Wells construction: hand dug and hand drilled |

Acknowledgments |

Introduction |

Section one: Planning |

Chapter 1: Introduction to wells planning |

A. Overview |

B. The need for adequate water supply |

C. Involving the local community |

D. Selecting the most appropriate water source |

E. Site choice |

F. Preventing water contamination |

G. Types of wells |

H. Well sections |

I. Materials |

J. Tools and equipment |

K. Sinking method |

L. Preparation for construction |

M. Planning |

Section two: Hand dug wells |

Chapter 2: Introduction to hand-dug wells |

Chapter 3: Well design |

Chapter 4: Supplies |

Chapter 5: Lowering and raising workers and equipment |

Chapter 6: Digging |

Chapter 7: The middle section: overview of lining techniques |

Chapter 8: Construction of the middle section |

Chapter 9: Construction of the bottom section |

Section three: Drilled wells |

Chapter 10: Introduction to drilled wells |

Chapter 11: Drilling and casing techniques |

Chapter 12: Construction: hand rotary and hand percussion methods |

Chapter 13: Construction: sludger method |

Chapter 14: Construction: driven and jetted |

Chapter 15: The bottom section |

Appendices |

Appendix I: Conversion factors and tables |

Appendix II: Vegetation as an index of ground water |

Appendix III: Uses of dynamite in hand dug wells |

Appendix IV: Cement |

Appendix V: Leveling and plumbing the mold |

Appendix VI: Pipe |

Appendix VII: Pumps |

Appendix VIII: Water treatment in wells |

Appendix IX: Rope strength |

Glossary |

Annotated bibliography |

Length

Incn (in.) = 2.54 cm.

Foot (ft) = 12 in. = 30.48 cm

Yard (yd) = 3 ft = 0.9144 m

Mile = 5280 ft = 1.609 km

Centimeter (cm) = 0.3937 in. = 0.01 m

Meter (m) = 100 cm = 3.281 ft = 1.0936 yd

Kilometer (km) = 1000 m = 0.6214 mile

Area

Square inch (sq. in) = 6.452 cm²

Square foot (sq. ft) = 144 sq. in. = 929.0 cm²

Acre (43 560 sq. ft.) = 0.4047 ha

Square mile (sq. mile) = 640 acres = 2.590 km²

Square centimeter (cm²) = 0.155 sq. in

Square meter (m²) = 10 000 cm² = 10.764 sq. ft

Hectare (ha) = 10 000 m² = 2.471 acres

Square kilometer (km²) = 100 ha = 0.3861 sq. mile

Volume and Capacity

Cubic inch (cu. in.) = 16.387 cm³ or ml

Cubic foot (cu. ft) = 1729 cu. in. = 28.316 1 = 6.229 Imp.

gal = 7.481 US gal

Cubic yard (cu. yd) = 27 cu. ft = 0.7646 m³

Fluid ounce (British)(fl. oz.) = 28.41 ml

(US)(US fl. oz.) = 29.57 ml

Pint (British) (pt) = 20 fl. 02. = 0.5682 1

(US)(US pt) = 16 US fl. oz. = 0.4732 1

Quart (British) (qt) = 2 pt = 1.1365 1

(US)(US qt) = 2 US pt = 0.9463 1

Imperial gallon (British)(Imp. gal.) = 277.42 cu. in. = 1.20

US gal. = 4.546 1

US gallon (US gal.) = 231.0 cu. in. = 0.8327 Imp. gal = 3.785 1

Acre-foot = 1233.5 m³

Cubic centermeter (cm³) = 0.999972 ml = 0.06102 cu. in.

Mililiter (ml) = 1.000028 cm³ = 0.03520 fl. oz.

Liter (1) = 1000 ml = 0.2200 Imp. gal. = 0.2642 US gal.

= 0.035316 cu. ft

Cubic meter (m³) = 1000.028 1 = 1.3080 cu. yd = 220.0 Imp. gal

= 264.2 US gal = 0.0008107 acre-foot

Weight

Grain = 0.06480 g

Ounce (oz.) = 437.5 grains = 28.35 g

Pound (lb.) = 16 oz. = 0.45359 kg

Stone = 14 lb. = 6.350 kg

Hundredweight (cwt) (British) = 112 lb. = 50.802 kg

Hundredweight (cwt) (US) = 100 lb. = 45.359 kg

(Long) ton (British) = 2240 lb. = 1.01605 t

Short ton (US) = 2000 lb. = 0.90718 t

Gram (g) = 15.432 grains

Kilogram (kg) = 1000 g = 2.2046 lb.

Metric ton (t) = 1000 kg = 0.9842 long ton = 1.1023 short tons

ft³ water = 62.4 lbs.

1 liter water = 1 kg

Pressure

Pound per square inch (p.s.i.) = 0.06805 atm. = 0.07031 kg/cm²

= 0.7031 m of water = 2.307 ft of water

Standard atmosphere (atm.) = 14.696 p.s.i. = 1.0332 kg/cm²

Metric atmosphere kg/cm² = 14.223 p.s.i. = 0.9678 atm.

Flow rate

Cubic foot per second (cu. ft/sec) = 0.5382 mgd (Imp.) =

0.6463 msd (US)

Cubic foot per minute (cu.ft/min) = 0.4719 1/see

Imperial gallon per minute (Igpm) = 0.7577 1/see = 0.2728 m³/h

US gallon per minute (gpm) = 0.06309 1/see = 0.2271 m³/h

Million gallons per day (mgd) (Imperial) = 52.615 1/see

(US) = 43.811 1/see

Liter per second (1/sec) = 3.6001 m³/h = 13.20 Igpm = 15.85 gpm

= 0.019006 mgd (Imp.) = 0.022825 mgd (US)

Cubic meter per hour (m³/h) = 0.2778 1/see = 3.666 Igpm

= 4.403 gpm

Filtration rate

Million Imperial gallons per acre per day (mgad,Imp.) =

1.1234 m³/m²/day

Million US gallons per acre per day (mgad) = 0.9354 m³/m²/day

Cubic meter per square meter per day m³/m²/day |
= 0.8902 mgad, |

= 1.0691 mgad |

Miscellaneous

Horsepower (h.p.) = 33 000 foot-pounds per minute = 0.746 kW

= 1.0139 CV

Kilowatt (kW) = 1.36 CV = 1.34 h.p.

Cheval-vapeur (CV) = 0.9863 h.p. = 0.736 kW

One liter of water weighs one kilogram (at 4°C)

One cubit foot of water weighs 63.43 pounds

One US gallon of water weighs a. 345 pounds