| Boiling Point No. 36 - November 1995 |
Household Energy Programme (HEP) - Co-ordination and Advisory Service, PO Box5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany, Tel: 6196 793004-7,Fax: 797325
Editor: Cornelia Sepp
News from Headquarters
Participation in meetings
The central issue of the fourth and last meeting of the Regional Programmes in the Traditional Energy Sector (RPTES) which took place in Maastricht from 15 to 17 May 1995 was the presentation of the programmes and projects developed by Mali, Niger, Senegal, Gambia and Burkino Faso and the search for their funding.
The RPTES were set up to bring together isolated household energy projects and promote national and regional activities. Their aim was to make use of extensive national know-how for 'capacity mobilizing' rather than 'capacity building'
At the regional workshop on Biomass Stoves for Institutional and Small Industry Use, arranged by the FAO-Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Indonesia, an HEP consultant presented a paper on the institutional kitchen component of the Tanzanian SEP.
Dr Agnes Klingshirn attended the meeting of HEDON in Lund in September 1995. The minutes
are available from HEP/GTZ.
Training at GTZ/HEP headquarters in Frankfurt
Two Ethiopian students studying renewable energy sources at the University of Oldenburg were trained by HEP for almost two months. This included analysing records of the fuel situation in their home region of Ethiopia and participating in discussions with GTZ operational unit experts. They visited the Hanover technology fair and stayed at the Julich research centre in the Aachen technical college. A project outline was prepared and goal-oriented planning was carried out giving special attention to the potential for networking in the fields of household energy, small scale technology, farming systems, nutrition and rural development.
A student volunteer at HEP is preparing her diploma thesis on gender approach and environmental and resource protection in Kenya to be followed by field work in Kenya.
Reports and publications
HEP has published a paper in German entitled "Participatory consultation in household energy projects" which describes ways of sensitizing different target groups to the application of household energy technologies. The publication is intended to help local managers and decision makers in planning their activities.
HEP's new publication entitled "Environment Energy Awareness Raising: an Example of Practical Teaching and Training within a Household Energy Project in Pakistan" is available in English.
HEP assisted in the production of two German language publications of the German Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development (BMZ) entitled 'Climate Protection and The World Breathes Freely' and 'Women's Contributions to the Fourth World Women's Conference in Beijing'. An article about HEP was published in the info-bulletin of the GTZ section for health, population and nutrition. A reader on institutional kitchen stoves was published and is available in English.
A strategy paper to advise decision makers on the political aspects of household energy was drafted for discussion. Concepts for integrating household energy measures into other sectors were worked on and a draft discussion paper was written. The draft document on Household Energy and UNCED, planned at the October 1994 HEDON meeting is not yet completed.
In August Ms Karin Roeske started work as a project officer in the HEP team to support household energy activities in the fields of planning and implementation. Ms Roeske is a sociologist familiar with the household energy sector. She has worked for GTZ in the Special Energy Programme (SEP) in Kenya and Tanzania from 1982 to 1988 and since 1990 as a consultant for HEP.
An expert from Senegal was employed for two months by SEP at GTZ head office for project proposal formulation.
Progress in HEP
The progress report No 15 of the supra-regional GTZ\HEP for the period January 1995 to June 1995 was submitted to the BMZ in August 1995. The assigned tasks for the last reporting period (January 1995 to June 1995) have been fulfilled and HEP focused on the following topics:
• development of strategies to increase sensitivity for household energy politics for canteen kitchens;
• continuation of inter-sectoral co-operation for integrated country projects, and of international cooperation;
• preparation of the West African HEP;
• continuation of public relations measures.
The HEP has broadened its conceptual foundation considerably and is used for information circulation and consultation within GTZ and for other projects, organizations and institutions. Inter-sectoral activities in forestry, energy, health, food security and emergency aid remain its central concern and have resulted in broadening its impact. This has developed an enormous potential at the household level.
Summary by Socio-Ecological Programme Consultants (ECO)
The objective of the supra-regional HEP is to assist its partners in the social and environmental adaptation of energy supplies for households, institutions and small businesses. One success indicator would be the inclusion of these concepts in the products of the private sector in selected African countries or their request for guidance in doing so.
In its current promotion phrase, HEP will make its recommended methodologies more adaptable to its partner organizations. The programme will offer counselling on different levels and will promote the transfer of innovative approaches.
Extensive back-stopping activities for the integration, monitoring and evaluation of household energy projects were carried out for the project's Integrated Food Security Programme (IFSP) Shire, Ethiopia, the hearth distribution in Mali and the SEP Tunisia. HEP concepts and activities are still included in presentations given for the planning and development sections of GTZ and for preparing project staff and short-term experts for their missions. Their positive effect can be seen from the increase in demand for HEP consulting services.
A Change of Approach
Country projects are now rarely supported by HEP or international funders even though they are still in demand by the partner countries.
HEP's new approach is the integration of household energy measures into the activities of other sectors such as forestry, health, energy, agriculture, rural regional development and refugee and emergency aid. This approach is now being adopted by our partner organizations and already applications for such integrated activities have been submitted by two countries.
Regional, West-Africa Project
The regional West-Africa project was planned to serve as an antenna for the HEP and was submitted to the BMZ as an enlargement of the supra-regional HEP. Its objective is to make its collective experience available in the region and to develop HEP West-Africa as a focal point
HEP at Beijing
An HEP exhibition booth was set up at the NGO forum at the Fourth Women's World Conference in Beijing. It was entitled 'Household Energy in the South and in the North: How to Manage and How to Save'.
Household energy developments in the South, such as improved, open fire cooking and more effective stove technology dissemination were shown. They were related to the history of such energy saving developments in Germany. About 70 organizations, all members of the Once and Future Action Network (OFAN), presented their views and visions on science and technology for sustainable development.
A workshop was organized on Women in Energy: Bridging the Gap Between North and South' in cooperation with other organizations such as ARECOP (Asian Regional Cookstove Programme),
COSENI (Consortium of Sustainable Energy Networks International) and BEST (Biomass Energy Services & Technology).
Congo and Gambia - co-operation with the forestry sector
The recent co-operation with ventures from other sectors focused on forestry projects in Congo and Gambia for which the integration of household energy measures into their practical work was surveyed and prepared. For Gambia an approach is already being worked out but for Congo no sensible approach within the present implementation phase could be found as there is no shortage of biomass fuel in the project area.
HEP- Baseline Study-Congo
by Cornelia Sepp
The objective of a two-week HEP mission to Dolisie. Congo was to evaluate the need for a household energy component and the possibility of integrating it into the project 'Agroforestry Activities in South Congo'. The mission concentrated exclusively on the city of Dolisie where problems of fuel supply had been assumed in earlier documents.
To analyse the energy situation in Dolisie, a city of 70,000 inhabitants, 100 households were interviewed with the help of a questionnaire, but the results did not identify any shortage of biomass energy on household level, nor did household and environmental indicators.
The results of the survey can be summarised as follows.
• the cost of household energy is not an important share of families' budgets. Asked for the most important household expenses the housewives almost always said health and food but never energy.
• 98 per cent of the women interviewed had never noticed any changes in the availability of fuelwood from their preferred tree species.
• There is only a very slight increase in fuelwood prices and this cannot be attributed to a wood shortage but to a general increase of costs, especially for transport.
• Most fuelwood is collected free of charge in the fields or in the 'bush'. Of the fuelwood consumers (84 per cent of the households) half collect some of their wood, while 30 per cent collected it all.
• Nobody mentioned fuel shortage as a reason for changes in cooking habits or meals.
• The fuelwood in the local market is of extremely good quality.
• The abundance of fuelwood is shown by the fact that no-one uses agricultural residues for fuel.
• These results were confirmed by village visits, where farmers stated that they could not find enough people to buy wood coming from field clearance.
Other possible positive effects of a household energy programme e.g. on health seemed to be less important for the families. Another aspect evaluated, was the impact of the actual utilization of biomass fuel on the environment. The first observation of the mission on the environmental effects of biomass resources in the region was that forest resources in the region were plentiful.
• The project is contained in the two largest natural forest areas in Congo.
• There are large plantations which could easily supply the city of Dolisie with fuelwood.
• Much wood is still wasted by the wood processing industry and could easily be used.
The mission came to the conclusion that there are other reasons for the continuing destruction of the forests such as exploitation for timber, bush fires and shifting cultivation. Even if household fuelwood use makes some contributions to local deforestation, the quantity and/or quality of household energy supply would not have any significant impact. The mission could not identify structures and resources on either project or national/regional level which are needed to implement a household energy programme or component successfully. The mission concluded that a household energy component should not be implemented at present.
Kenya Refugee Project
The integration of household energy components into refugee and emergency aid was pursued. The experience gained from a refugee project in Kenya was evaluated by a UNHCR/BMZ mission and was judged to be positive.
Project Foyer Ameliores (PFA) MALI
An operational plan for the last project phase (01/9609/97) was produced by the project partners with Dr Andreas Massing as the new GTZ project co-ordinator. Two types of improved, metal stoves are being produced by individual, independent sheet metal workers and by six blacksmiths' co-operatives, all trained by the project. The project plans to support the formation of further associations. At the moment, the main problem is the shortage or temporary lack of steel sheet (oil drums) and so the project is establishing contact between traders and sheet metal workers. Another activity is to strengthen the dissemination strategy for the "Naafaman" clay stove, because even in urban zones there is a great demand for this extremely cheap stove. It was decided to continue working in the urban zones, to extend the 14 localities to 17 and not to become active in the rural areas, but to improve co-operation with other projects and NGOs
acting in these areas. Sensitizing activities will continue in the towns of the project zones and in the schools in Bamako. The inclusion of the subject "foyers ameliores" in the national curriculum will take place in this last phase. The emphasis in this last phase is to integrate the project into the structures of the national partners (DNAS) and to strengthen its capacity to organize promotion activities and consultation with other bodies. This will be done by training at the regional and national levels and increased cooperation with organizations concerned with household energy.