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close this book Boiling Point No. 10 - August 1986
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Bread Ovens In Pakistan

Summary of a report of the Pakistan "Domestic Energy Saving Project" April 1986, received from Gisela Burkhardt

This is a large project with 2 German experts and 85 Afghans, co-funded by UNHCR to produce and disseminate clay bread ovens and improved, metal, domestic stoves. Of the 18 million cubic metres of wood used for cooking, about 2 million cubic metres is used by Afghan residents. A similar amount of fuel used consists of dung, harvest residues and fossil fuels. The project has two production centres employing 25 clay and metal workers building stoves, installing ovens and training workers.

 


Fig. 1: Portable Community Stove, Pakistan

The metal stove is one pot, portable, uninsulated with the special pot sitting right into the stove (figure 1). It consists of a sheet steel cylinder with separate steel combustion chamb and is made with or without chimney. About 10,000 stoves ha been sold and others are given far to the Afghan refugees. This page of the project will be reported greater length in a future edition of Boiling Point.

Clay ovens for "Nan"

Nan (flat bread) is traditional baked in Tandoor ovens which are clay, barrel shaped and usual buried in the ground. These a inefficient, unhealthy a uncomfortable-to use. The cl project stove is shaped like igloo sitting on a mud or mason foundation and has a thck layer , ashes and mud/straw on top for insulation (figure 2). It claimed to use only half to firewood of the Tandoor.

Larger bakeries have been set up bethe project, each baking 1000 nan per day and supplying 50-80 families. The project plans create 6 new bakeries per month. 27-page illustrated manual has be prepared by Jurgens Using entitled "Guidelines for the Construction of a Clay Oven" which also gives test results comparing the project oven with a traditional Tandoor in terms of wood consume per Kg of flour baked.


FIGURE

 

The ovens can be designed for flat bread or for loeves in capacities for 5,10,30,150 Kg of flour and of diameter 75-110 cm, baking times 45-400 minutes at 200-400 C. The construction techniques and tools are traditional and very simple, the materials are clay mix, ashes and mud for insulation and perhaps bricks for the- base. If the oven is to be used indoors, a chimney is needed and instructions are given. The nan is cooked in the traditional way on the walls of the oven and removed by two fire hooks. Results of a recent field survey are expected shortly.