| Boiling Point No. 30 - April 1993 |
Co-ordination & Advisory Centre for Integrated Household Energy Supply (IHV), P O Box 5180, 6236 Eschborn, Germany, Tel: 6196 793004-7, Fax: 797325 Editor: E. Metzen
News from Headquarters
Planning the Future of the IHV Project
by IHV Editor
The Integrated Household Energy Project (IHV) of GTZ is moving towards the end of its present promotion phase. A planning workshop was therefore held from the 11th to 13th January in GTZ headquarters to set objectives and activities of the project for the coming years.
According to IHV's integrated approach, a wide range of professionals participated in the planning workshop; the IHV project staff, its regular consultancy team, GTZ representatives from the department of agricultural production, selected regional departments, the forestry, energy and promotion of women departments as well as representatives from the sectoral department of the Ministry of Economic Cooperation (BMZ). To include viewpoints of our Southern partners, local representatives from Kenya, Tanzania and Mali had been invited as well.
In a review of IHV's activities and achievements since 1989 two aspects were especially high-lighted:
First, the successful initiation of conceptual change moving away from the former rather technology oriented approach of "stove projects" towards integrated multisectoral household energy projects. In the past the IHV has experienced that household energy projects have much wider social and economic impact than only saving x-amount of fuel with technically improved devices.
Secondly, it was acknowledged that the IHV project had been active in supporting and consolidating international co-operation within the household energy sector. This includes the cooperation with other national and international bodies as well as with Southern networks.
Regarding the next promotion phase (Jan 1994 December 1997), the IHV will basically continue to this direction; after consolidating conceptual work, it will promote and support the implementation of integrated household energy concepts. Here IHV will focus particularly on:
• human resource development or local capacity building through emphasizing training aspects;
• intensifying international co-operation and thereby promoting the exchange of information and know-how as well as contributing to policy development and lobbying for the household sector;
• promotion and public relations to inform political decision-makers on a national (South and North) and international level and to support Southern networks with their focal points as well as implementing projects in lobbying and general awareness campaigns.
It was fully acknowledged by all participants of the workshop that the household energy sector makes important contributions to development and bears great potential to improve especially the situation of neglected marginalized groups of societies in developing countries, especially women. It was suggested by GTZ headquarters and the Ministry for Economic Co-operation that the IHV programme should receive the long term support needed until IHV activities are integrated successfully into regional and sectoral programmes.
Guidelines for cost-benefit analysis
by IHV Editor, taken from a report by Ms Helga Habermehl
The Integrated Household Energy Project (IHV) has recently initiated a cost-benefit analysis for household energy projects in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The study conducted by Ms Helga Habermehl could prove positive economic impacts of improved stoves for user households, the local small-scale industry and the regional and national economy (see BP No. 28 "Cost benefit analysis of household energy projects, pp 23/4).
A second objective of the study was to develop reliable and standardized criteria and calculation methods to conduct cost-benefit analysis for household energy projects. Meanwhile Ms Habermehl has developed guidelines to be used by project staff of household energy projects and decision-makers in national, bilateral and international organisations without necessarily having to have specialized economic skills.
The guidelines presented provide a set of instruments to find answers to two crucial questions of each household energy project:
1. Did the improved technology improve the economic situation of user households?
2. Was woodfuel consumption reduced to a level so that tree cutting is slowed down?
The reader of the guidelines is informed about concrete methods how to calculate economic impacts on household and regional level. The central chapter of the guidelines describes and explains calculation formulas including definitions and model calculations. Both sets of formulas are meant to be for economic analysis either on household or regional level.
The user of the guidelines learns how to calculate pay-back period, profit and rentability of improved stoves for households as well as for commercial users with small-scale enterprises. On a regional level, the guidelines teach you how to calculate the impact of improved stoves on national fuel savings, fuel savings in relation to existing forests and fuel savings in relation to the annual growth of a natural forest under resource management.
The 4 annexes of the guidelines summarize a number of aspects that need to be taken into account when calculating shadow prices/salaries for stove production and fuel gathering, forestry average figures and conversion factors for gas and kerosene shadow prices in comparison to fuelwood prices. In the annexes the reader also finds a list of information needed for economic calculations that should in the long term be available in household energy projects.
Unfortunately for the time being the guidelines are only available in German but they will be translated into French and English as soon as possible.
Assessing Impact in Household Energy Projects
by Elke Metzen, Consultant
The IHV project is presently planning a systematic appraisal of impact of household energy projects. In recent years projects have increasingly moved from technology oriented "stove projects" towards more integrated household energy programmes mentioned above, it is only appropriate to move aiming at a wider range of measurable impact. No longer is only the technical development of an improved device for mass dissemination in the centre of project activities. Beneficiary groups are not merely stove users, but private households as a whole, local producers and retailers, local institutions and self-help initiatives.
Striving for self-sustainability of household en ergy programmes, most HE projects have applied a commercial or semi-commercial approach. Technological development, promotion, environmental awareness campaigns, initiating privatized stove production and sales, became core activities of household energy projects. What used to be project initiated development and production of improved devices, turned into training, motivating and economically supporting private local produc
ers. Former discussions about "the right dissemination strategy" applied under project director ship, have meanwhile given way to investigation of existing retail channels, marketing strategies, business training and advertisement techniques.
It is rather obvious that the profile of the typical "stove programme" has quite changed. These changes are not the result of top-down approaches from decision-makers and their institutions. But
they were developed within and together with implementing projects and are seen today as the most promising approach to reach self sustainability rather than focusing only on high stove dissemination rates.
We have learned from the past that impacts like stove efficiency, number of users and amount of fuel saved give too narrow a picture of the programmes taking only quantitative facts into consideration and ignoring influencing context conditions. A wider view of household energy projects with their increasing variety of activities, therefore must consequently result in a wider range of measurable impacts. If it is understood that household energy touches a number of different fields as mentioned above, it is only appropriate to move away from mainly sectoral to multisectoral impact analysis of such programmes.
The IHV therefore has started to compile information from different impact studies which have been carried out in different household energy programmes and by different institutions worldwide. It is our aim to summarize existing findings and to identify research needs that will hopefully be satisfied in the near future.
Multi-Sectoral Impact Analysis
So far impact could be observed mainly on 4 different levels: impacts on health, ecology, economy and on a social/institutional level. Listed here separately for a better analysis, they are in fact often interdependent or even contradictory. Levels of impact should always be viewed according to the different beneficiary groups of household energy programmes like producers, retailers, private households, self-help groups, institutions etc. A gender specific distinction is also necessary because men and women have different interests, responsibilities and abilities within the household energy sector, especially when direct interviewing is not possible anymore. This also concerns impact on regional and national level. Summarizing existing information on impact, it became obvious that one of the main problems is that reliable baseline data has rarely been collected prior to the commencement of the projects. It is therefore difficult to conclude which changes have been mainly caused by improvements in the household energy sector, especially on a level that goes beyond individual households and communities, when direct interviewing is not possible anymore, but calculations must replace it. This concerns impact on regional and national level.
The guidelines developed by IHV for Monitoring and Evaluation as well as for Cost-Benefit Analysis offer support to projects in how to gain such necessary baseline information. We would appreciate information on impact studies you have carried out and the problems you encountered for inclusion in the guidelines.
Reports on Projects
How to Monitor Awareness Raising?
extract from a report of Rahmat Jan, Pakistan, by Jurgen Usinger, Consultant
How to monitor awareness raising? This question had to be answered by the monitoring section of the Fuel-Efficient Cooking Technology Project in Pakistan. The project is implementing various programmes in the field of energy and environment conservation in the household sector. One of them is the so-called Energy-Education programme, a programme to raise awareness among villagers in biomass resource management and use. The programme is co-funded by the World Bank. The working emphasis is in the organization of the development of educational material, information courses for villagers and exhibitions. Materials and courses stress the topics of fuel use, improved devices for cooking/baking/space heating and the possibilities for small-scale fuel plantations. Moreover, they explain the general context of energy management and environment.
Now the project wanted to find out to what extent awareness could be raised and how information was spread to various groups in the villages. A baseline survey was conducted among 6 villages of two districts (random sample) where there had been no activities before. The baselines survey consisted of a set of various open questions about the energy and environment problem. After the baseline survey the project started with energy education activities in the villages. The evaluation of the activities soon began after completion of courses and exhibitions. It included all questions from the baseline survey plus questions about the adoption rate of devices and practices as recommended during the energy education activities.
The major groups classifications were participants of project-organized courses or public gatherings and non-participants. To control the impact of the baseline survey on the level of awareness, the sample included also a small control group, which was not part of the baseline survey. Even so, the sample size turned out to be too small, because of time and money, still, the results picture a fair trend on how the awareness was increased and how information spread throughout the village.
• the qualify level of responses, like those relating forest management and biomass exploitation to environmental issues, increased from 6% in the baseline survey to 45% in the evaluation.
• the question about the fuel management and conservation methods showed impressive results. In one district the number of people, who could not name any practice of saving fuel, dropped from 60 to 24%.
• the improved metal stove was mentioned by 50% of the total sample as a known fuel saving measure. This is also reflected in the fact that 54% of participants and 41% of non-participants had bought a stove as a result of the energy education activities.
• he self construction of an improved mudstove was rarely named as a fuel-saving measure, even so 60% of the participants knew about it and 15% had constructed an improved mudstove themselves. Many non-participants did not know the improved mudstove, but knew the commercial metal stove, which indicates that product promotion for commercial products gained more attention, than the self-made product.
• another indicator measured was the survival rate of provided saplings, which showed 86% of the participants had received a sapling and that 700x0 of those were still alive after a period of 3 months.
One of the major conclusions was that the 20-30% of the households reached through the public gatherings, lectures and courses, ensured a sufficient spread of information on general topics throughout the village, Device and practice related issues were difficult to spread to groups, which did not personally attend respective meetings.
Copies of the report "First Interim Evaluation of the Energy Education Activities" can be obtained either through the Integrated Household Energy Supply Unit (IHV) or directly from the Project: FECT, P O Box 896, Peshawar, Pakistan.