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close this book Agricultural extension
View the document Acknowledgement
close this folder What is agricultural extension?
View the document Peace corps and agricultural development
View the document The small scale farmer
View the document Two way communication
close this folder Research and planning
View the document Introduction
View the document Understanding people
View the document Community survey
View the document Agricultural survey
View the document Needs and resources survey
View the document Record keeping and planning
close this folder Providing agricultural support services
View the document Introduction
close this folder Direct services
View the document Testing recommendations
View the document Administering credit
View the document Selecting and producing seed
View the document Providing farm inputs
View the document Surveying agricultural land
View the document Providing storage
View the document Marketing agricultural products
close this folder Indirect services
View the document Working with individual farmers
View the document Working with counterparts
View the document Working with groups
View the document Working with cooperatives
View the document Working with local authorities, government or development agencies
close this folder Farmer training
View the document Introduction
View the document Cross - cultural communication
View the document Farm visits and troubleshooting
View the document On - farm demonstrations
View the document Field days
View the document Mass media
close this folder Organizing cooperative activity
View the document Introduction
View the document Assessing self-interest and problems
View the document Defining issues and tasks
View the document Clarifying roles and responsibility
View the document Meetings
View the document Group dynamics
View the document Training leaders
View the document Forming associations
close this folder Management
View the document Introduction
View the document Planning
View the document Carrying out plans
View the document Evaluating work
close this folder Appendices
close this folder Appendix A - Comparative case studies
View the document Case study I
View the document Case Study II
View the document Appendix B - Technical I.C.E. manuals and reprints useful to agricultural extensionists
View the document Appendix C - Extension training
View the document Appendix D - Bibliography and resources

Carrying out plans


Extension work involves carrying out plans. Each small step begins with a well-thought-out plan. Carrying out plans is the art of doing well-defined and specific tasks while remaining clear about an overall purpose. Paradoxically, one needs to keep little details and larger goals clear at the same time. Good extension work both accomplishes concrete tasks (details) on the farm and enables farmers to accomplish more themselves (larger goal). This is a management approach to work.

By carefully researching plans and defining tasks and commitments, extensionists and co-workers can orchestrate a high level of motivation for a particular project. When the personal interests of the farmers are in line with work plans, the farmers are motivated to work. When that link is not established, motivation for that particular work is lacking. Extensionists must learn to formulate work plans with the motivation of participants in mind.

A management-approach to work does not have to be formal and inflexible. In most village settings, this is neither possible nor appropriate. Work can be thorough and well-organized while being informal and flexible. There is a great deal of difference between informally-planned and unplanned work. Unplanned work does not serve farmers well.


The illustrations for each subchapter of this manual describe how to carry out extension plans. For example, to see how to work well with co-workers, see Chapter Three, SERVICES, subchapter "Working with Countertparts". In order to capture a whole picture of the management of a two year tour of duty, read the Case Studies in Appendix A.



Resources for carrying out extension work are included at the end of each subchapter of this manual. They are the most specific tools for carrying out plans. This chapter provides more detailed tools for planning and evaluating work, the two skills most commonly associated with management.


A partial list of common interests which animate the work of extensionists' counterparts and co-workers:


• Financial security

• Financial access to goods normally unavailable in villages

• Pride in work, an outlet for skills

• Community recognition as a technician or leader

• Advancement in ministry hierarchy

• Friendship and access to American culture

• Opportunities for further formal or informal training