Cover Image
close this book Animal traction
View the document About this manual
View the document About the author
View the document Acknowledgments
close this folder 1. Introduction
View the document What is animal traction?
View the document History of animal traction
View the document Why use animal traction?
View the document Some considerations
View the document How can animal traction be used?
View the document Before beginning: what do you need to know?
close this folder 2. Draft animal selection
View the document Popular draft animals
View the document Determining power requirements
View the document General rules concerning power requirements
View the document Method for determining size of the hitch
View the document Determining weights of animals
View the document Selection of individual draft animals
View the document Conformation
View the document Temperament
close this folder 3. Animal husbandry
View the document Sheller
View the document Nutrition
View the document Grooming
View the document Minor medical problems and first aid
close this folder 4. Training draft animals
View the document Before training begins
View the document General comments on training procedure
View the document Training cattle
View the document Program for training cattle
View the document Training horses, donkeys and mules
View the document Program for training horses, donkeys and mules
close this folder 5. Yokes and harnesses
View the document Yokes and harnesses for cattle
View the document Yokes and harnesses for horses, donkeys and mules
View the document How to harness a horse, donkey or mule
View the document Steering systems
View the document Breeching harness
close this folder 6. Hitches
View the document Safety rules
View the document Implement hitches
View the document Vehicle hitches
View the document 7. Field operations and implements
close this folder 8. Economic and technical assistance
View the document Farm planning assistance
View the document Equipment options
View the document Credit for equipment
View the document Credit for animals
View the document Procedures and controls
close this folder 9. Animal traction extension
View the document Extension education
View the document Appendix A: Animal power
close this folder Appendix B: Animal nutrition
View the document Energy needs: bovine animals
View the document Energy needs: equine animals
View the document Nutrient needs of draft animals: protein, minerals, vitamins
View the document Feeds and feed composition
View the document Calculating a ration
View the document Recommended rations and feeding practices
close this folder Appendix C: Disease recognition and control
View the document Parasites and parasitic disease
View the document Appendix D: Workshop and spare parts inventory
View the document Appendix E: Animal traction instruction forms
View the document Appendix F: Animal breeds used for power
View the document Bibliography
View the document Resources
View the document GIossary

Credit for equipment

Without financial help, many traditional farmers would not be able or willing to buy animals and animal-drawn equipment. Those with few or no cash reserves could not risk precious food or animal stores for the potential benefits of new methods. Those who could afford the materials might consider it too great a risk if the program were new and the quality of related technical assistance unproven. As a result, many programs offer farmers credit or loans.

Two approaches have been used to extend credit to farmers; either the animal traction instructor and/ or local extension agent handles applications, contracts, equipment distribution, and payments, or the agricultural supervisor or a special credit supervisor handles these functions. Administrators increasingly favor the second approach because instructional agents feel that their image and effectiveness as teachers is hampered when they are forced to collect loan payments.

Whatever the arrangement, the ability and willingness to repay a loan is based on the ability and willingness of extension services to deliver proper tools, skills, and support. From the farmer's viewpoint, the continued presence, interest and guidance of a qualified field instructor is a prerequisite for repayment of the loan; without this support, a return to traditional methods is the only logical and economical choice.

The experience gained in past projects has led to the development of credit systems based on low-interest, medium-term loans. The project may be financed through grants or national banks, or it may operate with its own earnings.

In some credit systems, the farmer pays 5-10 percent simple interest on a 2-5 year loan. The loan usually is reimbursed in a series of equal or increasing annual payments which may begin after a one-year grace period. Rebates may be offered to farmers who make full, early repayment. Because cash down payments are thought to discourage new farmers, most projects accept the purchase of animals, yoke and chain, or harness equipment as ample sign of commitment.

As part of the loan agreement, farmers may be required to do some or all of the following:

• Produce a minimum of one or two hectares of a government marketed cash crop and concur with extension-recommended cropping procedures, including use of hybrid seed, fertilizer, pesticides, planting and weeding procedures.

• Comply with an animal health care plan including construction of shelter, designation of compost area, prepayment of one-year vaccination and deworming treatments, growing and storing forage for dry season feeding, and obtaining animal insurance or maintaining substitute animals.

• Participate in an extension organized clinic on equipment assembly, adjustment, repair, and maintenance.

• Agree to pay penalty on overdue payments, or in case of foreclosures and repossession, to pay outstanding debt and/or depreciation costs.

• Become a member of a group or association of animal traction farmers which stocks supplies, organizes instruction, and maintains a common fund. In some cases, the group is chartered and lends money to members who are unable to make annual payments.

(Examples of equipment title and payment records are found in Appendix E.)