| Boiling Point No. 37 - June 1996 : Household Energy in Emergency Situations |
Household Energy Programme (HEP) - Co-ordination and Advisory Service, PO Box 5180, 65726
Eschborn, Germany, Tel: 6196 793004-7, Fax: 797325
Editor: Cornelia Sepp
News from Headquarters
International Symposium on Migration & Environment
The symposium- 'Environmentally-Induced Population Displacements and Environmental Impacts Resulting from Mass Migrations' was jointly organised by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), and the Refugee Policy Group (RPG) and was held March 24 to 27, 1996 near Geneva, Switzerland. The inter-relationship between environmental disruption and population movement was the main subject. A policy framework was developed for consideration by governments, intergovernmental, and non-governmental agencies to find ways for appropriate action. The framework contains practical instruments for effective prevention, mitigation and rehabilitation activities. Dr. Klingshirn and Ms Ambrosch from the HEP team participated in the symposium.
Kitchen Improvement Workshop ARECOP
The Asia Regional Cookstove Program (ARECOP) is organising a 'Kitchen
Improvement Workshop'. Four resource persons specialized on aspects of kitchen improvement will accompany lectures and other sessions. Also, Dr. Pandey from Nepal will give a presentation on 'The impact of kitchen environment on health' and Ms Jacqueline Sims from WHO will discuss on the 'Role of Belief and Behaviour' in the kitchen. For more information contact Christina Aristanti, ARECOP.
International Conference- 'Women in Rural Development - What Have Women's Projects in Rural Areas Achieved?'
The conference is scheduled for June 28, 1996 at the Humboldt University in Berlin and is organised by the Faculty for Agriculture and Horticulture. Dr. Agnes Klingshirn will give a presentation on the necessity and difficulty of implementing integrated project strategies.
Amongst the many other topics discussed will be 'The future of women's projects in rural areas' and 'Participatory gender analysis as an instrument for social changes'.
Next Project Phase for Supra-regional HEP
The purpose of the next project phase of the supraregional HEP, starting July 1996, is that concepts for integrating household energy measures in selected programmes for regional know-how transfer are developed further and their implementation is initiated.
The HEP will not become active directly at target group level, but will rather address the intermediaries, such as national decision makers, planners, and specialists of implementing agencies and partner organisations, with the activities focusing on training, consulting, and concept development.
As a supra-regional sector project, the services of HEP are offered to projects and programmes in various countries.
The overall goal is that household energy issues become an integrated part of national strategies for resource protection.
Since the beginning of HEP in 1985, a wide range of methods for planning and implementing household energy measures in partner countries have been developed and tested. Except for political consultation, all essential fields have been conceptually covered, so that a broad range of consulting services can be rendered.
During the first phases much emphasis was placed on the technical development and adaptation of stoves and on dissemination strategies. In addition, scientific research was done on sociological aspects, and international co-operation and networking was supported.
The dissemination of adapted household energy technologies has shown very positive results on project level. Large proportions of the target population were prepared and trained for proper production and use of the technologies.
At the same time, it was observed that household energy is well suited for networking and integration with related working fields (health, resource protection) and can function as a 'door opener' for sensitive topics, such as family planning. Thus, the development of concepts for systematic integration of household energy issues with other sectors was tackled.
Until now, however, in spite of the importance of household energy consumption for the national energy balances, household energy issues are still not sufficiently noticed by national planners and decision makers, and measures are not anchored in the national development plans of the partner countries. Household energy measures are implemented unsystematica11y and remain separate, while sustainability and a broad coverage of the needs is not reached and locally gained knowledge is easily lost.
During the past phase, not only the integration of household energy measures in other sectors, but also the regionalisation of knowledge and services has gained importance. So far only the regional programme HEP-Sahel for the region of West Africa has been established, but regionalisation efforts will later be extended to South, East, and North Africa.
HEP - Sahel
With HEP Sahel, the planning, steering, and co-ordination activities of the supra-regional HEP for West Africa are to be transferred to the region. The prograrmne can draw on experiences and knowledge on dissemination, technology transfer, and extension, which has been gained during more than ten years of household energy projects in several West African countries. HEP Sahel is foremost an advisory service institution and directly addresses decision makers, project co-ordinators, members of NGOs and GOs, as well as representatives of the private sector. The aim is to support country projects, strengthen partner projects, and promote local initiatives. Specialists from partner countries will be qualified for planning and implementing sustainable integrated household energy measures, while technology development and extension are to be carried out by local NGOs or other partner organisations to allow for better integration into project work.
HEP Sahel will intensify approaches for networking and the integration of household energy issues into related sectors. Also, more emphasis will be placed on consulting activities at a national level, since a systematic integration of household energy issues into national policies and programmes is not yet secured.
For the total duration of HEP Sahel, the supraregional HEP will render back-up services, support the evaluation of experiences, and if necessary help to adapt strategies.
HEP-Sahel started January 1996 and is scheduled to run for six years, until December 2001. The purpose of the first project phase is to integrate the field of household energy into national sector programmes (forestry, energy, resource protection, health, agriculture). A regional extension office will be established in Burkina Faso.
Integration and Networking: Working Principles In the Field of Household Energy and their Implementation in Projects of Technical Co-operation by Dr: Agnes Klingshirn and Dr; Petrel Wagner Eschbom, March 1996- Extract
Networking and integration are terms which strongly characterise the present conceptional and strategic discussions of international development co-operation. Expectations are high. Networking and integration are to ensure that mistakes of the past (especially concerning lack of sustainability) are avoided, that effectiveness is increased, and that the benefits for target populations will evolve more quickly. But as to how networking and integration should be managed in practice is still uncertain. As yet, only little experience and few positive examples exist. Also, co-operation with other donor organisations which is necessary for consequent implementation of integrated work, can be a laborious task, largely due to differing concepts and opinions on how and where to implement networking and integration and which instruments should be used.
Household energy projects and measures - as an answer to fuel shortage, poverty, work strain, and health problems (especially for women and children) - have been a steady component of technical development co-operation for IS years. Originally conceptualised as purely stove dissemination projects to reduce fuel shortage; a second generation of projects with a more complex approach, covering and supporting several effects and target groups, has developed.
The experiences of the first, very technical, stove dissemination projects showed that fuel savings did not affect national energy balances to the extent intended, (although they were up to 50 %); because shifting cultivation and timber harvest were equally or even more responsible for forest depletion. Yet the beneficiaries of dissemination projects still valued the improved stoves and ovens because the advantages of smoke reduction, improved working conditions, better health, and decreased work load or expenses were equally important to them. In fact, stove dissemination actually proved to be unsatisfactory with respect to sustainability unless accompanied by comprehensive consultation measures on kitchen management or other related issues. Thus it became apparent, that the necessary behavioral changes towards a more rational use of energy can best be initiated as a result of vivid advantages and within a process of growing awareness. To achieve this, integrated measures which cover the various positive effects of the technologies, combined to form a consultation package" are needed.
In the national energy policies of most developing countries, the issue of household energy is, however. still receiving only very little attention. Although the household energy consumption usually accounts for a third of the national energy balances, (up to 60% in Africa), and practical dissemination activities have been very successful, the projects have been almost without effect politically.
With these aspects in mind the supra-regional household energy programme (HEP) of the GTZ searched for new possibilities to better structure the issue and anchor it horizontally within different sectors and vertically within different target groups. Conceptionally two fundamental consequences evolved:
1. Classic household energy projects today, do not only address users, producers, and traders of improved technologies, but also other extension organisations (NGOs) and national decision makers. The focus is on qualification of local knowhow and systematic anchoring of household energy questions in national sector programmes. Dissemination is taken over by other organisations, while it is carried out only on a model basis by the HEP projects themselves.
2. Household energy is no longer only a matter of single country projects in technical co-operation. Household energy measures are to be integrated systematically everywhere where they create positive effects and there is a technical relation with other sectors. The areas concerned are mainly health, forestry, regional rural development, food security, refugee and emergency aid, agriculture, education, and energy.
These approaches are expected to increase the effectiveness and broaden the impact of household energy measures. What has remained the same is the focus on fuel consumption, especially biomass, while fuel wood production or provision of energy is usually the work of other projects, especially in the area of forestry. Questions such as forest management, land use rights, price and import policies etc., are taken into account by the household energy sector in consultation concepts for decision makers, but are mainly the responsibility of other sectors, with which networks are initiated.
In terms of 'integration' two project types can be distinguished:
1. Household energy projects with integrated components of related sectors.
This project type developed out of the original stove dissemination projects and today is subsunled under the term of 'household energy project', which underlines the growing complexity of the projects. The conceptual focus is still the area of household energy, but measures from related sectors (forestry, health) are included since dissemination of household energy measures almost automatically touch upon such questions. Ideally the topics from related sectors should already be included during the planning phase. Yet in fact, they often arise or are noticed by chance during project implementation. This is especially true for stove dissemination projects of the first generation, which were planned with the only goal of saving fuelwood in mind, and were then confronted with unexpected effects of the project, which positively influenced goal achievement. A typical example of this is the Women and Energy Project in Kenya. The project has successively implemented several of the positive side effects and systematically integrated them into further project work (e.g. questions on improved kitchen management, nutrition, and hygiene).
Today's generation of household energy projects are complex. Their effects are directed at different technical (economy, ecology, health, etc.) and target group levels (users, traders, governmental organizations, etc.). However, the central focus of the activities is always training and consultation. Networking with other ventures in the region is another objective. Consultation of national decision makers and planners began only recently, so that experience still has to be gathered.
2. Integration of household energy issues in ventures of related sectors
This type of approach is new in the field of household energy and to date, has only been implemented in a few projects. The approach corresponds to the general trend in development cooperation giving priority to larger programmes with several components, rather than implementing a larger number of individual projects. A more economic use of scarce resources and synergetic effect for the partner countries is also expected.
Dissemination and correct use of improved household energy technologies can be carried out just as efficiently through integration in other sector projects. However, when extensive development work and the introduction of a totally new product is necessary, household energy projects in the classical sense are required. This situation is becoming increasingly rare however.
The integration of household energy measures in other sectors is possible wherever the focus of a venture overlaps with the effects of household energy measures: especially forestry, resource protection, health, food security, energy, promotion of small enterprises, and also rural regional development and agriculture. Beyond that, household energy measures recently also play an important role in refugee and emergency aid.
As with the projects with integrated components, the integration of household energy issues into other sector projects can be implemented by including household energy measures in current projects, or by planning the integrated approach from the beginning.
HEP has worked out criteria catalogues for the identification of possible connecting points. However, they can not substitute consultation activities during the different project phases.
The IFSP Shire in Ethiopia (Integrated Food Security Programme) is an example of the type of project mentioned - integration of household energy issues in ventures of related sectors. Refugee and emergency aid such as RESCUE in Kenya are similar to this but are subject to different conditions for planning.