| Animal traction |
|About this manual|
|About the author|
|What is animal traction?|
|History of animal traction|
|Why use animal traction?|
|How can animal traction be used?|
|Before beginning: what do you need to know?|
|2. Draft animal selection|
|Popular draft animals|
|Determining power requirements|
|General rules concerning power requirements|
|Method for determining size of the hitch|
|Determining weights of animals|
|Selection of individual draft animals|
|3. Animal husbandry|
|Minor medical problems and first aid|
|4. Training draft animals|
|Before training begins|
|General comments on training procedure|
|Program for training cattle|
|Training horses, donkeys and mules|
|Program for training horses, donkeys and mules|
|5. Yokes and harnesses|
|Yokes and harnesses for cattle|
|Yokes and harnesses for horses, donkeys and mules|
|How to harness a horse, donkey or mule|
|7. Field operations and implements|
|8. Economic and technical assistance|
|Farm planning assistance|
|Credit for equipment|
|Credit for animals|
|Procedures and controls|
|9. Animal traction extension|
|Appendix A: Animal power|
|Appendix B: Animal nutrition|
|Energy needs: bovine animals|
|Energy needs: equine animals|
|Nutrient needs of draft animals: protein, minerals, vitamins|
|Feeds and feed composition|
|Calculating a ration|
|Recommended rations and feeding practices|
|Appendix C: Disease recognition and control|
|Parasites and parasitic disease|
|Appendix D: Workshop and spare parts inventory|
|Appendix E: Animal traction instruction forms|
|Appendix F: Animal breeds used for power|
Agricultural Research Organizations and Institutions
Agricultural Tools Research Center, Suru chi Vesahat, P.O. Box 4, Bardoliz, 394-601 Dist. Surat, Gujarat, India.
Applied Scientific Research Corporation of Thailand (ASRCT), 196 Phabronyothin Road, Bangkhen, Bangkok-9. Publishes monthly newsletter, "ASRCT Research News."
Bureau pour le Dévelopment de la Production Agricole, 202 Rue de la Croix-Nivert, 75738 Paris CEDEX 15. Information on camels in animal traction.
Centre d' etude et de'Expérimentation du Machinism Agricole Topicale (CEEMAT), Parc de Tourvoie, 92160 Antony, France. Adaptions of agricultural:machinery to tropical conditions. Three-timesa-year review Machinisme Agricole Tropicale " and a newsletter "Lettre d'information."
Center for Tropical Agriculture, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2001 McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA. International agriculture development, training of foreign students in new methods, and U.S. students in tropical needs.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agricultural Research, Samaiu, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1044, Zaria, Nigeria. On request, mails information on agriculture extension and research.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Via delle Terme de Caracalla, 00100 Rome. Publishes FAO ''Books in Print," which lists all annual publications, and booklets in the Better Farming Series. Also available are filmstrips on animal traction using a horse and a camel. Publications available through UNIPUB, 650 First Avenue, P.O. Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York 10116.
Fundacao Gaucha de Travalho, Porto Allegre, Rio Grande do Sal, Brazil. Has published 12 field manuals for agricultural extension workers.
Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des Cultures Vivrieres (IRAT), 110 Rue de l'Universite, 75340 Paris CEDEX 07.
Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), P.O. Box 2003, Addis Abba, Ethiopia.
Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), 9 King Street, London WC2 E8HN. All ITDG publications can be ordered from International Scholary Book Service, Inc., Box 555, Forest Grove, OR 97116, USA.
International Center for Arid & SemiArid Land Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 49409, USA. Studies on new plants, animals bred for arid lands; also solar energy, soil sciences, waste disposal, desert ecology, salinity, etc.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), 1-11-256, Begumset, Hyderabad 500 016 U.P., India.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria. Publishes "IITA Newsletter," quarterly (free).
International Office of Epizootics, 12 Rue de Prony, Paris XVII.
International Rice Research Institute IRRI), P.O. Box 933, Manila. Publishes "IRRI Reporter," quarterly (free).
Koninklijk Instituut foor de Tropen (Royal Tropical Institute), Department of Agricultural Research, Mauritskade 63, 1092 AD Amsterdam.
National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Publishes bulletins on the nutrient requirements of domestic animals.
National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161, USA. Write for publications list.
Société d' aide Technique et de Cooperation (SATEC), 110 Rue de l'Université, 75340 Paris CEDEX 07.
Société d' etudes et de Développement Agricoles Associés (SEDAGRI), 202 Rue de la Croix-Nivert, Paris XV.
Stichting Tool (TOOL), (Foundation for Technical Development in Developing Countries) Mauritskade 61a, Amsterdam. Write for publications lists.
Technical Assistance Information Clearing House(TAICH), 200 Park Avenue South, New York 10003. Write for list of titles available.
Tillers Research International, c/o Richard Rosenberg, 1402 Hillcrest Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), U.S. State Department, 320 21st Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. Write for list of reports to AID R&D Report Distribution, P.O. Box 353, Norfolk, VA 23501, USA.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA. A list of U.S. Department of Agriculture publications can be obtained by directing a request to the Office of Information, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250, or write to the Foreign Development Division.
U.S. Peace Corps/Information Collection & Exchange, Room M700, 806 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20525. Peace Corps ICE makes available a wide range of publications on agriculture and agricultural extension. Lists of these publications are available at local Peace Corps offices or can be obtained by writing directly to Peace Corps.
Volunteers in Asia (VIA), Inc., Box 4543, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Write for publications list.
Volunteers in Technical Assistance, Inc. (VITA?, 3706 Rhode Island Avenue. Mt. Rainier. MD. 20822 USA. This organization answers technical questions from the field and has a publications list that includes Peace Corps and ITDG manuals and pamphlets. Write to ICE for publications lists or with specific questions to be referred.
Draft Animal Workshops
Draft Horse Institute, c/o Ted Bermingham
Indian Summer Farm
Cabot, UT 05647, USA.
Offers five-day intensive course in care and use of draft horses with emphasis on development of student skills. Subjects: selection of horses; selection and use of harness; animal husbandry and health.
Draft Horse Workshop Clarksburg, MA 01247, USA.
Hillcraft School of Horseshoeing
10890 Deer Creek Canyon Road Littleton, CO 80120, USA.
Office of Continuing Education North Adams State College North Adams, MA 01247, USA.
Offers courses in draft animal use (horses).
Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliers
Agro-Util, Inc. 404 Broadway, Box 271 South Haven, MI 4909, USA.
Simple, low-cost tools to help small farmers.
Cumberland General Store Rt. 3, Box 479 Crossville, TN 38555, USA.
Has a catalogue for ordering equipment.
Detweiler's Harness Shop Rt. 1, Box 228 Hazleton, IA 50641, USA.
Has a catalogue for ordering equipment.
Freeport Harness Shop Freeport, ME 04032, USA.
Hamburg Plow Works, Inc. 1021 S. Fourth Street Hamburg, PA 19526, USA.
H. B. Harness Mfg. Co. 75 Bathurst St. Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Holt, John, Agricultural Engineers, Ltd. P.O. Box 352, Zaria, Nigeria
Siscoma B.P 3214 Dakar, Senegal
Société des Forges Tropicals B.P. 706 Douala, Cameroun
Tanzanian Agricultural Machinery, Testing Unit (TAMTU) Box 1839 Arusha, Tanzania
Wengend's Manufacturing R.R. 2, Box 267 Dalton, OH 44618, USA
Small moldboard plows.
Wheat State Harness Company 406 West Adams Pittsburg, KA 66762, USA.
Evener, The Putney, VT 05346, USA. 11 issues annually, $6.00/year.
Draft Horse Journal Rt. 3 Waverly, IA 50677, USA. 4 issues annually, $6.00/year.
Mr. Longears Rt. 5, Box 65 Denton, Texas 76201, USA. Publication of American Donkey and Mule Association.
Small Farmer' 8 Journal Box 197 Junction City, OR 97448, USA. 4 issues annually, $8.50/year.
Special Applications (for camels, mules, and multiple hitches)
Camels: Fort, J., "Mécanisation des Pratiques Agricoles Transitionnelles en Zone Sahelienne du Nord." From: Machinisme Agricole Tropical, Centre d' etudes et d'Expérimentation du Machinisme Agricole Tropical (CEEMAT), No. 41 (JanuaryMarch 1975).
Further information may be obtained by writing:
Bureau pour le Développement de la Production Agricole 202 Rue de la Croix-Nivert 75738 Paris CEDEX 15.
Mules: Wiggins, L.L., and C.L. Evans. Mule Power in Ethiopian Agriculture, Bulletin 15. Dire Dawa: Imperial Ethiopian College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, Experimental Station.
CEEMAT may be able to furnish information on breeding trials carried out in Mali between 1930 and 1944 (crossing with Poitou and Moroccan he-asses).
or, request information from:
Division of Machinism Agricole B.P. 155 Bamako, Mali.
Multiple hitches: The hitching techniques shown in these articles and booklets are still applicable and will be of great help to persons using multiple hitches.
American Society of Agricultural Engineers. "The Efficient Use of Animal Power." February 1922 issue of their publication Agricultural Engineering. For photocopy, write:
American Society of Agricultural Engineers St. Joseph, MI, USA. Send $2.00 and letter of inquiry.
Horse and Mule Association of America, The Hitch Booklet, 1926. Three-, four-, five and six-horse hitches; text and illustrations.
Horses-Mules, Power-Profit, 1934. Three-sixteen horse hitches. Photocopies available through USDA Library, Beltsville, MD, USA.