Cover Image
close this book Animal traction
View the document About this manual
View the document About the author
View the document Acknowledgments
close this folder 1. Introduction
View the document What is animal traction?
View the document History of animal traction
View the document Why use animal traction?
View the document Some considerations
View the document How can animal traction be used?
View the document Before beginning: what do you need to know?
close this folder 2. Draft animal selection
View the document Popular draft animals
View the document Determining power requirements
View the document General rules concerning power requirements
View the document Method for determining size of the hitch
View the document Determining weights of animals
View the document Selection of individual draft animals
View the document Conformation
View the document Temperament
close this folder 3. Animal husbandry
View the document Sheller
View the document Nutrition
View the document Grooming
View the document Minor medical problems and first aid
close this folder 4. Training draft animals
View the document Before training begins
View the document General comments on training procedure
View the document Training cattle
View the document Program for training cattle
View the document Training horses, donkeys and mules
View the document Program for training horses, donkeys and mules
close this folder 5. Yokes and harnesses
View the document Yokes and harnesses for cattle
View the document Yokes and harnesses for horses, donkeys and mules
View the document How to harness a horse, donkey or mule
View the document Steering systems
View the document Breeching harness
close this folder 6. Hitches
View the document Safety rules
View the document Implement hitches
View the document Vehicle hitches
View the document 7. Field operations and implements
close this folder 8. Economic and technical assistance
View the document Farm planning assistance
View the document Equipment options
View the document Credit for equipment
View the document Credit for animals
View the document Procedures and controls
close this folder 9. Animal traction extension
View the document Extension education
View the document Appendix A: Animal power
close this folder Appendix B: Animal nutrition
View the document Energy needs: bovine animals
View the document Energy needs: equine animals
View the document Nutrient needs of draft animals: protein, minerals, vitamins
View the document Feeds and feed composition
View the document Calculating a ration
View the document Recommended rations and feeding practices
close this folder Appendix C: Disease recognition and control
View the document Parasites and parasitic disease
View the document Appendix D: Workshop and spare parts inventory
View the document Appendix E: Animal traction instruction forms
View the document Appendix F: Animal breeds used for power
View the document Bibliography
View the document Resources
View the document GIossary


Agricultural Research Organizations and Institutions

Agricultural Tools Research Center, Suru chi Vesahat, P.O. Box 4, Bardoliz, 394-601 Dist. Surat, Gujarat, India.

Applied Scientific Research Corporation of Thailand (ASRCT), 196 Phabronyothin Road, Bangkhen, Bangkok-9. Publishes monthly newsletter, "ASRCT Research News."

Bureau pour le Dévelopment de la Production Agricole, 202 Rue de la Croix-Nivert, 75738 Paris CEDEX 15. Information on camels in animal traction.

Centre d' etude et de'Expérimentation du Machinism Agricole Topicale (CEEMAT), Parc de Tourvoie, 92160 Antony, France. Adaptions of agricultural:machinery to tropical conditions. Three-timesa-year review Machinisme Agricole Tropicale " and a newsletter "Lettre d'information."

Center for Tropical Agriculture, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2001 McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA. International agriculture development, training of foreign students in new methods, and U.S. students in tropical needs.

Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agricultural Research, Samaiu, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1044, Zaria, Nigeria. On request, mails information on agriculture extension and research.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Via delle Terme de Caracalla, 00100 Rome. Publishes FAO ''Books in Print," which lists all annual publications, and booklets in the Better Farming Series. Also available are filmstrips on animal traction using a horse and a camel. Publications available through UNIPUB, 650 First Avenue, P.O. Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York 10116.

Fundacao Gaucha de Travalho, Porto Allegre, Rio Grande do Sal, Brazil. Has published 12 field manuals for agricultural extension workers.

Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des Cultures Vivrieres (IRAT), 110 Rue de l'Universite, 75340 Paris CEDEX 07.

Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), P.O. Box 2003, Addis Abba, Ethiopia.

Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), 9 King Street, London WC2 E8HN. All ITDG publications can be ordered from International Scholary Book Service, Inc., Box 555, Forest Grove, OR 97116, USA.

International Center for Arid & SemiArid Land Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 49409, USA. Studies on new plants, animals bred for arid lands; also solar energy, soil sciences, waste disposal, desert ecology, salinity, etc.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), 1-11-256, Begumset, Hyderabad 500 016 U.P., India.

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria. Publishes "IITA Newsletter," quarterly (free).

International Office of Epizootics, 12 Rue de Prony, Paris XVII.

International Rice Research Institute IRRI), P.O. Box 933, Manila. Publishes "IRRI Reporter," quarterly (free).

Koninklijk Instituut foor de Tropen (Royal Tropical Institute), Department of Agricultural Research, Mauritskade 63, 1092 AD Amsterdam.

National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Publishes bulletins on the nutrient requirements of domestic animals.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161, USA. Write for publications list.

Société d' aide Technique et de Cooperation (SATEC), 110 Rue de l'Université, 75340 Paris CEDEX 07.

Société d' etudes et de Développement Agricoles Associés (SEDAGRI), 202 Rue de la Croix-Nivert, Paris XV.

Stichting Tool (TOOL), (Foundation for Technical Development in Developing Countries) Mauritskade 61a, Amsterdam. Write for publications lists.

Technical Assistance Information Clearing House(TAICH), 200 Park Avenue South, New York 10003. Write for list of titles available.

Tillers Research International, c/o Richard Rosenberg, 1402 Hillcrest Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA.

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), U.S. State Department, 320 21st Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. Write for list of reports to AID R&D Report Distribution, P.O. Box 353, Norfolk, VA 23501, USA.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA. A list of U.S. Department of Agriculture publications can be obtained by directing a request to the Office of Information, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250, or write to the Foreign Development Division.

U.S. Peace Corps/Information Collection & Exchange, Room M700, 806 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20525. Peace Corps ICE makes available a wide range of publications on agriculture and agricultural extension. Lists of these publications are available at local Peace Corps offices or can be obtained by writing directly to Peace Corps.

Volunteers in Asia (VIA), Inc., Box 4543, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Write for publications list.

Volunteers in Technical Assistance, Inc. (VITA?, 3706 Rhode Island Avenue. Mt. Rainier. MD. 20822 USA. This organization answers technical questions from the field and has a publications list that includes Peace Corps and ITDG manuals and pamphlets. Write to ICE for publications lists or with specific questions to be referred.

Draft Animal Workshops

Draft Horse Institute, c/o Ted Bermingham

Indian Summer Farm

Cabot, UT 05647, USA.

Offers five-day intensive course in care and use of draft horses with emphasis on development of student skills. Subjects: selection of horses; selection and use of harness; animal husbandry and health.

Draft Horse Workshop Clarksburg, MA 01247, USA.

Hillcraft School of Horseshoeing

10890 Deer Creek Canyon Road Littleton, CO 80120, USA.

Office of Continuing Education North Adams State College North Adams, MA 01247, USA.

Offers courses in draft animal use (horses).

Equipment Manufacturers and Suppliers

Agro-Util, Inc. 404 Broadway, Box 271 South Haven, MI 4909, USA.

Simple, low-cost tools to help small farmers.

Cumberland General Store Rt. 3, Box 479 Crossville, TN 38555, USA.

Has a catalogue for ordering equipment.

Detweiler's Harness Shop Rt. 1, Box 228 Hazleton, IA 50641, USA.

Has a catalogue for ordering equipment.

Freeport Harness Shop Freeport, ME 04032, USA.

Hamburg Plow Works, Inc. 1021 S. Fourth Street Hamburg, PA 19526, USA.

H. B. Harness Mfg. Co. 75 Bathurst St. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Holt, John, Agricultural Engineers, Ltd. P.O. Box 352, Zaria, Nigeria

Siscoma B.P 3214 Dakar, Senegal

Société des Forges Tropicals B.P. 706 Douala, Cameroun

Tanzanian Agricultural Machinery, Testing Unit (TAMTU) Box 1839 Arusha, Tanzania

Wengend's Manufacturing R.R. 2, Box 267 Dalton, OH 44618, USA

Small moldboard plows.

Wheat State Harness Company 406 West Adams Pittsburg, KA 66762, USA.


Evener, The Putney, VT 05346, USA. 11 issues annually, $6.00/year.

Draft Horse Journal Rt. 3 Waverly, IA 50677, USA. 4 issues annually, $6.00/year.

Mr. Longears Rt. 5, Box 65 Denton, Texas 76201, USA. Publication of American Donkey and Mule Association.

Small Farmer' 8 Journal Box 197 Junction City, OR 97448, USA. 4 issues annually, $8.50/year.

Special Applications (for camels, mules, and multiple hitches)

Camels: Fort, J., "Mécanisation des Pratiques Agricoles Transitionnelles en Zone Sahelienne du Nord." From: Machinisme Agricole Tropical, Centre d' etudes et d'Expérimentation du Machinisme Agricole Tropical (CEEMAT), No. 41 (JanuaryMarch 1975).

Further information may be obtained by writing:

Bureau pour le Développement de la Production Agricole 202 Rue de la Croix-Nivert 75738 Paris CEDEX 15.

Mules: Wiggins, L.L., and C.L. Evans. Mule Power in Ethiopian Agriculture, Bulletin 15. Dire Dawa: Imperial Ethiopian College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, Experimental Station.

CEEMAT may be able to furnish information on breeding trials carried out in Mali between 1930 and 1944 (crossing with Poitou and Moroccan he-asses).

or, request information from:

Division of Machinism Agricole B.P. 155 Bamako, Mali.

Multiple hitches: The hitching techniques shown in these articles and booklets are still applicable and will be of great help to persons using multiple hitches.

American Society of Agricultural Engineers. "The Efficient Use of Animal Power." February 1922 issue of their publication Agricultural Engineering. For photocopy, write:

American Society of Agricultural Engineers St. Joseph, MI, USA. Send $2.00 and letter of inquiry.

Horse and Mule Association of America, The Hitch Booklet, 1926. Three-, four-, five and six-horse hitches; text and illustrations.

Horses-Mules, Power-Profit, 1934. Three-sixteen horse hitches. Photocopies available through USDA Library, Beltsville, MD, USA.