| Boiling Point No. 15 - April 1991 |
GATE/GTZ Coordination & Advisory Centre for Integrated Household Energy Supply, Eschborn, Gemany
News from Headquarters
A study is being prepared by Joseph Ingermann, a ceramics technician/sociologist from the Technical University of Aachen to analyse the acceptance of stoves in Burkina Faso in cooperation with the Institut Burkinabe d'Energie. The main questions to be answered are:
• what was the rate of increase of users and usage after the project (SEP) had stopped?
• what were the cook's reasons for maintaining or changing usage rates?
• was there any relationship between the subjective arguments of the users and objective changes in the economic or political framework etc?
Two villages were chosen: one where intensive training and follow-up had taken place, the other with only one training course and no other activities. Twenty women of each village will be interviewed with the help of a questionnaire.
First results will be presented in the next issue of Boiling Point.
Cooperation with the Forestry Section
Closer cooperation between the Household Energy Section and Forestry Section is planned. One of the first steps will be to review a number of Country Forestry Sector Studies prepared in the framework of the tropical Forestry Action Plan to analyse to what extent household energy and the specific needs of women are considered.
Reports on Projects
The Programme for Rural Action (PRA), a Ghana-German Project which started in 1988, operates in two districts of the Northern Region: West Gonja and Nanumba District, situated in the dry savannah. This Region is the least developed in Ghana. Infant mortality is high, school attendancy very low and more than 80% of the families are living below poverty line. The goal of the PRA is to establish development planning at village level. So far the main activities have been the seeing up of baseline and sector studies and the support of village self help projects in the water sector (wells and dams) and in the field of improved cookstoves. Two training courses were carried out for the field staff of several departments.
A study analysing the possibility of a stove dissemination programme within the PRA, in Tamale has been carried out by Elke Kasmann.
• to evaluate the initial activities of the PRA in stove dissemination
• to collect data on the fuel supply situation in the Northern Region
• to analyse the fuel consumption patterns of different energy user groups and
• to work out a proposal for a stove dissemination programme integrated in PRA.
1. Fuel use and cooking habits
In general there is and - according to extrapolations for the near future - will be no shortage of fuelwood in the Northern Region. Nevertheless local shortages and deforestation occur around centres of population . The main causes of deforestation are shifting cultivation, bush fires and charcoal production. The collection of firewood is only of marginal importance.
The most common cooking device is the three stone fire, but there are also locally produced metal stoves for firewood and charcoal. The main dish is "tz" made out of maize and cassava flour which requires a very stable stove when being stirred. Firewood collection is a minor burden for the women in most areas, taking only about 3% of their time. Firewood is used by the majority of households in the rural areas and about one third of households in Tamale. Charcoal is used by about 40% of urban households and in a quarter of all (urban and rural) households both fuels are used (see figure 1). Income generating and at the same time fuel consuming activities for the rural women are sheabutter and groundnut oil extraction. Firewood accounts for 10-15% of current production costs. Food sellers and "pito" (local beer) brewers also use firewood.
2. Project activities
Four stove models have been promoted so far: a mud stove for firewood a metal stove for firewood and charcoal (type:"Burkina
Mixte") a metal woodstove (type: "Ouaga Metallique") a charcoal stove ("Ahibenso")
Additionally improved pito brewing stoves made out of clay bricks have been introduced as demonstration models.
Most successful were the dissemination of mud stoves in the rural areas and the charcoal stove in Tamale. In 25 villages training for mud stove building was carried out and about 250 stoves built, but the quality of the stoves was very poor: 50 to 75% were already broken after a short time mostly due to rain damage. Rebuilding has not yet taken place but this has to be followed up. The charcoal stoves were mostly bought by medium or high income groups and are considered as modem and attractive. Although the offered loan scheme was certainly one success factor, the PRA decided not to continue this strategy because the necessary follow up to ensure loan repayment was too expensive. Now it is trying to reduce the price through a diversification of producers (up to now there is only one producer) and a switch from new metal sheets to scrap metal. The commercial strategy for the improved metal woodstove has not been successful. There is very little demand mostly due to the price (double that of old stoves) but also to the lack of promotion measures. The assumption that the trained people (at two workshops) would continue with dissemination activities did not hold.
The study proposes continuation of the dissemination of the mud stove in rural and the charcoal stove in urban areas. The latter should be offered in two versions: One as it is for the higher income group and the other as a cheaper model out of scrap metal for charcoal users of medium or low income. The pito stove for brewers is well accepted and it is proposed to offer a loan scheme for this model. It is a little surprising that the author of the study also proposes continuation with the Burkina type metal woodstove although they have not been disseminated successfully up to now. She thinks that further promotion is needed. It is suggested to offer all stove models in large sizes for food sellers. For sheabutter production, fish smoking and bakeries none of the already introduced stove models are suitable. It is proposed to limit project activities to the already existing models. Research and development are activities which could be carried out by the University of Science end technology in Kumasi. For successful dissemination, demonstration and training on village level rather than publicity campaigns through print and audio media are recommended. In the initial phase priority should be given to villages which have already received some training and where there is a relative scarcity of firewood/ and the beginning of commercialisation. For the introduction of the Ouaga Metallique it is proposed to give the stoves free for about three months to selected users for testing. After this period the users can buy the stove for a (reduced) price or return it to the project.
In the meantime a regional workshop has decided to include a stove dissemination component in the rural development activities supported by PRA.
by Dr Petra Wagner
"Stove dissemination in Mali? - no chance of success others have tried it before. The people here have got problems enough filling their cooking pot. The stove is just not important enough !". These, and similar comments from people who know the Mali stove scene were what we heard at the beginning of our work in February 1988 - and with justification. Had not an analysis of previous activities revealed that although a lot had been done, little had been achieved? On the other hand, however, there was the high motivation of those involved with the project, ie. the staff of the counterpart agency, Direction Nationale des Affaires Sociales, who were already familiar with the objectives and methods of the project. They were firmly convinced that the improved stove was needed and would also contribute to desertification control.
Therefore, our aim for the first three years remained "mass dissemination of metal and clay stoves in Bamako, Segou and Mopti, as well as in one rural area." This was to be achieved with two types of stove, the metal stove TELIMAN (the quick one) and the mud stove NAFAMAN (the profitable one) in order to reach as many social levels as possible, including those who could not afford to buy a stove but were in a position to build it themselves. The metal stove is offered at non-subsidised prices.
A second three year project phase has now started and the time has come to take stock: What is the rating of the improved stove in Mali households today? If used correctly, it can achieve fuelwood savings of up to 50%. Monthly average sales were 1,000 in the first phase (total: 33,000metal stoves in three years). The popularity of the mud stove is distinctly lower than that of the metal one because metal stoves are easier to look after, more economical to use and portable. In the three years, only 1,500 people took part in construction training courses for mud stoves.
Naturally, the figures above are not proof that the stove is being used correctly or that fuelwood is being saved. A study of households carried out in November 1990, gives more detailed information on this. The fuel savings rate of metal stoves in urban Mali households averaged 30% and a total of 57% of the 420 households studied in Bamako used the stove correctly ie. with the correct pot and a maximum of 3 pieces of wood and thus achieved fuelwood savings of even 42%.
These positive results are also consequences of a broad promotion campaign with information evenings, cooking demonstrations, advertising events, TV and radio campaigns and a broad Suivi (follow-up), including talks with the women stove users. Cooperation with the counterpart agency, DNAS, played a considerable role in successfully carrying out all of the measures mentioned. The DNAS is a social institution which enjoys a good reputation among the population and whose activities are followed with interest.
However, it was initially difficult to gain access to the tinsmiths/blacksmiths in the informal sector who manufacture the metal stoves from scrap steel and the traders who sell them. Blacksmiths belong to a particular "guild" which makes direct communication with them difficult. An "intermediary" chosen by the blacksmiths to cooperate with the project solved this problem, but the power this position gave him contained new conflict potential. Moreover, due to their lack of funds, the smiths were unable to prefabricate large number of stoves for the dissemination programme, unless the project provided funds which consequently created a new dependence. The stove traders, also came to rely on the service side of the project for transportation of stoves, and for working capital.
The relative merits of mass dissemination and traditional channels were considered at the planning stage and a decision made in favour of the former because it was necessary to provide evidence that large- scale dissemination of stoves is possible in Mali.
To sum up: popular interest in using improved stoves, can be seen from large numbers at the information evenings and the demand for an extension of project activities to other regions. The second phase of the project will aim at less dependence on the blacksmiths and traders and more orientation to the needs of women and their financial possibilities.
Flexible planning must orientate its course at the main target group: the women and their financial possibilities.
The annual staff meeting of the Women and Energy-Project (WEP) was held from 26-30 November 1990. More than half of the 25 participants were representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, reflecting the heavy involvement of this ministry in improved cookstove dissemination. Other participants came from the national women's organisation KANU/MYWO, (one of the main implementing agencies), ITDG, Bellerive Foundation and Special Energy Programme (SEP) project staff.
As well as setting the stove dissemination targets for 1991 and planning the activities accordingly, the participants have shown a strong interest in strengthening tree planting activities and in integrating energy conservation goals into other development activities. The most serious problem with the Maendeleo stove was satisfying the ever-growing demand for durable ceramic liners. Project plans for 1991, therefore, aim fore total of 10 liner production centres with a capacity of more than 1,000 liners per month.
The reports from the districts showed, that activites have expanded (mainly through efforts by the Ministry of Agriculture and KANU/Maendeleo ya Wanawake) from the original 5 districts to 14 districts and requests from other districts are still coming in. The bottleneck now is the decentralized production of high quality liners. In the Western Region a fruitful cooperation with ITDG, which is concentrating on training local women's pottery groups for this task, has evolved.
All trends point towards this project having reached the stage of mass dissemination of improved stoves in rural areas.
A booklet entitled "Save our Trees - a guide to saving energy" has been published by the Pakistan/German Domestic Energy Saving Project. It serves as promotion material for potential stove users and contains many coloured drawings, clear statements and much information. It begins with an introduction "Trees and Islam" followed by two parts 'The need for action" and "Ways of saving fuel" each with 4 or 5 chapters.
For a copy or further information, please contact: The Energy Education Section GTZ Domestic Energy Saving Project 31 C Circular Rd P O Box 896 University Town/ Peshawar PAKISTAN Tel/Fax: 42511
What about similar materials in your project?
Addendum to BP 22 "Report on the projects, Niger" The project asked us to clarify some points:
1. there is no concentration on urban centres - in all "arrondissements" there are project activities in the rural and urban areas.
2. "Mad Sauki" should not be considered as "based on" foyer malgache - it is a funkier developed "Ouaga Metallique".
3. The "Association des Femmes du Niger (AFN)" is not involved in the project activities.
....by the way: Please start thinking now about the next issue of Boiling Point: send us something - articles, comments on a special or controversal item, tips for the solution of small technical problems, your personnal experience of a project, a story, a conversation with a stove user, etc. and please send us some reproducable photos. Help us to produce interesting, useful and lively looking pages for our section of BP. We need more articles from the projects to ensure that facts are not misunderstood and that your project's views are adequately represented when we summarize project reports.