| Boiling Point No. 28- August 1992 |
Nepal Community Support Group
The Nepal Community Support Croup (NECOS) was set up in April 1991 as a non profit research and educational institute to pursue and promote the ethics and principles of permaculture as adapted to the 3rd World/Nepali context. NECOS works to promote ecologically sound and sustainable community development activities by design. NECOS believes in investment in crucial resources of soil fertility, seed, biomass, information and social services and looks to create a network of experienced and dedicated practitioners who are willing to support local self help schemes. NECOS hopes to set up a professional and cooperative consultancy offering a wide range of services, such as:
* Development of resource centres
* Design work
* Farmers' extension services
* Technical and social research
* Support of human rights
Permaculture Design Courses
The courses run by NECOS are relevant to government and non-governmental planners, policy makers, technicians, farmers and volunteers involved in Third World Programmes. The primary objective of the course is to bring together an informal network of individuals and organizations who are working towards similar ends and who can use the principles and techniques taught and exchanged at the course in their current and/or planned work. A further objective is then to present concepts which can be understood, accepted and implemented by farmers and other target groups without risk in order to help in the attainment of basic needs while sustaining the environment and thus providing the foundation for self-determined growth.
For further information please contact: Nepal Community Support Group (NECOS), P O Box 3724, Kathmandu, NEPAL, Fax 9771 225277. Courses are led by Prasad Chhetry and Chris Evans.
Lorena Stove Still Going Strong by Kahunde Samuel
Despite the unfavourable reports from other parts of the world about the Lorena Stove, a modified version of it is proving popular in Westem Uganda. The stove is being promoted by the Tree and Energy Conservation Programme (TRENCOP) - an environmental NGO based at Masindi, Uganda.
The TRENCOP Lorena works on the same principle as other Lorena Stoves but differs in its brick arrangements. It needs only 18 bricks to build. The most popular size has a height of 20cm, is 75 cm long and 75cm wide. Some of its major advantages are that it is efficient, uses three pots at a time, shields the fire from the wind, does not require complicated skills to build and removes smoke from the cooking area.
For more information please contact:
P O Box 310
News from LCHS
by Annette Jere, Lund Centre for Habitat Studies, Lund University,
Nicaragua - A community development programme was initiated in 1990 by CIPDC - Nicaraguaic (a local NGO), SIDA and Lund University. The aim of the project was to build up knowledge of kitchens and stoves in the villages through designing improved stoves, training local people in stove making and building stoves in improved houses and building improved kitchens. The participation of a group of village women et all stages was fundamental.
The work started by measuring fuelwood consumption, stove efficiencies, testing local clays and building stoves of the Nada Chula type. This was followed by monitoring, testing and evaluation of the new stoves and further development and training. was concluded that improved stoves must be paid for and the money used to pay stove builders. The results were presented to a UNIFEM seminar.
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 1991 - A three week survey of the use of household energy was carried out by Dr J Campbell of the University College of Swansea and Dr R Haster of the Stockholm Environment Institute. The methodology report will be of interest to investigators, but the results are specific to Dar es Salaam and were limited by the fact that the survey was conducted during Ramadan. The factors influencing the women's choice of fuel ea. (escalating poverty) were studied.
Ouogadaugou - Burkina Faso 1991 - "From Wood to Gas", a study by J B Ouerdraogo of the University of Ouogadaugou and A Lema of Lund University of the conditions under which urban households switch from wood to gas for cooking. "Are omelettes cooked on gas and maize porridge on wood?" Such fuel questions were found to be critical in household decisions.
Common to all interviews and observations were five questions that we found central for the understanding of the transitional processes from wood to gas.
What are the socio-cultural and economic factors associated with adopting gas as a new energy source for cooking?
Does diet change when households switch from fuelwood to gas?
How does the use of the technical device (gas stove) affect the organization of the kitchen or the culinary area?
Is the transition from wood to gas associated with changes in the social status of women?
How do the Burkina Faso and the CILSS gas programmes fit households' micro-strategies?
Among the 29 households studied, there were 34 gas stoves, 18 of which were acquired before marriage. In 23 of the households the stoves were bought by the husband. This male interest in the purchase of stoves is also identified in other kitchen utensils like plates, glasses, forks, knives and spoons. It seems there is increased interest about kitchen matters among men, indicating a change in attitude. Because traditionally the kitchen area is the domain of the women, the installation of the open fire used to be a woman's affair as well as the purchase of pots and other utensils. When we asked women about who is generally responsible for the kitchen area, all but two answered that this was the task of the women. These two said that it was the joint responsibility of both husband and wife, but this was not supported by our observations.
On the individual level, most of the men in the sample bought their first stoves when they were college or university students. They had to cook for themselves, do their own laundry, pay their rent. Since the University and Colleges are located in urban areas where it is difficult to collect wood, a gas stove is a practical solution for a young man and his interest is often sustained.