| Boiling Point No. 33 - May 1994 Number 33 |
by Nenny Sri Utami, Directorate of Energy, Indonesia. This paper was originally presented at the Asia
Regional Cookstoves Programme's Planning Technical and Advisory Workshop, held in October 1993.
Biomass is the largest single source of energy in rural areas of Indonesia. Nationally, it accounts for around 40% of total energy consumption. Biomass is used mainly for domestic cooking and for fuel in cottage industries, such as brick firing, sugar mills or traditional food production.
In 1986, extensive surveys of biomass energy consumption among both rural and urban households were carried out in a number of regions in three provinces of Java. In 1988, tines" surveys were extended to the provinces of Lampung (in Sumatra) and South-East Sulawesi. The resulting data indicates that biomass consumption has been increasing since 1980, when the national biomass consumption was estimated at 0.63m3 per capita; the corresponding figure for Java alone was 0.53m3. 1986 figures were 0.75m3 and 0.62m3 respectively.
Given the importance of biomass energy sources, it is national policy to disseminate efficient biomass stoves that can be fueled with agricultural or forestry wastes in order to reduce environmental pressures associated with meeting basic household energy needs. In addition to their environmental benefits, efficient biomass stoves are being promoted for use in commercial food preparation to increase household income, and to improve the quality of life.
Biomass stove programme
The implementation of the biomass stoves programme was begun in the 1980s by government and non-government organizations. In 1981, the Ministry of Mines and Energy organized a competition for energy efficient stove designs. The best designs were introduced to the villages, but were not widely accepted because of their unfamiliarity. Energy efficient variations of local stoves were accepted by the villagers because the stoves were modified to suit their needs.
In !991, a study of wood stove use conducted in co-operation with a number of Indonesian research institutions had the following objectives:
• to survey traditional stoves in three villages in the province of West Java;
• to research and introduce ways of improving traditional stove designs;
• to train four technicians in each village to make improved stoves;
• to disseminate improved stoves and monitor people's reactions.
Three types of modified stoves were constructed using locally available materials and technology. A manual on stove modification has been prepared to help the dissemination process. In 1993/1994, the Ministry of Mines and Energy plans to conduct a further study in collaboration with NGOs on the improvement of efficiency and quality of local wood stoves in the South Eastern Islands. These stoves will be designed to burn coal briquettes as well as fuelwood. The study will:
• establish an institution for stove development, biomass energy saving, and a training and education programme;
• collect information on previous cookstove programmes;
• collect data on the social and economic aspects of stove production, stove marketing systems, locally available potential biomass fuel, and on users of the stoves, through direct dialogue with households and stove producers;
• analyse the quality of local stoves and improve stove materials, their design, and their distribution system;
• train stove producers and users;
• monitor and evaluate the benefits for the producers of improved stoves, biomass consumption, and community response to the introduction of more efficient stoves.
If successful, this method will be implemented in other regions of Indonesia, particularly in the
Eastern part, during the next five years.