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close this book Aids resource manual - A guide for teaching about AIDS in Thailand
close this folder Section II - Teaching about AIDS
View the document 10 tips for talking about AIDS
View the document 5 Techniques to Avoid
View the document Some hints on talking to children about AIDS
View the document Communicating with Children
View the document Age-appropriate AIDS education guidelines
View the document How to use a condom
View the document Tips for using condoms
View the document Instructions for cleaning IV drug works

Section II - Teaching about AIDS

Successful teaching includes a good mix of knowledge, creativity and common sense. The following section provides simple tips and guidelines, some specific to Thailand, many appropriate anywhere.

Especially helpful are the "Age-Appropriate AIDS Education Guidelines" and "Hints on Talking to Children about AIDS."

10 tips for talking about AIDS

AIDS education is about living, not about dying.

1. DO assure people it is easy to avoid the AIDS virus by using safe behavior, and that everyday casual contact is safe even with HIV infected persons.

2. DO assure people that they don't need to be afraid of AIDS because the virus only spreads by blood or sexual fluids, i.e., by sharing needles, from infected mother to child, and by unsafe sex.

3. DO suggest that the best method for avoiding AIDS is to stay with one partner for life.

4. DO emphasize the importance of counselling and testing before marriage or before getting pregnant.

5. DO emphasize that testing by itself is not a guarantee of safety. Counselling and education about what the test means are an essential part of testing.

6. DO emphasize that there is no cure and no vaccine and neither is likely for at least 10 years, if then. Prevention is the only method.

7. DO emphasize the economic impact of AIDS. If father or mother has AIDS and die, who will support and care for the family? Who will grow the rice?

8. DO learn the difference between an HIV infected person and a person with AIDS and use the appropriate term.

9. DO use sensitive wording which respects the humanness of all people, e.g., Commercial Service Worker instead of prostitute. Words influence behavior.

10. DO emphasize that an HIV infected person can live a rewarding life. AIDS is not a death sentence.

5 Techniques to Avoid

1. AVOID talking about high risk groups, e.g., commercial service workers, IV drug users, farangs, gays, instead, focus on high risk behavior. AIDS is a disease of all people.

2. AVOID focusing on the possible origin of AIDS. It dilutes the message.

3. AVOID using statistics or use sparingly. Emphasize life, family.

4. AVOID giving the same message to all people. Tailor your message to the audience. There are many important messages that are not about sex and drugs.

5. AVOID lecturing. Make it fun and participatory.

Some hints on talking to children about AIDS

AGES 3-5:

Very young children need only the most basic information: that there are many serious diseases and AIDS is one of them and that there is little danger either you or they will get it. Beyond that, your major job is to provide a basis for the more detailed education they will need later.

AGES 5-8:

Children in elementary school need more information . Although they're still not ready to hear all the details, they do need to know that AIDS is caused by a virus. Reassure them that they can't get it from casual contact such as door knobs, toilet seats, hugging, glasses, dishes, coughing or sneezing.

Listen carefully to the child's questions. If she/he seems particularly concerned or curious about transmission, you may need to be more specific. Explain that AIDS is passed during sex or when using needles to take illegal drugs with someone who has AIDS. Try to keep your answers simple and concrete. Let them know AIDS can be prevented and that neither of you is likely to get it.

Teach about good social and cultural values.

Finally, teach them some basics about disease transmission in general. When they cut their finger or scrape their knee, explain that one way disease enters the body is through the blood.

AGES 9-12:

In middle school years, children need a better understanding of the facts. Between ages 9 and 12, you will need to be increasingly specific about transmission and prevention of AIDS.

By early adolescence, children should know that AIDS is transmitted mainly through IV drug use and sex; that it is passed through blood, semen and vaginal secretions; and that you can get it from vaginal and anal intercourse and oral sex. They need to know that using condoms can help prevent AIDS. Let them know that they can talk with you about AIDS.

Introduce ideas on non risk behavior and give suggestions on how to avoid risk behavior.

Communicating with Children

Here are some suggestion to help your conversation about AIDS go more easily.

• Stay calm. Keep your tone simple and direct.

• Use specific, dear terms. Ask questions to make sure he or she understands what you are saying.

• If you feel uncomfortable, say so. Let them know that AIDS is too important not to talk about, even if talking's not easy or comfortable.

• Listen carefully to any questions the children might ask. These may be a clue to specific fears or areas of misinformation that you can dear up. Understanding AIDS makes it less frightening.

• If you don't know the answer, maybe you can find out together. The facts about AIDS can be confusing and working together may help your communication.

• Use the children's age and development and your own feeling as a guide about how much information to present.

• Be careful not to preach. Because AIDS is so frightening, parents and educators may be tempted to use scare tactics. Your conversation will be more successful if you simply explain your concerns and then listen to what they have to say.

• Be clear about the values you want to present.

• Make sure you talk more than once. You'll do a better job if you continue to talk about AIDS often, as the topic comes up.

Age-appropriate AIDS education guidelines

This section identifies the AIDS specific information that is Introduced (1), Emphasized (E), and Reviewed (R) at the appropriate grade levels. This plan design is from the California State School System, but has been reviewed and modified by the Curriculum Design Center of the Ministry of Education, Thailand.

CONCEPTS

Kinder-

garten -

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

HIGH SCHOOL

   

B.1

B.2

B.3

B.4

B.5

B.6

M.1

M.2

M.3

M.4

M.5

M.6

1. AIDS is a serious disease.

I

R

R

R

R

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

2. The AIDS virus is not transmitted by casual contact.

I

R

R

R

R

R

R

E

R

R

R

E

R

3. People with HIV/AIDS should be treated in a supportive manner.

I

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

E

4. Saying no assertively can help students avoid risky situations.

       

I

R

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

5. AIDS is caused by a virus.

       

I

R

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

6. The AIDS virus is too small to be seen with the eyes.

       

I

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

7. The AIDS virus destroys the immune system and stays in the body forever.

       

I

R

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

8. People infected with HIV/AIDS can infect others even though they have no symptoms.

       

I

R

R

R

R

R

E

R

R

9. Abstinence from sexual intercourse (pre marital and extra marital) is the only 100% protection from the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS.

         

I

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

10. Abstaining from sexual intercourse (pre marital and extra marital) and not sharing needles are the best protections from the HIV/AIDS virus.

         

I

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

11. The AIDS virus can be transmitted through three body fluids: blood, semen, and vaginal fluids.

         

I

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

12. Personal decisions regarding behavior can reduce or eliminate the risk of being infected by HIV/AIDS.

         

I

E

R

E

R

R

R

R

13. The AIDS virus can be transmitted through sexual intercourse.

           

I

R

E

R

R

R

R

14. The AIDS virus can be transmitted by infected mother to unborn baby.

           

I

R

R

R

R

R

E

15. The AIDS virus can infect all people.

           

I

E

R

R

R

R

R

16. There may or may not be signs and symptoms of infection with the AIDS virus.

           

I

R

R

E

E

R

R

17. There is no cure or vaccine for HIV/AIDS.

           

I

R

R

R

R

E

R

18. Syringes, needles, knives, and razors or any sharp instrument can transmit infected blood.

           

I

R

E

R

R

R

R

19. The proper use of latex condoms reduces (not removes) the risk of infection with the AIDS virus.

             

I

E

R

R

R

R

20. The blood supply from Red Cross of Thailand is almost completely safe.

             

I

R

R

R

E

R

21. There are more people who are infected with the AIDS virus than have AIDS.

               

I

R

E

R

R

22. An exclusive monogamous relationship can reduce the risk of transmitting the HIV/AIDS virus.

                 

I

R

R

E

23 People can be tested for the AIDS antibody.

                     

I

E

24. AIDS antibody test results can be used in making decisions about the future.

                       

E

How to use a condom

Using a condom correctly can increase its effectiveness by 30%.

BEFORE SEX


1. Open package carefully. Rough handling, rings and fingernails can tear condoms. - 2. If uncircumcised, pull back the foreskin. - 3. Press the air out of the condom tip.


4. While holding onto the tip of the condom, use the other hand to unroll it, covering the entire erect penis. Be sure the rolled rim is on the outside. - 5. If desired, apply water soluble lubricant on the condom and/or on your partner.

AFTER SEX


6. After ejaculation, while the penis is still hard, wrap tissue around the base of the condom and withdraw.


7. Remove the condom. Do not let semen spill or leak from the condom.


8. Dispose of the used condom safely. Throw it in the garbage.

Note: If semen does spill or leak, quickly wash semen away with soap and water.

Tips for using condoms

• BE sure to a have a condom before you need one.

• ALWAYS use condoms for vaginal, anal or oral sex.

• ALWAYS put the condom on BEFORE your erect penis touches your partner.

• USE water soluble lubricants, such as K-Y Jelly@, or spermicides to increase condom comfort and protection.

• NEVER use oil based lubricants such as Vaseline@, cold cream or lotion because they will damage condoms.

• DO not use a condom more than once.

• USE another condom, if the one you have:

- has torn or damaged packaging

- is past its expiration date or bears a manufacturing date of more than three years

- is uneven or changed in color

- feels brittle, dried out or very sticky.

Instructions for cleaning IV drug works

The AIDS virus can get into used needles, syringes, cookers, cotton, and water. If you share any of these, you can get AIDS, or pass the virus to someone else. Bleach kills the AIDS virus. You can clean your works and rigs with bleach, and help protect yourself from getting AIDS. Bleach will not damage the needle or syringe.

First with bleach


1. Draw up bleach


2. Squirt bleach


3. Draw up bleach


4. Squirt bleach

Then with water:


5. Draw up water


6. Squirt water


7. Draw up water


8. Squirt water

Important: Soak any other part of your works (tops, caps, cooker, spoon) in bleach. Rinse your works with water before using. Do not reuse cotton

From:

REACH Program, Ohio

AIDS/HIV Program, Michigan

American Red Cross

U.S.A.