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close this book Prevention and treatment of mold in library collections with an emphasis on tropical climates: A RAMP study
close this folder 3. Implications for library materials
close this folder 3.2 Environmental factors
View the document 3.2.1 Circulation
View the document 3.2.2 Relative humidity
View the document 3.2.3 Temperature

3.2 Environmental factors

The five critical environmental factors for the growth and development of mold in library collections are:

- The presence of mold spores

- A source of nutrients

- Adequate moisture

- Suitable temperature for a particular variety of mold.

- Limited air circulation

It is obvious that the first two factors are completely beyond the control of librarians. The presence of spores and the source of nutrients are a given in library collections. Only the last three factors can be manipulated or controlled in order to prevent the occurance of mold growth.


3.2.1 Circulation

Of these three, circulation is one of the most critical, and the most often neglected. The literature often mentions in passing the importance of good air circulation. Unfortunately, the significance of this factor, particularly in areas where the environment is not temperature and humidity controlled, has been largely overlooked. Air movement causes the evaporation of moisture, lowering the surface temperature. This is evident to anyone who has ever experienced the cooling effect of a sudden breeze on a hot still day. Good air circulation in the library results in the evaporation of moisture, lowers the surface temperature, and alters two of the environmental factors on which mold growth depends.

It is, in general, much less expensive to move existing air around, thereby modifying the temperature and humidity than it is to introduce an artificially created supply of air with characteristics radically different than that of the surrounding air. Good air circulation can do much to reduce the problems associated with lack of control of conditions three and four.


3.2.2 Relative humidity

Paper, cloth and leather are all hygroscopic, that is, they absorb moisture from the air and retain it. Thus, in humid climates, most materials in the library contain a relatively high percentage of water. In these conditions, even a slight increase in ambient relative humidity is enough for the item to sustain mold growth, if the other requirements are present.

There are several different ways to measure moisture. Absolute Humidity is the weight of water in a given volume of air (g/m3 ). Moisture content is the weight of water in any given material (kg/kg). Both of these measurments are variable, i.e., warm air can hold more moisture than cold air, and the moisture content of materials varies with the absolute humidity of the surrounding air. Neither absolute humidity nor moisture content can be effectively determined in a library environment. Therefore, the only useful measure from the point of view of collections maintenance is that of Relative Humidity (RH). Relative humidity is the amount of water in a given volume of air relative to the maximum amount of water air can hold at that temperature, and is expressed as a percentage.

When warm air is cooled it can hold less moisture. This moisture condenses on the surface of items or is absorbed by them if they are hygroscopic, If, for example, at 70 F, the RH is 50%, it requires only a ten degree drop in temperature to raise the RH to 70%. Plenderleith and Werner8 include a chart which shows the curves relating a reduction in temperature to the corresponding rise in relative humidity. In humid tropical climates lowering the temperature without reducing the relative humidity can result: in rampant mold growth, as many institutions have discovered to their dismay after installing a series of window air conditioners in an attempt to improve their environment. While air conditioning does remove some moisture from the air, and is generally adequate in a more temperate environment with a naturally lower ambient RH, in tropical climates with year round RH of 80 to 90%, a window airconditioning unit cannot remove enough of the moisture to prevent the cooled air from reaching the dew point.

The literature contains a variety of recommendations for RH levels that will prevent the growth of mold. They range from a high of 60% to a low of 45%, and seem to have declined steadily over the years. In 1940, Beckwith found that of the molds in his experiment, none would grow at a relative humidity below 75%, even when additional nutrients were added to the culture.9 While not definitive, this would help to explain why tropical libraries and museums (whose RH is seldom as low as 60%, let alone 45%) are not constantly blanketed in mold. Certainly lower relative humidities are safer, but it is apparent that the incidence of growth can be minimized at significantly higher levels of humidity.

Because relative humidity is so dependent on temperature, all figures are relative, and subject to a number of variables. As seen above, a change in one results in a change in the other and achieving the correct balance is the critical factor.


3.2.3 Temperature

There is a strong inclination to attempt to modify the environment through changes in temperature alone, in part because temperature is the factor to which human beings are most sensitive. High temperatures do have a detrimental effect on library materials, and these have been so emphasised in the literature that they have tended to obscure the effects of lowering the temperature without regard to the relative humidity. As with most other environmental issues, easy answers and quick fixes tend to create problems that, in the long run, are often more damaging than the original problem.