ICS display models, and other information materials.
6. Develop incentive packages for both users and manufacturers of ICS.
7. Establish institutional linkages and co-operation with relevant local and foreign agencies.
C. Dissemination schemes for ICS
1. Identify five pilot areas for the commercial dissemination of ICS.
2. Identify groups that will handle commercialization, fee collection and technical servicing, and assess their institutional or organizational capabilities.
3. Develop financing schemes to support dissemination.
4. Conduct a survey to monitor the efficiency and performance of ICS.
5. Hold conferences, meetings, seminars and workshops as appropriate.
1. Training for extension workers and NGO staff in clay composition, clay testing methodology, stove design, drying and firing, kiln design, quality control and production management.
2. Special programmes for manufacturers of ICS.
E. Development of ICS product standards and quality control
1. Implement a quarterly programme to monitor the acceptability of the cookstoves.
2. Prepare technical reports and make recommendations and suggestions for future activities. At the national level, the
Department of the Environment
and Natural Resources, the Forest
Products Research and Development
Institute, the Renewable
Energy Association of the Philip pines and other, Manila-based
NGOs will be involved. National responsibility will be with the 16
Energy Centres and the rural-based
Government and non-Government organizations.