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close this book Animal traction
View the document About this manual
View the document About the author
View the document Acknowledgments
Open this folder and view contents 1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents 2. Draft animal selection
Open this folder and view contents 3. Animal husbandry
Open this folder and view contents 4. Training draft animals
Open this folder and view contents 5. Yokes and harnesses
Open this folder and view contents 6. Hitches
View the document 7. Field operations and implements
Open this folder and view contents 8. Economic and technical assistance
Open this folder and view contents 9. Animal traction extension
View the document Appendix A: Animal power
Open this folder and view contents Appendix B: Animal nutrition
Open this folder and view contents Appendix C: Disease recognition and control
View the document Appendix D: Workshop and spare parts inventory
View the document Appendix E: Animal traction instruction forms
View the document Appendix F: Animal breeds used for power
View the document Bibliography
View the document Resources
View the document GIossary


Anthony, Kenneth R.M., et al. 1979. Agricultural Change in Tropical Africa. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, and London.

Aten, A., Innes, R.F., and Knew, E. 1954. Flaying and Curing of Hides and Skins as a Rural Industry. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Bamtey, C.R.A. de. 1967. A propos d'un materiel de traction bovine. Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des Cultures Vivrières, Paris.

Benor, Daniel, and Harrison, J.Q. 1977. Agricultural Extension: The Training and Visit System. World Bank, 1818 H St., N.W., Washington, D.C.

Berg, Liv, Krisno Nimpuno, and Roger Van Zeanenberg. Towards Village Industry. Intermediate Technology Publications, Ltd., Forest Grove, OR, USA.

Blood, D.C., and Henderson, J.A., Veterinary Medicine. William and Wilkins Company, Baltimore.

Boyd, John. 1976. Tools for Agri

British Veterinary Association. Handbook on Animal Diseases in the Tropics, 3rd Edition. London.

Campbell, John R., and Lasley, John F. 1969. The Science of Animals that Serve Mankind. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Centre d' etudes et d'expérimentation du mechanisme agricole tropical (CEEMAT). 1968. Manuel de Culture avec Traction Animale (The Employment of Draft Animals in Agriculture). English translation 1972. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Available from Editions Eyrolles, 61 Boulevard St. Germain, 75005 Paris, France. Price 69.50 fr.

This comprehensive manual on animal traction was prepared by a French organization specializing in research and development in tropical agriculture. It discusses the animals, tools, and techniques used~in various parts of Africa and contains sections on the development of rural handicrafts (artisan support; village industry) and the economics of mechanization. Information on selection and use of equipment will be of special interest to Volunteers working in dry or irrigated regions or in programs where animal-powered sowing, harvesting, and transportation is practiced.

--------. 1974. Aide-Memoire du Moniteur de Culture Attelée (Schemes). CEEMAT, Parc de Tourvoie, 92160 Antony, France. Available from Editions Eyrolles, 61 Boulevard St. Germain, 75005 Paris, France.

Handbook for animal traction extension agents. This is the written complement to CEEMAT's course in animal traction. It was originally published for use by extension agents in Niger, serving as both a course guide (during formal training) and a field handbook. It was then expanded for use in other countries, particularly those in tropical Africa.

It consists of a 130-page text and a separate 65-page book of sketches, drawings, and diagrams. Subjects include animal power, husbandry, harness, plowing, plow adjustments, cultivating, seeding, weeding, ridging, crop protection, harvesting, transportation (grain) and water-lifting, equipment assembly and maintenance, rehammering of plowshares, and a section on teaching these techniques to farmers and other extension personnel.

Highly recommended. Available in French only.

Cockrill, Ross W., ed. 1974. The Husbandry and Health of the Domestic Buffalo. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

de Wilde, John C., et al. 1974. Experiences with Agriculture Development in Tropical Africa. John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Case studies of animal traction in Upper Volta and other countries.

Dineur, Bruno, Georges Morieres and Pierre Canard. 1976. Guide pratique de la culture atelée au Benin. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 84 pages.

The manual explains and illustrates the fundamentals of animal traction technology as was being introduced in Benin, West Africa. It is intended as a guide for Beninese extension agents who are working with farmers using draft animals and equipment for the first time. It is very clearly written and illustrated and will be of interest and value to Frenchspeaking Volunteers.

Drew, James. 1943. Blacksmithing. Modern Energy and Technology Alternatives, P.O. Box 128, Marble Mouth, WA 98268, USA.

Ensminger, M.E. 1978. The Stockman's Handbook. Animal Agri Series. The Interstate Printers & Publishers, Inc., Danville, Illinois, USA. 1192 pages.

The textbook deals with fundamental and more technical aspects of animal science as they may be applied to management of beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, swine, and horses. Subject breakdown (partial): animal behavior; breeding; feeding (nutrition and feed value charts); production of pasture and range forages, hay and crop residues, silages, hay, and grain; conformation; animal health and disease; marketing animal products. Also contains comprehensive list of agricultural magazines and helpful agricultural resources (with addresses).

-------- Animal Science, 7th edition. The Interstate Printers Publishers, Inc., Danville, Illinois, USA.

Epstein, H. The Origin of Domestic Animals of Africa. Africana Publishing Corporation, New York.

Farnham, A.B. Home Tanning and Leather-Making Guide. Modern Energy and Technology Alternatives, P.O. Box 128, Marble Mount, WA 98268, USA.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1974. Rural Tanning Techniques. FAO Development Paper #68. Available from Distribution and Sales Section, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme de Caracalla, 00100 Rome; or from UNIPUB, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York 10016. Price $8.50.

-------- 1977. Better Farming Series. FAO, Rome.

Twenty-six titles have been published in this series, designed as handbooks for a two-year intermediate-level agricultural education and training course. They may be purchased as a set or as individual documents.

First Year

1. The plant: the living plant, the root

2. The plant: the stem, the buds, the leaves

3. The plant: the flower

4. The soil: how the soil is made up

5. The soil: how to conserve the soil

6. The soil: how to improve the soil

7. Crop farming

8. Animal husbandry; feeding and care of animals

9. Animal husbandry: animal diseases: how animals reproduce

Second Year

10. The farm business survey

11. Cattle breeding

12. Sheep and goat breeding

13. Keeping chickens

14. Farming with animal power

15. Cereals

16. Roots and tubers

17. Groundnuts

18. Bananas

19. Market gardening

20. Upland rice

21. Wet paddy or swamp grass

22. Cocoa

23. Coffee

24. The oil palm

25. The rubber tree

26. The modern farm business

-------- 1977. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development. Available from Distribution and Sales Section, Via delle Termi de Caracalla, 00100 Rome. Price $8.50.

-------- 1978. Animal Health Yearbook. Rome.

Fort, J. 1975. Mechanisation des Pratiques Agricoles Transitionnelles en Zone Sahelienne du Nord. CEEMAT, Paris.

Friend, John B. 1978. Cattle of the World. Blandford Press, Dorset, England.

Harmond, Paul, ed. 1978. The Farm stead Book. Cloudburst Press of America, Inc., 2116 Western Avenue, Seattle, WA 98121, USA.

Hasluck, Paul N., ed. 1962. Saddlery and Harness-Making. J.A. Allen & Co., London.

Hayes, Captain M. Horace, F.R.C.V.S. Veterinary Notes for Horse Owners. No. 656. Arco Publishing Company, Inc., New York.

Hennings, M. W. Animal Diseases of South Africa, 3rd edition. Central News Agency, Ltd., Johannesburg, South Africa.

Herausageber, ed. 1960. Farm Implements and Machinery: multilingual illustrated dictionary. H. Steinmetz, West Germany.

Hopfen, H.J. 1969. Farm Implements for Arid and Tropical Regions. Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations, Rome. 159 pages.

This is a compact yet thorough description of hand tools and animal-drawn machinery currently used in different countries. It was prepared for extension workers, farm machinery specialists and technical assistants who are working with small-scale farmers and artisans to improve quality of tools. Subject breakdown: manpower, animal power, harness, toolmaking, implements for tillage, seedbed preparation, earthmoving and fertilizer spreading, harvesting, threshing, winnowing, handling and transportation.

Intermediate Technology Publications, Ltd. 1978. Tools for Homesteaders, Gardeners, and Small Scale Farmers. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, USA. 512 pages.

This book is a very complete catalogue of small farm machinery available through various North American and international manufacturers and distributors. In addition to giving descriptions, photographs, and ordering information for equipment, it contains numerous essays and

articles on the design and application of tools. For example, the section titled "The Continuing Role of Draft Animals" includes (1) catalogued subsections on plows, harrows, ridgers, cultivators; (2) address lists of North American harnessmakers, wagon makers and wheelwrights, blacksmith equipment suppliers, draft horse publications, draft horse workshops; (3) articles titled: "Farming with Horse Power," Power for Field Work," "Thoughts of a Designer of Animal-Drawn Equipment," "The Efficient Use of Animal Power." Major sections are as follows: Tools for Cultivating, Continuing Role of Draft Animals, Tractors, Equipment for Seeding and Planting, Harvesting Equipment, Cleaning Grains and Seeds, Processing Equipment, Tools for Adding Organic Materials to the Soil, Woodlot and Orchard Management, Livestock Equipment, Tools for Fishfarming.

Johnson, Paul G. 1976. Farm Implements in the Making of America. Wallace-Homestead Book Co., Des Moines, Iowa, USA.

King, J.O.L. 1978. An Introduction to Animal Husbandry. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Kline, C.K., et al. Agricultural Mechanization in Equatorial Africa. Institute of International Agriculture Research Report No. 6. Michigan State University, 118 Agriculture Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. 465 pages.

This is a documented field study of the hand-, animal and engine-powered farm technology used in Africa today. The concept of mechanization and the impact of agricultural change is viewed through case studies made in 19 African countries. The studies become the basis for an index of recommendations and guidelines which could help extension Volunteers identify problems and develop solutions related to animal traction technology. The bibliography is extremely thorough. It cites the major references on agricultural mechanization in equatorial Africa and uses a "key word" annotation system to specify subject material.

Leese, A.A. A Treatise on the One Humped Camel in Health and in Disease. Haynes and Son, Lincoln shire, England.

Macpherson, George A. 1975. First Steps in Village Mechanisation. Tanzania Publishing House, Dar Es Salaam. 235 pages.

Mansfield, Toots 1961. Calf Roping. Western Horseman, Inc. Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA. 56 pages. Available from The Western Horseman, 3850 North Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA.

McDowell, R.E. Ruminant Products: More than Meat and Milk. Winrock Report, Winrock Inter

national Livestock Research and Training Center, Petit Jean Mountain, Morrilton, Arkansas, USA.

Michael, A.M., S.C. Knierim, and R.M. Reeser. 1964. Simple Bullock-Drawn Implements for Efficient Irrigation. University of Udaipur, India.

Miller, W.C., and R.D.S. Robertson. 1943. Practical Animal Husbandry. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Morrison, Frank B. 1948. Feeds and Feeding: A Handbook for the Student and Stockman. Morrison Publishing Company, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Morss, Elliott R. 1975. Strategies for Small Farmer Development. Development Alternatives, Washington, DC.

This is a study funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development to improve the design and implementation of projects to assist subsistence agriculture farmers.

Muller, J. 1977. Promotion of Rural Implement Manufacture in Tanzania. Production of Tools for Food Production in East Africa. Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilization in China, Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Organization of African Unity. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Inter African Bureau of Animal Resources, Nairobi, Kenya. Available from Eleza Services, Scientific Publications Division, Box 14925, Nairobi, Kenya. ($10.00/year)

Partridge, Michael. 1973. Farm Tools. Promontory Press, Boston, MA, USA.

Rao, S. 1965. A New Bullock Harness for More Bullock Power. Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad, India. Available from Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Inc., M.O. Center, Stony Point, New York, NY.

Sargent, Merritt W. 1979. Recommendations to National Government and International Donors for the Design and Implementation of Animal Traction Programs. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA.

-------- 1979. A provincial planning and implementation guide for the Introduction and Maintenance of Animal Traction.

Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA.

-------- 1979. A Village Level Extension Guide for the Introduction and Maintenance of Animal Traction. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA.

Shulman, Robert. 1979. Strategy for the Advancement of Animal Traction in Mali. U.S. Agency for International Development, B.P. 34, Bamako, Mali.

Seigmund, O.H., ed. 1973. The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USIA.

Spaulding, C.E. 1976. Veterinary Guide for Animal Owners. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, USA.

Stamm, Gustave W. 1963. Veterinary Guide for Farmers. Hawthorne Books, Baltimore.

Steinmetz, H. 1976. Farm Implement and Machinery: Multilingual illustrated dictionary. 524 Betzdorf/Seig, Western Germany.

Stout, B.A. 1966. Equipment for Rice Production. FAO Development Paper #84, FAO, Rome.

Telleen, Maurice. 1977. The Draft Horse Primer. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, USA. 380 pages. Available from Rodale Press, 33 E. Minor St., Emmaus, PA 18049, USA. Price $10.95.

This is a guide to the care and use of work horses and mules. The author notes that the work "is made up largely of materials from booklets published by U.S. land grant schools during the twenties and thirties when they had an active interest in heavy horses as a major source of agricultural power." The author has included reprints of articles he has written for The Draft Hourse Journal, Western Horseman Magazine, and Organic Gardening and Farming, as well as newer material developed specifically for this book, Subject breakdown: return of draft horse, conformation and breeds, buying a team, feeding and care, shoeing and foot care, harness and hitching, breeding, machinery for horsepowered farm.

UNIDO. 1975. Animal-Drawn Agricultural Implements, HandOperated Machines and Simple Power Equipment in the Least Developed and Other Developing Countries. Publication ID/148. Free to serious groups, from United Nations Industrial Development Organization, P.O. Box 707, A-1011, Vienna.

Volunteers in Technical Assistance. 1979 Directory of Development Resources: Africa. VITA, 3706 Rhode Island Avenue, Mt. Rainier, Md. 20822, USA. Price $9.95 plus 5 percent service charge.

Wakeman, D.L., and T.J. Cunha. 1967. Light Horse Production in Florida. Bulletin No. 188. Department of Agriculture, State of Florida.

Ward, Fay E. 1958. The Cowboy at Work. Hastings House Publishers, New York.

Wijewardene, R. 1977. "Small-Farm Vehicle." Proceedings of ITDG Seminar: Simple Vehicles for Developing Countries. Information Paper 3. Intermediate Technology Development Group, Transport Panel, London.

Williamson, G., and Payne, W.J.A. 1959. An Introduction to Animal Husbandry in the Tropics. Longmans, London. 435 pages.

The author presents very specific information on the most important classes of production livestock. This is a key reference for Volunteers managing or raising livestock in tropical areas. Major sections include climate (effects of), health maintenance, nutrition, breeding, animal products; husbandry: traditional (cattle), beef cattle, dairy cattle, oxen, buffalo, camels, sheep, goats, swine, poultry.

World Bank. 1978. Appropriate technology in rural development: vehicles designed for on-and offfarm operations. Regional Development Unit, Transportation Department, Washington, DC.

A literature review of the work output of animals with particular reference to their use in civil construction. Washington, DC, IBRD, 1976. (Technical Memorandum No. 21) Study of the Substitution of Labor and Equipment in Civil Construction.