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close this book Boiling Point No. 02 - Special Edition April 1991
View the document Smoke Pollution
View the document Dialectics of Improved Stoves by Kirk R Smith, East-West Centre, Hawaii, USA
View the document White Rabbits !
View the document The Chimney Approach to Smoke Pollution
View the document Research Needs- Biofuel Stove Technology
View the document Woodsmoke - who will put it out?
View the document Cookstove Smoke - The Other Side of the Coin
View the document Domestic Air Pollution in Rural Kenya
View the document A Chimney is Not Enough!
View the document Indoor Air Pollution in Rural Malaysia
View the document References:


In view of the large number of references quoted by the authors of the papers on smoke pollution, summarised here, a combined list is given below along with titles etc. of the 46 papers listed (but not all available) in the ITDG stove programme files in Rugby. Readers are also referred to five articles on Smoke and Health in BP13, August 1987 and one in BP21, April 1989. (Ed Note)

1. Carbon Monoxide and Particulates from Cooking Stoves: Results from a Simulated Village Kitchen: K R Smith, Michael Apte, Premata Menen and Madan Shrestha: August 1984

2. Acute Respiratory Infections in Rural Hill Region of Nepal: A Prospective Pilot intervention Study: Dr Mrigendra Raj Pandy, Principal Investigator and ARI Study Team - November 1988

3. Neues Aus Dew Projekten: Mr Herdrundbrief - December 1988

4. PAH and the Household Cook in Developing Countries: The Lung Cancer Anomaly: Kirk Smith - December 1984

S. Communique LO the International Medical and Public Health Communities: Domestic Smoke Pollution and Respiratory Disease in Developing Countries: Kirk Smith, Peter Kunstadter - May 20, 1985

6. Biomass Fuel Combustion and Health: H W De Koning, K R Smith, J M Last - 1985

7. Air Pollution and Rural Fuels: Implications for Policy and Research: Kirk Smith, A L Aggarwal and R M Dave - January 1983

8. Air Pollution and Rural Fuels: A Pilot Village Study in India: Kirk Smith, A L Aggarwal and R M Dave - November '982

9. Air Pollution from the Combustion of Traditional Fuels: A Brief Survey: Kirk R Smith, Jamuna Ramakrishna and Premlata Menon - February 1981

10. Towards Better Health: Smokeless Chulha - UNICEF

11. Combustion Tests on Lignite Briquettes: Nazrul Islam and K R Smith - October 1989.

12. An Appraisal of the Effectiveness of Smokeless Stoves in Reducing the Level of Indoor Air Pollutants as Compared to Traditional Stoves in a Rural Hill Region of Nepal: Kirk Smith - 1988.

13. Domestic Smoke Pollution and Respiratory Disease in Nepal: Dr M R Pandey - August 1988.

14. Smoke Exposures from Cooking in India: The Impact of Improved Stoves: J Ramakrishna, M B Durgaprasadm and Kirk R Smith, Carbon Monoxide Contamination in Dwellings in Poor Rural Areas of Guatemala: Omar Dary, Oscar Pineda and Jose M Belizan- 1981.

16. Cookstove Smoke and Health: K R Smith - 1989

17. Thermal Performance and Emission Characteristics of Unvented Biomass-burning Cookstoves: A Proposed Standard Method for Evaluation: Dilip Ahuja, Veena Joshi, Kirk Smith and Chandra Venkataraman - December 1986.

18. Thermal Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biomass Burning Heavy Stoves with Chimneys: Dilip Ahuja, Veena Joshi and Chandra Venkatararnan

19. Patterns of Domestic Air Pollution in Rural India: Kirk R Smith - August 1988.

20. Indoor Smoke Exposures from Traditional and Improved Cookstoves: Comparisons Among Rural Nepali Women: Holly F Reid, Kirk R Smith, Bageshwari Sherchand - 1986

21. Air Pollution: Assessing Total Exposure in the Developing Countries: Kirk R Smith - December 1988.

22. Biofuels Air Pollution, and Health: A Global review, Plenum Publishing Co., New York City (in press). Smith K R and M B Durgaprasad (1987),

23. 'Difficulties in achieving and verifying exposure reductions in village households with improved biefuel fired cookstoves', in B Seifert, et al (eds), Indoor Air 87', Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, Berlin 3: 115120.

24. Evaluation of Exposure to Airborne Particles in the Work Environment: (WHO 1984)

25. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants: (Lioy and Lioy (eds.) 1983)

26. Low Flow Rate Sharp Cut Impactors for Indoor Air Sampling: Design and Calibration: (Marple et al 1990)

27. Successful Field Application of a New Impactor for PM 10 Personal Air Sampling: (Buckley et al 1990)

28. Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries (Chen et al 1990)

29. Cooking in India: The Impact of Improved Stoves on Indoor Smoke Exposures from traditional and Improved Cookstoves Comparisons Among Rural Nepali Women: (Reid et al 1986)

30. Assessment of Human Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Respirable Particulates in New York Inner-City Residences: (Goldstein et al 1988)

31. Comparison of Pollutant Emission Rates from Unvented kerosene and Gas Space Healers: (Apse and traynor 1986)

32. Selected Protocols for Conducting Field Surveys of Residential Indoor Air Pollution Due to Combustion-Related Sources: (Traynor 1989)

33. Macromodel for Assessing Residential Concentrations of Combution-Generated Pollutants: Model Development and Selected Sensitivity Analyses: (Traynor et al 1990)

34. Total Human Exposure: An Emerging Science Focuses on Humans as Receptors of Environmental Pollution: (Oil 1985)

35. Air Pollution - Part I and II (Smith 1988)

36. Part I - Assessing Total Exposure ID the United States Part II" Assessing Total Exposure in Developing Countries

Time-Diary Research and Human Exposure Assessment: Some Methodological Considerations: (Robinson 1988)

37. On Finding and Delineating Area Sample Units in the field: (Stinter 1989)

38. Sample Design Considerations for Indoor Air Exposure Surveys: (Cox et al 1988)

39. The Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Concentrations of PM-10 Measured in an Industrial Community During the Winter: (Lioy et al 1990)

40. The Boston Residential No 2 Characterization Study - II. Survey Methodology and Population Concentration Estimates: (Ryan et al 1988)

41. The New Standard Environmental Inventory Questionnaire for Estimation of Indoor Concetrations: (Lebowitz et al 1989)

42. Thermal Performance and Emission Characteristics of Unvented Biomass-burning Cookstoves: A Proposed Standard Method for Evaluation: (Ahuja et al 1987)

43. Assessment of Daily Exposure to TSP and CO in the Garhwal Himalayas: (Saksena et al 1990)

44. Research Needs for improving Biofuel Burning Cookstove Techniques, Dr Ahujd '90

45. Woodsmoke - who will put it out? - Health Association of India - Feb '87

46. The Biofuel Transition by K Smith- Pacific Asian Journal of Energy - Feb '87 Baldwin S F (1987),

47. Biomass Stoves: Engineering Design, Development and Dissemination, Volunteers in Technical Assistance, Arlington V A. Boleji J S M, P Ruigewaard, F Hoeck, et al (1997),

48. 'Indoor Air Quality in the Maragua Area, Kenya'. in Seifert, et al (eds), Indoor Air 87', Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, Berlin, 3: 50-54. Brewster J A, et al (1987) World Resources 1987, Basic Books, New York City. Evans M I (1987),

49. Stove Programmes in the Framework of Improved Cooking Practices: A Change in Focus with Special Reference to Latin America, International Labour Office, Geneva. Gill J (1987),

50. 'Improved Stoves in Developing Countries: A Critique' Energy Policy 15(2): 135-143. Goodman G T (1987),

51. 'Biomass Energy in Developing Countries: Problems and Challenges', Ambio 16(2-3): 111 - 119. Joseph S K Sulpya, K Dhakal, et al (1985),

52. A Preliminary Investigation into the Impact on Pollution Levels in Nepali Household by the Introduction of Chimney Stoves, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Kathmandu. Leach G (1987),

53. 'Household energy in South Asia', Biomass 12: 155-184. Mumford J L, D B Harris, K Williams et at (1987),

54. 'Indoor Air Sampling and Mutagenicity Studies of Emissions from Unvented Coal Combustion',

Environmental Science and Technology 21: 308-311. Ramakashna J (1987),

55. 'Cultural, Technological and Environmental Factors Influencing Indoor Air Pollution in Rural India', in B Seifert, et al (eds),

56. Indoor Air 87' Institute for Water, Soil & Air Hygiene, Berlin 3: 34-39. Sarin M (1986),

57. 'Improved Chulha Programme: Boon or Disaster?, Economic and Political Weekly, 21 (38-39): 1709-1717. Smith K R (1987a),

58. 'The Biofuel Transition', Pacific and Asian Journal of energy 1(1): 13-32. (1987b).

Boiling Point is the journal of the Intermediate Technology Development Groups Fuel for Food Programme and the GATE/GTZ Programme. It is printed on recycled paper by Rugby Community Printworks (affiliated to the Rugby Youth Promotion Programme). ITDG is a registered British Charity.

Contributions are welcome in the form of articles of not more than 1,000 words plus line of drawings, photographs, simple graphs etc. where appropriate. All correspondence should be addressed to Boiling Point, ITDG, Fuel for Food Programme, Myson House Railway Terrace, Rugby, CV21 3HT, UK.

Opinions expressed in contributory articles are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the ITDG Fuel for Food Programme.

(Readers wishing to enter into correspondence may obtain full postal addresses from the address given above).

ISSN: 0263-3167

Editorial & Production Team

Tammy Flavell - Production Manager Ian Grant - Editor Peter Young - Senior Technical Manager

Kathryn Clarke - Sector Manager Agnes Klingshim - GTZ Representative Cornelia Sepp - GTZ Consultant

Specialist Advisors:

Simon Burne - Economist

Emma Crewe - Social Scientist

Tim Jones - Ceramicist



A Abidin & M Lodhi,

D Ahuja, A Chomcharn

W Micuta & E Haas.

A Mutere, M Nystrom

K Smith, P Young

Cartoon by R Lucas

Proof Reading by Rence Marshall and P Watts

Contributions to Boiling Point

Contributions are invited for the next three issues of Boiling Point, the main themes of which will be:

No. 25 - Funding for Stove Programmes

No. 26 - Widening Use of Stove Designs

No: 27 - Women in Stove Programmes

Articles for issues 25, 26, 27 should reach this office by the end of June for issue No. 25, the end of October for Issue No. 26 and end of February for issue No. 27.

Technical Enquiries to ITDG

One of the most valuable services provided by ITDG is in answering technical services. The stove team and its associates are at your service in this way and have answered many enquiries over the last 10 years.

Please send all enquiries to:

The Manager

Technical Enquiry Office

ITDG, Myson House

Railway Terrace, RUGBY, CV21 3HT, UK

Authors, publishers of books, journals on 3rd world stoves or stove programmes, are invited to submit copies for review in Boiling Point.

In developing countries acute respiratory infections are responsible for nearly a third of the childhood deaths under 5 years of age.

The main cause is the smoke from biofuel cooking stoves.

The incidence of eye damage may be even greater.


Intermediate Technology's aim is to enable poor people to develop and use productive technologies and methods which give them greater control over their own lives and which contribute to the long-term development of their communities