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close this book Boiling Point No. 23 - December 1990
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View the document Methods of Monitoring & Evaluation of Stove Programmes
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View the document Monitoring & Evaluation?
View the document Bringing Stoves to the People
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Methods of Monitoring & Evaluation of Stove Programmes

In Karnataka, India

By N. H. Ravindranath ASTRA, Indian Institute of Science ,Bangalore 560012, India

In response to the increasing scarcity of biomass fuel for cooking, fuel efficient stove models have been developed and disseminated in several states in India. ASTRA (Application of Science and Technology for Rural Areas), a Centre of the Indian Institute of Science in Karnataka (South India) has developed a highly fuel efficient cook stove (Ref 1). Aftcr initial field trials the ASTRA stove was disseminated and ASTRA Centre, in association with Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology (KSCST) has carried out a number of studies to monitor the dissemination of the stove programme and to evaluate the performance of the stove in the field. The findings of these studies have been reported earlier (Ref 2,3,4) (between 1984 and 1990 about 1.25 million stoves were built).

ASTRA and KSCST have conducted the following studies.


Size of sample

Who conducted the study

1. Detailed performance studies Ungra study


ASTRA Scientists

2. Food zone study


ASTRA Scientists

3. Monitoring study


District stove official

4. Evaluation study


KSCST Project Staff

The studies were conducted on Traditional Stove (TS) as well as ASTRA stove (AS).

In this paper, the approach and methods used in the performance studies and monitoring and evaluation, with their advantages and disadvantages, are presented below.


A Fuel Conservation

Parameter & Method



Water boiling test

Reflects the performance of the stove

Does not reflect the performance of the stove while cooking


Possible to know whether the dimensions are correct

Complex test, requires 2 hrs, thermometer, balance

Kitchen performance test

Comparison is easier as it is per kg of food cooked in TS and AS

Culturally it is embarrassing to ask women to allow the investigator to weigh food


It is an accurate method

Suitable for only small samples where the investigator knows the housewives




Fuel use test - displacement method

Fairly easy & accurate, it reflects the fuel use/capita/day

involved 2 visits per day & repetition for at least 2 or 3 days for weighing wood


Possible for a small sample


Indicator parameter

Easy to measure

Indicates only stove construction

Clearances below pans

Acts as a cross check

aspect & partly operational aspect


Could be measured even for larger samples & requires less time

Quantitative estimates not possible

B. Smoke In The Kitchen

Opinion of the housewife

Easy to record

May not fully reflect the leakage


Large samples could be covered

of pollutants


Housewife can easily make out the difference between earlier stove and AS

Housewife can make out only significant differences


Gives correct levels of presence of

Needs expensive instruments

Total suspended particles

pollutants and exposure to it

Trained person & lab facility required

C. Time Taken For Cooking

Observation of time taken

Correct data could be obtained for

Requires the investigator's

for cooking in TS & AS


presence in the kitchen


Fairly easy to record

Need to repeat for AS & TS


Stove Usage

House visit & observation

Easy and quick

in the kitchen

Most reliable


Large number of stoves could be covered

Presence/absence of TS in

Indicator of the extent of dependence on AS.


If no TS means 100% usage of AS.


Easy to observe and record

Any major modification to

If major modification made, it is no more anAS any more

stove design

Easy to observe and record

Performance of Stove

Opinion on fuel saving

Easy to ask and record

Quantitative estimates are not possible, only an indicator


Large sample could be covered


Opinion on smoke in the kitchen

Same as above


Status of Stove and Construction

Measurement of clearances below vessels

Easy to measure & record

Need to visit kitchen


Reflects on construction & stove performance


Large sample could be covered


Cross check on opinion on fuel saving


Measurement of diameter of vessel & stove pan seat

Easy to measure and record

Need to visit kitchen


Reflects on the construction & operational aspects


Large sample could be covered


Recording of modifications to the design

Easy to observe and record

Need to visit kitchen


Reflects on the compatibility of stove design to local conditions





Dissemination Strategy


Who built the stove

Possible to know whether trained person had built it


Reflects on the quality of construction


Subsidy component received

Easy to ask & record


Reflects on presence/absence of corruption

Sometimes they may hesitate to tell the truth

Information to housewife on

Easy to ask and record


operation & maintenance

Reflects on the dissemination & training aspects


Presence/absence of stove components

Reflects on the quality of components and construction



1. Lokras, S S Babu, Bhogle S, Jagdish KS and Kumar R (1983)"Development of an improved three pan stove" Proceedings of the ASTRA seminar, Indian Insitute of &fence, Bangalore.

2. Ravindranath, NH, Babu, DSS and Shallaja, R (1989) "Conservation of biomass: Potentlal of fuel efficient woodstove", Energy management. 13 (2)14-20.

3. Ravindranath, NH, Shailaja, R and Revankar, A (1989) "Dissemination and evaluation of fuel efficient and smokeless ASTRA stove in Karnataka, Energy Environment Monitor 5 (2) 48-60

4. Jagadish, KS and Ravindranath, NH (1989) "Evaluation of the ASTRA stove programme In Joseph S Prasad, KK and Zann BD (ed) Stoves for People. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi