Cover Image
close this book Community Nutrition Action for Child Survival
View the document Table of contents
View the document Introduction
View the document How to use community nutrition action for child survival
close this folder Part I - Community nutrition problems and interventions
close this folder Unit 1 - The nutrition of women and children
View the document Session 1: What is malnutrition?
View the document Session 2: Focus on the nutrition of women and children
View the document Session 2: Focus on women and children
View the document Session 3: Important causes of malnutrition in women and children
View the document Session 4: Community nutrition action for child survival
close this folder Unit 2: Measuring and monitoring growth in young children
View the document Session 1: Measuring growth
View the document Session 2: Arm circumference
View the document Session 3: The road to health chart
View the document Session 4: The thinness chart
View the document Session 6: Counseling, referral and follow-up of malnourished children
close this folder Unit 3: PROMOTING BREASTFEEDING
View the document Session 1: The importance of breastfeeding
View the document Session 2: Helping mothers breastfeed
View the document Session 3: Breastfeeding information for Kenyans
close this folder Unit 4: Introducing weaning practices in the community
View the document Session 1: Changing weaning practices
View the document Session 2: Making improved meaning foods in the home
View the document Session 3: Weaning food practice
View the document Session 4: Case study: Village weaning food projects in Thailand
View the document Session 5: Weaning foods - Village production techniques
close this folder Unit 5: Preventing diarrhea
View the document Session 1: Preventing diarrhea*
View the document Session 2: Diarrhea home management
View the document Session 3: Community activities to prevent diarrhea*
close this folder Unit 6: Immunization
View the document Session: Improving immunization coverage - The community's role
close this folder Unit 7: Family planning and nutrition
View the document Session 1: Family planning and nutrition
View the document Session 2: Providing the facts about family planning
View the document Session 3: Community-based distribution of family planning methods
close this folder Part II - Planning nutrition action projects
close this folder Unit 1: Working with the community to improve nutrition
View the document Session: Simulation exercise
close this folder Unit 2: Finding the causes of malnutrition
View the document Session 1: Conducting a community nutrition mini-survey
View the document Session 2: Analyzing community nutrition information
close this folder Unit 3: Deciding what to do
View the document Session 1: Visits to on-going nutrition projects
View the document Session 2: Case studies/panel discussion
close this folder Unit 4: Planning nutrition action projects
View the document Session 1: Describing the problem
View the document Session 2: Writing project goals and objectives
View the document Session 3: Choosing project activities
View the document Session 4: Developing a project work plan
View the document Session 5: Planning how to evaluate
View the document Session 6: Preparing a budget
close this folder Unit 5 - Session: Writing a project proposal/Mini-Workshop
View the document Session: Writing a project proposal Mini-Workshop
close this folder Part III - Project management systems
close this folder Unit 1: Training community nutrition workers
View the document Session 1: Introduction
View the document Session 2: Assessing training needs/writing objectives
View the document Session 3: Choosing training methods
View the document Session 4: Scheduling training content
close this folder Unit 2: Evaluating progress
View the document Session 1: What do he need to know? How can we find out?
View the document Session 2: Records and reports
View the document Session 3: A prototype record keeping system
View the document Session 4: Evaluating activities with the community
close this folder Unit 3 - Supervising community nutrition activities
View the document Session 1: The role of the supervisor
View the document Session 2: Identifying and solving problems
View the document Session 3: Problem-solving/role play
View the document Session 4: Planning and conducting supervision visits

Session 1: The role of the supervisor

Purpose:

1. Analyze past experience as a subordinate and as a supervisor .

2. Define the functions of supervision in nutrition improvement programs.

3. Discuss the characteristics of community workers and volunteers that affect supervision.

Time: 3 hours

Materials

- Handout - "Supervisors I Have Known"

- Handout - "Supervising Volunteers"

- Flipchart and marking pens

Preparation:

Review handouts and prepare questions for discussion.

Steps:

1. Introduce the topic of supervision by brainstorming the functions of program supervisors. Add the following points, if they are not mentioned:

- Direct and control program activities

- Provide support and encouragement to workers - Provide on-the-job training

- Monitor program activities

- Contact and share information with village leaders and other administrative officials

- Motivate staff and volunteers

- Set an example

- Reinforce work of subordinates

- Identify outside technical and financial assistance, if necessary

2. Distribute the Handout - "Supervisors I Have Known" and ask participants to read and answer each question.

3. Divide into two work groups. The task of each group is to share its answers to the first and second questions on the handout, then to develop a group list of the characteristics of an effective supervisor.

4. When groups finish, ask them to write their descriptions on the flipchart and to present them to the group.

5. Comment on the similarities and differences in the groups' definitions and add the following points, if they are not mentioned. An effective supervisor:

- Has a good understanding of the job of the worker/volunteer

- Listens

- Cares about the worker/volunteer

- Helps the worker/volunteer improve

- Looks at performance, not personality

- Gets the facts before making a decision

- Gives feedback

- Is specific about tasks to be performed - Is open and communicative

- Motivates through words and actions

6. Return to work groups. Ask work groups to share their answers to questions 3 and 4 on the handout about their own strengths and problems as supervisors.

7. Assign each group the task of designing a short role play to illustrate one or two of the problems they have encountered as supervisors of people and activities. Groups should choose problems that several of them have in common. (Allow 20 minutes for preparation of role plays.)

8. Work groups present their role plays.

9. After each role play, ask participants to summarize the problems presented. List them on the flipchart.

10. Lead a discussion based on the problems presented in the role plays. Possible questions to stimulate discussion might be:

- What are the causes of each supervision problem?

- What are the skills supervisors must have to overcome and avoid these problems?

- What kinds of support and training do supervisors need to overcome these problems?

11. Discuss the characteristics of workers/volunteers that affect how supervisors approach and work with them. These include:

- Often unpaid

- Low level of basic education

- Short training in nutrition

- Different motivations for becoming workers/ volunteers

- Age

- Sex

- Etc.

12. Distribute the Handout - "Supervising Volunteers," and discuss the differences between supervising volunteers and paid workers. Emphasize ways to motivate volunteer workers:

- Giving positive feedback, praise

- Working with them

- Helping them improve and acquire new skills

- Etc.

13. Summary: In this session, participants reviewed the functions of supervisors of community nutrition and health activities. They listed the characteristics of effective supervisors, and they discussed common problems faced by supervisors. The sessions that follow will help supervisors develop problem-solving, planning and communication skills needed for effective supervision.

HANDOUT

SUPERVISORS I HAVE KNOWN

1. When a supervisor inspires you to perform a job well, what does the supervisor do?

The supervisor_______________________________________________________________________

2. How would you describe your ideal supervisor?

My ideal supervisor is a person who___________________________________________________

3. If you have been or are a supervisor of people or activities, what are the things you like about your style of supervision?

________________________________________________________________________________

4. What problems have you encountered as a supervisor?

________________________________________________________________________________

HANDOUT

SUPERVISING VOLUNTEERS

The following chart compares the characteristics of leaders in volunteer organizations and in organizations with paid staff. These characteristics often determine the role and the approach of a supervisor.

Characteristics of LeadersVolunteer Organizations

Organization With Paid Workers

1. Leader/supervisor
salaried?

No

Yes,
Paid a salary

2. Subordinate/worker
salaried?

No

Yes,
Paid to perform tasks

3. Consequences for
the worker if work
is not completed

Not severe
Not financial

Worker could lose
job and salary

4. Duration of job

Volunteers often
want only short-
term responsibility

Paid workers want
long-term assurance
of job

5. Goals

Usually agreed
to & set by all

Usually set by top
management

6. Leadership style

Manager must
"consult" volunteers;
works with them

"Tell"; "sell"; "direct"

7. Authority

Comes from the
followers

Comes from above

8. Personality

Dynamic, charismatic
personality often required

Dynamic personality
helpful but not critical

9. Expertise of supervisors/
leaders

Generalists-wide range
of people and technical
skills

Specialists

10. Job orientation

Must be people oriented

Task and/or people
oriented