Cover Image
close this book Wells construction: hand dug and hand drilled
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document Introduction
close this folder Section one: Planning
close this folder Chapter 1: Introduction to wells planning
View the document A. Overview
View the document B. The need for adequate water supply
View the document C. Involving the local community
View the document D. Selecting the most appropriate water source
View the document E. Site choice
View the document F. Preventing water contamination
View the document G. Types of wells
View the document H. Well sections
View the document I. Materials
View the document J. Tools and equipment
View the document K. Sinking method
View the document L. Preparation for construction
View the document M. Planning
close this folder Section two: Hand dug wells
View the document Chapter 2: Introduction to hand-dug wells
View the document Chapter 3: Well design
View the document Chapter 4: Supplies
View the document Chapter 5: Lowering and raising workers and equipment
View the document Chapter 6: Digging
View the document Chapter 7: The middle section: overview of lining techniques
View the document Chapter 8: Construction of the middle section
View the document Chapter 9: Construction of the bottom section
close this folder Section three: Drilled wells
View the document Chapter 10: Introduction to drilled wells
View the document Chapter 11: Drilling and casing techniques
View the document Chapter 12: Construction: hand rotary and hand percussion methods
View the document Chapter 13: Construction: sludger method
View the document Chapter 14: Construction: driven and jetted
View the document Chapter 15: The bottom section
close this folder Appendices
View the document Appendix I: Conversion factors and tables
View the document Appendix II: Vegetation as an index of ground water
View the document Appendix III: Uses of dynamite in hand dug wells
View the document Appendix IV: Cement
View the document Appendix V: Leveling and plumbing the mold
View the document Appendix VI: Pipe
View the document Appendix VII: Pumps
View the document Appendix VIII: Water treatment in wells
View the document Appendix IX: Rope strength
View the document Glossary
View the document Annotated bibliography

Appendix I: Conversion factors and tables

Length

Incn (in.) = 2.54 cm.

Foot (ft) = 12 in. = 30.48 cm

Yard (yd) = 3 ft = 0.9144 m

Mile = 5280 ft = 1.609 km

Centimeter (cm) = 0.3937 in. = 0.01 m

Meter (m) = 100 cm = 3.281 ft = 1.0936 yd

Kilometer (km) = 1000 m = 0.6214 mile

Area

Square inch (sq. in) = 6.452 cm²

Square foot (sq. ft) = 144 sq. in. = 929.0 cm²

Acre (43 560 sq. ft.) = 0.4047 ha

Square mile (sq. mile) = 640 acres = 2.590 km²

Square centimeter (cm²) = 0.155 sq. in

Square meter (m²) = 10 000 cm² = 10.764 sq. ft

Hectare (ha) = 10 000 m² = 2.471 acres

Square kilometer (km²) = 100 ha = 0.3861 sq. mile

Volume and Capacity

Cubic inch (cu. in.) = 16.387 cm³ or ml

Cubic foot (cu. ft) = 1729 cu. in. = 28.316 1 = 6.229 Imp.

gal = 7.481 US gal

Cubic yard (cu. yd) = 27 cu. ft = 0.7646 m³

Fluid ounce (British)(fl. oz.) = 28.41 ml

(US)(US fl. oz.) = 29.57 ml

Pint (British) (pt) = 20 fl. 02. = 0.5682 1

(US)(US pt) = 16 US fl. oz. = 0.4732 1

Quart (British) (qt) = 2 pt = 1.1365 1

(US)(US qt) = 2 US pt = 0.9463 1

Imperial gallon (British)(Imp. gal.) = 277.42 cu. in. = 1.20

US gal. = 4.546 1

US gallon (US gal.) = 231.0 cu. in. = 0.8327 Imp. gal = 3.785 1

Acre-foot = 1233.5 m³

Cubic centermeter (cm³) = 0.999972 ml = 0.06102 cu. in.

Mililiter (ml) = 1.000028 cm³ = 0.03520 fl. oz.

Liter (1) = 1000 ml = 0.2200 Imp. gal. = 0.2642 US gal.

= 0.035316 cu. ft

Cubic meter (m³) = 1000.028 1 = 1.3080 cu. yd = 220.0 Imp. gal

= 264.2 US gal = 0.0008107 acre-foot

 

Weight

Grain = 0.06480 g

Ounce (oz.) = 437.5 grains = 28.35 g

Pound (lb.) = 16 oz. = 0.45359 kg

Stone = 14 lb. = 6.350 kg

Hundredweight (cwt) (British) = 112 lb. = 50.802 kg

Hundredweight (cwt) (US) = 100 lb. = 45.359 kg

(Long) ton (British) = 2240 lb. = 1.01605 t

Short ton (US) = 2000 lb. = 0.90718 t

Gram (g) = 15.432 grains

Kilogram (kg) = 1000 g = 2.2046 lb.

Metric ton (t) = 1000 kg = 0.9842 long ton = 1.1023 short tons

ft³ water = 62.4 lbs.

1 liter water = 1 kg

 

Pressure

Pound per square inch (p.s.i.) = 0.06805 atm. = 0.07031 kg/cm²

= 0.7031 m of water = 2.307 ft of water

Standard atmosphere (atm.) = 14.696 p.s.i. = 1.0332 kg/cm²

Metric atmosphere kg/cm² = 14.223 p.s.i. = 0.9678 atm.

 

Flow rate

Cubic foot per second (cu. ft/sec) = 0.5382 mgd (Imp.) =

0.6463 msd (US)

Cubic foot per minute (cu.ft/min) = 0.4719 1/see

Imperial gallon per minute (Igpm) = 0.7577 1/see = 0.2728 m³/h

US gallon per minute (gpm) = 0.06309 1/see = 0.2271 m³/h

Million gallons per day (mgd) (Imperial) = 52.615 1/see

(US) = 43.811 1/see

Liter per second (1/sec) = 3.6001 m³/h = 13.20 Igpm = 15.85 gpm

= 0.019006 mgd (Imp.) = 0.022825 mgd (US)

Cubic meter per hour (m³/h) = 0.2778 1/see = 3.666 Igpm

= 4.403 gpm

 

Filtration rate

Million Imperial gallons per acre per day (mgad,Imp.) =

1.1234 m³/m²/day

Million US gallons per acre per day (mgad) = 0.9354 m³/m²/day

Cubic meter per square meter per day m³/m²/day

= 0.8902 mgad,

 

= 1.0691 mgad

 

Miscellaneous

Horsepower (h.p.) = 33 000 foot-pounds per minute = 0.746 kW

= 1.0139 CV

Kilowatt (kW) = 1.36 CV = 1.34 h.p.

Cheval-vapeur (CV) = 0.9863 h.p. = 0.736 kW

One liter of water weighs one kilogram (at 4°C)

One cubit foot of water weighs 63.43 pounds

One US gallon of water weighs a. 345 pounds