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close this book Prevention and treatment of mold in library collections with an emphasis on tropical climates: A RAMP study
View the document Preface
View the document Acknowledgements
close this folder 1. Introduction
View the document 1.1 Climate
View the document 1.2 Materials
View the document 1.3 Modifying the environment
View the document Literature cited
close this folder 2. Mold
View the document 2.1 Structure of mold
close this folder 2.2 Environmental and nutritional factors in growth and survival
View the document 2.2.1 Temperature
View the document 2.2.2 Moisture
View the document 2.2.3 Nutrients
View the document Literature cited
close this folder 3. Implications for library materials
close this folder 3.1 Vulnerability of materials
View the document 3.1.1 Paper - cellulose, sizes, coatings
View the document 3.1.2 Bookcloth
View the document 3.1.3 Leather
View the document 3.1.4 Adhesives
View the document 3.1.5 Film and related materials
close this folder 3.2 Environmental factors
View the document 3.2.1 Circulation
View the document 3.2.2 Relative humidity
View the document 3.2.3 Temperature
View the document Literature cited
close this folder 4. Prevention
close this folder 4.1 Building design and modification
View the document 4.1.1 Location
View the document 4.1.2 Structural considerations in environmental modification
close this folder 4.2 Interior modifications in existing facilities
View the document 4.2.1 Location of stack and storage areas
View the document 4.2.2 Stack arrangement
View the document 4.2.3 Localized environmental modification
View the document 4.2.4 Creating microclimates in cabinets and cases
View the document 4.3 Stack maintenance
View the document Literature cited
close this folder 5. Fungicides and fumigation
View the document 5.1 Fungicides
View the document 5.2 Fumigation
View the document 5.3 Toxicity of fumigants
View the document Literature cited
close this folder 6. Treatment
close this folder 6.1 Small outbreaks - localized high relative humidity
View the document 6.1.1 Books
View the document 6.1.2 Unbound materials (documents, maps, works of art on paper)
View the document 6.1.3 Photographs, negatives and microfilm
View the document 6.1.4 General area
close this folder 6.2 Moderate outbreaks - Major and prolonged periods of high humidity or minor flooding
View the document 6.2.1 Books
View the document 6.2.2 Unbound materials
View the document 6.2.3 Photographs, negatives and microfilm
View the document 6.2.4 General area
close this folder 6.3 Major outbreaks - Major flooding and prolonged exposure
View the document 6.3.1 Priorities and planning
View the document 6.3.2 Prevention of mold growth on site
View the document 6.3.3 Freezing
View the document 6.3.4 Drying
View the document Literature cited
close this folder 7. Equipment and supplies
View the document 7.1 Monitoring equipment
View the document 7.2 Prevention
View the document 7.3 Treatment
View the document 7.4 Emergency treatment
View the document 8. Selected bibliography

3. Implications for library materials

Virtually all organic materials are susceptible to some species of mold and therefore to mold growth. The organic materials in library collections include, but are not limited to: cellulosic fiber; sizes and fillers of starch, casein and gelatine; natural adhesives, including starch paste made from vegetable matter and glues from animal skins; some synthetic adhesives; leather; and the gelatine on negatives and photographic prints. In addition, dust and dirt can provide additional nutrients required by the mold. All of these materials are hygroscopic, that is, they attract and hold moisture.

Despite this overall vulnerability, a variety of factors will affect the actual growth of mold within the library collection. Certain papers, leathers, bookcloths and adhesives are more susceptible to mold growth than others. In most cases the librarian has little control over the composition of the materials in the collection. However, a knowledge of the nature of those materials is necessary in order to make informed decisions as to why the infestation has occurred, ho,; to treat those items obviously affected, and whether it is likely that the problem will spread throughout the collection.

For example:

- The appearance of mold on only the leather bound books indicates that the active spores are specialized in their nutrient requirements. Since molds are selective, if no cloth covered or paperbound books in the immediate vicinity are involved, emergency treatment can be concentrated on the leather volumes.

- If the growth appears only around the head cap, or on the edges of the text next to the turn ins on the boards, it is likely that the nutrient source is the adhesive used in the binding.

- If only a few ranges or a few stack sections in the area are affected, the problem is most likely one of a microclimate. The affected items can be removed and efforts to modify the environment can be localized to that area.

Innumerable examples could be given, however the point is that a knowledge of the materials, an analysis of the nature of the problem, and an understanding of the interaction between the two can greatly reduce the potential damage.