| Boiling Point No. 23 - December 1990 |
GATE/GTZ Coordination & Advisory Centre for Integrated Household Energy Supply, Eschborn
Agnes Klingshirn Is now supported by a new staff member, Mrs Starkenberg, who will work mainly on documentation. It Is planned that ISIS documentation software will be used. The team will be reinforced by another member very soon.
Cooperation A study has been initiated In cooperation with the InstituteC Barkinalie d' Energie to analyze the long term Impact of stove disemination on the environment and on the living conditions of women. Economic studies Out of the 6 studies analysing the economics of stove dissemination and to devise standardised methods for calculating the socio economic value, the results of two projects (Ecuador and Burkina Faso) have been completed In draft form. The main results will be published as the work progress.
Report on projects
The final project phase of the Special Energy! Programme (SEP) Kenya is planned for the period 1990-92. The purpose of this phase is a follow-up of some activities with specific remaining problems. The SEP, which began in 1982, worked in the field of production and dissemination of energy technologies namely biogas, wind energy, improved charcoal production methods, woodburning stoves and handpumps. Some results achieved and remainin~ problems to be solved in the follow-up phase are:
• The biogas technology has been Introduced successfully. Coo. conditions for further dissemination could be established especially by training of small private enterprises. There Is still some training left to be done with producers and users In other regions with biogas. potential
• Fuel efficient woodburning cookstoves are being disseminated semi commercially which means the production and installation ofstandardised "liners" in a stove body constructed by the user. In the. final phase the worn concentrates on management and public. relations to optimise the system and to assure long term success.
• Handpumps have been developed Tbeir local production by privet. entcrprises is initiated. Follow-up is not necessary.
• A pbotovoltaic waterpump - a former separate test and demonstration project •will be attached to the SEP and needs some moretechnical and organizational follow-up.In this final project phase, the activities will be xecuted mainly by the 3 partners - Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Agriculture and Maendeleo Ya Wanawake (NGO). To fulfill the planned workschedule, 2 permanent, local experts and 20 months of local, short term consultancy as well as 20 months of GTZ short term experts are planned.
A prolongation of the first phase (1988-1990) aims to eliminate the following weak points:
• the project is still too much involved In the production process and the costs arc not reflected completely In the price calculation.
• the contact between production and trade is not established in a way which will guarantee a dissemination of the stoves through the existing market structures This is mainly due to the small profit margin:
GTZ will contribute to this project prolongation of 3 years with one long term expert (36 months) for coordination, one (12 months) for monitoring and training and one (9 months) for technica/commercialization and 12 months short term experts.
A study (Rapport final VED Dosso) by Sylvie Busset was published in April 1990. It consists of 3 parts: Part 1 describes the project's strategy. Some problems are identified in the field of sensibilisation, training, commercialisation and follow-up. Part 2 concerns the difficulties due to the administrative structure and part 3 gives some ideas for the solution of the problems and proposes the amelioration of sensibilisation strategies and follow-up.
The monitoring system for the "Fuel Efficient Cooking Technologies Project (FECT) (extract from a 22 page report by Elke Metzen, Peshawar).
As compared to other stove projects the FECT is quite exceptional in having a separate and fairly large Monitoring Section with four staff members. Three more Monitoring Units are planned with 6 additional employees. We think that allocating so much resources for monitoring is justified by the need to move away from ad hoc monitoring to a systematic monitoring system. This implies the need for regular cooperation with other sections of the project. The justification for having an internal project monitoring unit is based on the assumption that in this way data can be made available more easily, more often, on a regular basis and from the project's internal viewpoint. As one of the project sections the monitoring unit is part of the project's organisation being integrated into its day to day affairs. This should make access to information easier than with an external temporarily hired monitoring team. On the other hand the monitoring section is independent of the implementation of the project's activities and can work out more objective results. However, what is actually meant as feed-back is sometimes misunderstood as a check-up of staff performance and abilities.
To overcome the problem of being regarded as the project's secret service, the monitoring section tries to involve the concerned implementing sections as much as possible in developing survey proposals and questionnaires. A survey should be done for the implementers and not against them. Equally important is the reaction of the project management to survey results. Ideally they should be used to further develop and improve the project activities or results rather than for positive or negative judgment of individual's or sections' performance.
Not yet realized but strongly recommended is a follow-up of the implementation of the recommendations given by the monitoring section. If this follow-up is properly documented, it could show the development of the project's activities and help to avoid the repetition of errors.
Monitoring & Evaluation and ZOPP
M & E results are not only for internal use. They are also a requirement by GTZ Headquarters. With the results of M & E the project planners want to check if the planning of a project by objectives (ZOPP) has been appropriate and if it could be implemented accordingly. Concerning the ZOPP document of the FECT project it seemed necessary to ask the different sections to establish a detailed operation plan to serve as a base for a long term monitoring operation plan. If monitoring cannot be based on clearly defined expectations (project aims) then the interpretation of monitoring results becomes a rather vague affair.
Project expectations could be for example:
• How much fuel & how much time lo - tandoor supposed to save?
• What Is the expected user rate of the multipot-stove In comparison to the user rate of the traditional stove?
• What is the expected fuel saving impact of a project bakery on user households?
• What are the user criteria for a successful bakery?
• What are the characteristics of the rural target group for dissemnation ot the multipot-stove and improved bakeries?
A quantitative objective expressed in the number of households reached, bakeries established and assumptions made (ea. that each bakery, on average, reaches 50 households etc.) is hardly sufficient. Especially not on the result level (ZOPP) which should have more qualitative elements to define the project's benefits to the target groups. Otherwise monitoring results are in danger of being interpreted in any way that seems convenient.
Monthly Activity Report
The FECT"s best known and most simple instrument of a regular process monitoring is the monthly activity report (MAR). It was felt that a quantitative report of FECT"s distribution activities does not sufficiently reflect the actual success of the activities. It is not enough to report the names of places and the numbers of stoves distributed, the numbers of bakeries established and baker trainees tested etc. Making figures understandable is only possible by reporting their context or environment. In our project this includes additional regular information such as:
• the appilcation Or certain distribution strategies
• possible changes of distribution strategies
• the selection and change Or target areas
• the selection and change Or target groups
• explanations for rising and falling distribution figures
• the start situation within section, the activity reports or non distributing sections such as technical section, energy, education section and monitoring section and their link to distribution activities, the main policy lines and possible changes as "ported by the protect management
The MAR should include a quantitative section displaying the FECT's activities in figures and complementing them with a narrative, qualitative part to serve as an interpretation of these figures.
When talking about a regular monitoring of project activities a more detailed information package than the MAR is needed. Therefore each section needs a closer feed back on its activities than a monthly report. Sections in charge want to know ea. if the stoves they distribute are used by the customer. If the lessons taught about energy saving improve the knowledge of the students, and if the fuel consumption is reduced by project devices etc. This kind of monitoring is no longer done by the implementing sections themselves. The monitoring section has people who are trained in survey techniques and do not have any responsibility for implementation. At present there are surveys on
• multipot sales
• newly established bakeries
• energy cducation courses
Another study is proposed to follow-up the commercialized production of improved cookstoves and bakery ovens.
A follow-up survey gives trends and shows differences between different target areas and target groups. It reflects the checks of the implementation strategy but does not give any information about its strong or weak points. Our follow-up surveys are rather quick affairs. Standardized questionnaires are used in the same way in the different project districts. Also the sampling method, analysis and documentation of the results are standardized.
In - depth Studies
Follow-up surveys might show results that do not meet the expectations of the project. If it seems necessary to focus on a particular issue, in-depth studies are carried out. They deal with the question why planned results have or have not been reached whereas the follow-up studies serve to find out if the planning has been implemented. Some suggestions for in-depth studies are - the credit of the bakery programme, marketing of project bakeries and social acceptability of the multipot-stove.
We think that a well designed M & E system is needed to process information so that experience can be gained and errors can be avoided (at least to a certain extent) for the benefit of the task to be fulfilled. In this way we can measure if and how far the set objectives have been achieved and if there are positive or negative impacts. This is only possible in close cooperation with all sections as well as with the project management. However, only parts of the monitoring system outlined in this article have so far been realized. We will share our experience with this approach with you whenever it seems appropriate.
INFLUENCING WOMEN STOVE USERS IN NIGER
The project operates in urban (capital Niamey) as well as in rural areas (7 arrondissements of the 3 departments Dosso, Tahoua and Tillaberi). Its strategies have been adapted to the needs of the different target groups. The aim of the process is on the one hand to inform women about the different improved stoves and thus achieve an increase in demand and on the other hand, to improve actual fuelwood savings by giving the necessary information on the correct use of the stoves.
Two different types of approach can be distinguished; direct to the target group and via television, radio and press. In both approaches, new elements have been developed and realised in the last few months.
Especially for the urban population in Niamey a promotion campaign for the media has been initiated in cooperation with other projects working in the field of household energies. The conception and realisation of the campaign has been carried out by a professional promotion agency. The campaign has the general aim "household energy - makes life easier" (Energie Domestique - faciliter la vie) using the three types of stoves, for wood, gas and kerosene which are promoted by the projects. The message is on 2 levels, the rational level (practical, clean, economic) and the emotional level (better way of living, modern, work facilitating). The agency elaborated the design for a logogram, 5 TV spots, one radio jingle and 3 newspaper advertisements. At the end of July a campaign was started on TV, Radio and Press.
For rural areas a series of pictures on environment from the GRAAP institute (Burkino Faso) has been adapted to the socio-cultural situation in Niger and to the special problems in disseminating clay stoves. The aim of the GRAAP method is to promote self-help by the inhabitants of villages and is based on the traditional way of exchanging ideas in Africa - the palaver. It is a game of questions and answers between village consultant and inhabitants, supported by pictures on a flannel board. The visualisation is a means of registering the oral comments to give new incentives to the group and to facilitate the presentation of the ideas. The role of the consultant is to express the concealed knowledge of the population and to enrich it.
After testing the picture series in different villages, about 22 consultants of the project itself and of other projects working in the field of oven dissemination, have been trained in the use of this method. Taking into account that the method demands relatively high skills from the moderator, an additional follow-up phase of the course is actually being arranged. Active participation of the inhabitants in the villages in the problem analysis is increasing their motivation for implementing the proposals for the solution of the problems.