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close this book Boiling Point No. 15 - April 1991
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Guidelines for Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating Cookstove Programmes

Publisher's Review

Community Forestry: Guidelines for planning, monitoring and evaluating cookstove programmes (101 pages) was published in 1990 by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations in Rome. Its production was supported by the FAO/SIDA Trust Fund Forest, Trees, and people Programme. The publication emphasizes participation and is particularly useful for those individuals interested in developing framework for planning and managing stove programs. The manual can be ordered from FAO. Community Forestry. Via Delle Terme de

Caracalla, 00100 Rome' Italy.

The manual offers a conceptual understanding of the criteria and indicators to be used for monitoring and evaluating cookstove projects. Examples from Guatemala, Kenya and Nepal are referred to throughout the text and provide useful approaches and techniques for the wide range of concepts which are presented in the publication. The manual can be useful for producers, and managers as well as extension and research workers in the monitoring and evaluation of all phases of stove programs.

An explanation of different methods of collecting and storing information is described in the text. It is followed by a simple participatory approach to data analysis which synthesizes the material. Guidelines for training the personnel and monitoring the information are also adressed in the manual.

The appendices include illustrations, surveys, and questionnaires, designed to allow individuals to create monitoring and evaluation systems which fit their personal needs and capabilities.

Food Chain

Food Chain is a new journal about small-scale food processing worldwide produced by Intermediate Technology Development Group.

The first issue came out in November 1990 and there will be three issues a year.

If you are working with small-scale food processing at any level in developing countries, then Food Chain has been produced for you! Food Chain aims to provide practical and appropriate information, ideas and experiences useful for small-scale food processors.

Food Chain is an opportunity for you to share information on small-scale food processing with fellow workers around the world.

Contributors are welcome in the form of articles of about 1,000 words plus line drawings and photographs where possible.

If you would like to subscribe to Food Chain or write an article, please write to ITDC; (address on inside cover) Attn: Food Processing Programme.

Energy Forests for U.S.

The High Tech Solution! From SCNCER Newsletter, May 1990

Scientists in the U.S. have recently reported developing the world's first genetically engineered trees, poplars designed to be grown on large scale plantations for energy production.

A mutant gene from a species of bacteria that commonly causes food poisoning was introduced into the trees, making the poplars resistant to the widely used weedkiller glyphosate, which is marketed as Roundup.

Growing poplars on plantations has been difficult because the young trees can be crowded out and killed by weeds. Weedkillers often kill or damage the poplars, said Bruce E. Haissig of the US Forest Service laboratory in Wisconsin.

Ability to withstand herbicides would lower the cost of producing the trees, which grow rapidly and could be burned to provide energy or converted into ethanol to run automobiles, he said. The trees will survive anywhere in the United States. A demonstration project has shown that they can be grown in India as a potential source of energy for the Third World, Haissig said.

The research has been partly supported by the US Department of Energy. Meanwhile, scientists in Minnesota are working on the feasibility of the energy plantations. .

Energy Consumption in Botswana from Energy SADCC Region NGOs by L W Lemo

Botswana imports about 160,000 tonnes of petroleum products per annum at about 67 US Dollars per ton. All these supplies come from South Africa. Botswana has three power stations: Gaborone, Morupule and Selebi Phikwe. Botswana also imports some electricity from ESKOM in South Africa. ASKOM has so far been cooperative in its business dealings with Botswana. Our grid which is connected to Zimbabwe supplies electricity to areas like Kasane.

Botswana imports some coal from South Africa. We do mine our coal at Morupule but it is of a low grade compared to that of both South Africa and Zimbabwe. Our coal here in Botswana has a high ash content, which is suitable for power generation. It is not very much appropriate for household. But nevertheless, it can and it is being used for household purposes. There is currently a project for the promotion of the use of Botswana coal for household and Government institutions purposes. The project is called expanded coal utilization project. This is the cheapest form of energy as compared to electricity and paraffin. Firewood is also cheap, but it has suddenly become scarce and hence we face the problem of deforestation.

Fuelwood is by far the largest household form of energy in Botswana. Firewood is an important resource not only in rural areas but in urban areas as well. It provides energy to about 95% of the rural household population. It is mainly used for heating and cooking. Therefore the fuelwood situation is of critical concern as it depicts the access of most of the population to an indispensable basic need.

However, shortages have started to emerge. IT now seems that access to wood is beginning to diminish in many places especially around most of the urban areas like Gaborone, Selebi-Phikwe, Lobatse and other big villages like Serowe and Molepolole. Many people are purchasing wood at high prices and because of this many wood merchants are emerging. And as a result, firewood is becoming a scarce commodity. Firewood trade between urban and rural areas tends to worsen the depletion of firewood and trees. The majority of our people live in rural areas, hence the urgency of the promotion of the above mentioned expanded coal utilization project..

Sri Lanka

Improved Institutional Stoves for Traditional Medicine Preparation, reproduced from "Wood Energy News" December 1989, Bangkok.

Ayuveda Hospital in Ratnapura, provides native treatment for about 90 to 250 patients per day. The medicine, which is given free, consists of decoctions prepared by boiling various kinds of medicinal herbs to make an essence. The pharmacy room, 7 x 3 x 3 metres, has 4 large and 15 medium open fire hearths to accommodate copper and aluminium pots for varying sizes (diameter: 15 to 19 cm).

With the newly installed improved stoves, made of bricks and cement with iron grate and chimney, the overall firewood saving is 38% plus an appreciable amount of saving in boiling time. Stoves have been in use for over 6 months and adjustments in battle clearance have been made since installation.

Due to heavy smoke and intense heat, the workers could not spend more than five minutes inside the pharmacy. The productivity and health of the hospital workers were seriously compromised. Besides this, fuelwood consumption and prices have been steadily increasing resulting in very high operation costs, more than 200,000 Rs. (7,500 US$) was spent for fuelwood alone in 1987.

The improvements were undertaken by the Alternative Energy Development Division of Ceylon Electricity Board and funded by the Dutch Government under the Integrated Rural Development Programme in Ratnapura District. It is expected that the cost of improvements would be recovered within two years.

Source: Dr R M Amerasekera, Project Manager, National Fuelwood Conservation Programme/CEB, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

This edition of "Wood Energy News" produced by FAO and the Dutch Government for the Asia Region shows a very welcome increase in the interest being shown by many countries in the production of fuelwood forestry. For the third world poor and for the foreign currency crisis of their governments this is perhaps the most desirable solution possible to the fuel problem. .

Asean-Australia Energy Cooperation - Thailand

B7 Standard Method of Testing Cooking Stove Performance.

The majority of ASEAN's population is rural and their cooking is mostly done on stoves with low efficiency, resulting in excessive use of firewood, which in turn leads to more rapid deforestation.

To help restore the balance between growing and consumption of this renewable energy resource, researchers at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Thonburi (KMITT), Thailand, embarked upon a study to develop a standard method for testing the performance (energy efficiency) of the numerous cooking stove designs available and to simulate dynamic models of cooking stoves.

While much work has been done by appropriate technologists in developing more fuel efficient cooking stoves, none of these has been adopted on the scale necessary as no standard method exists for testing their performance (which has left the designer's claimed performance open to debate). The Thai researchers were able to develop a mathematical model which is a more systematic approach than the trial and error methods used to date. Further development work to refine model is continuing. .

Health Education/Promotion for


Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine - UK A THREE MONTH CERTIFICATE COURSE

Health Education/Promotion is given a high priority on the Primary Health Care (PHC) agenda. There is a growing need for health workers to improve their health education/promotion skills. In response to this need a new three-month competency-based course in health promotion is being developed by the Education Resource Group for Health Systems. of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

The course is for people such as health, education, environmental, agriculture and community workers, who already have some experience of working in health education/promotion. The course aims to improve the ability of workers to design, plan, manage, implement and evaluate health education/promotion programmes in the context of PHC. Methods of teaching will include groupwork, practical workshops and individual project work.

The first course will be held in January 1992, and thereafter annually. For more information write to:

The Course Organiser (Helath Education/Promotion for PHC), Department of International Community Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, LIVERPOOL, L3 5QA, UK, Tel: 051 708 9393 Tlx:0627095 UNILPL G, Fax: 051 708 8733.

Letters to the


Dear Editor

I was surprised to hear that you have no information on the burning of sheep/goat dung. Sheep and goat dung is burned as a fuel here all the time. I I would be willing to write about the use of sheep and goat dung as a fuel and to compare its efficiency with cow dung etc.

I would also like to commend you on the good work you are doing with Boiling Point. I especially enjoyed Boiling Point No. 21. What I appreciated most was attention paid to describing some of the difficulties various stove projects have encountered. Stove promotion is not easy and we have often underestimated all the factors involved in how peasants and villagers now use fuel and what would be an improvement for them. I particularly appreciated the article about the Morogoro Fuelwood Stove Project in Tanzania and the brief article on the last page, "ITDG Project Goes up in Smoke!". Keep up the good work.

H P Harman Community Workers Transkei Council of Churches South Africa



I was able to get a copy of your magazine from the RURCON headquarters in Jos. I have gained much from reports and write ups on stove and energy development in the April issue of your magazine and wish that I had found out about this magazine long before now. This is because we have wanted to start the project on the improved cooking stove and have lacked the necessary knowledge and skills to start.

We would need your support on this project as it is very important if the environment must be preserved especially in this part of the world where 70% of the population depend on wood for energy - cooking.

Yours sincerely

A Gwaivangmin, Church of Christ in Nigeria .

Boiling Point is the journal of the Intermediate Technology Development Group's Fuel for Food Programme and the GATE/GTZ Programme. It is printed on recycled paper by Rugby Community Printworks (affiliated to the Rugby Youth Promotion Programme). ITDG is a registered British Charity.

Contributions are welcome in the form of articles of not more than 1,000 words plus line drawings, photographs, simple graphs etc., where appropriate. All correspondence should be addressed to Boiling Point, ITDG, Fuel for Food Programme, Myson House, Railway Terrace, Rugby, CV21 3HT, UK.

Opinions expressed in contributory articles are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the ITDG Fuel for Food Programme.

(Readers wishing to enter into correspondence may obtain full postal addresses from the address given above).

ISSN: 0263-3167

Editorial & Production Team

Tammy Flavell - Production Manager Ian Grant - Editor Peter Young - Senior Technical Manager Kathryn Clarke - Sector Manager Agnes Klingshirn - GTZ Representative Cornelia Sepp - GTZ Consultant

Specialist Advisors:

Simon Burne - Economist

Emma Crewe - Social Scientist

Tim Jones - Ceramicist


A Jadadeesh, R Louvel

Y Maigne, R Masoud

G Rossier & W Micuta

P Spinks, G Shay

French Summaries by Bois de Feu et Energie

Poof Reading by Rene Marshall and Peter Watts

Contributions to Boiling


Contributions are invited for the next three issues of Boiling Point, the main themes of which will be:

June - Special Edition- Smoke Pollution No: 25 - Funding for Stove Programmes No: 26 - Widening Use of Stove Designs No: 27 - Women in Stove Programmes

Articles for issues 25, 26, 27 should reach this office by the end of June for issue No. 25, the end of October for Issue No. 26 and end of February for issue No. 26.

Technical Enquiries to ITDG

One of the most valuable services provided by ITDG is in answering technical services . The stove team and its associates are at your service in this way and have answered many enquiries over the last 6 years.

Please send all enquiries to: The Manager Technical Enquiry Office ITDG, Myson House Railway Terrace, RUGBY, CV21 3HT, UK Fax: 0788 540270


Intermediate Technology's aim is to enable poor people to develop and use productive technologies and methods which give them greater control over their own lives and which contribute to the longterm development of their communities. ITDG is a British charity mainly funded by the Overseas Development Administration.