Cover Image
close this book Wells construction: hand dug and hand drilled
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document Introduction
close this folder Section one: Planning
close this folder Chapter 1: Introduction to wells planning
View the document A. Overview
View the document B. The need for adequate water supply
View the document C. Involving the local community
View the document D. Selecting the most appropriate water source
View the document E. Site choice
View the document F. Preventing water contamination
View the document G. Types of wells
View the document H. Well sections
View the document I. Materials
View the document J. Tools and equipment
View the document K. Sinking method
View the document L. Preparation for construction
View the document M. Planning
close this folder Section two: Hand dug wells
View the document Chapter 2: Introduction to hand-dug wells
View the document Chapter 3: Well design
View the document Chapter 4: Supplies
View the document Chapter 5: Lowering and raising workers and equipment
View the document Chapter 6: Digging
View the document Chapter 7: The middle section: overview of lining techniques
View the document Chapter 8: Construction of the middle section
View the document Chapter 9: Construction of the bottom section
close this folder Section three: Drilled wells
View the document Chapter 10: Introduction to drilled wells
View the document Chapter 11: Drilling and casing techniques
View the document Chapter 12: Construction: hand rotary and hand percussion methods
View the document Chapter 13: Construction: sludger method
View the document Chapter 14: Construction: driven and jetted
View the document Chapter 15: The bottom section
close this folder Appendices
View the document Appendix I: Conversion factors and tables
View the document Appendix II: Vegetation as an index of ground water
View the document Appendix III: Uses of dynamite in hand dug wells
View the document Appendix IV: Cement
View the document Appendix V: Leveling and plumbing the mold
View the document Appendix VI: Pipe
View the document Appendix VII: Pumps
View the document Appendix VIII: Water treatment in wells
View the document Appendix IX: Rope strength
View the document Glossary
View the document Annotated bibliography

K. Sinking method

A sinking method is a specific way of sinking a well. Wells may be dug by hand, drilled with hand tools, or drilled with motorized equipment. Many methods and techniques are used. The particular choice depends on the available materials and equipment, the expected ground conditions at the well site, and your familiarity with a specific sinking technique.

Motorized drilling techniques are summarized in the section on Drilled Wells, but are not described in detail because of the high level of technical expertise necessary in the use of the equipment.

The following are general descriptions of hand-dug and hand-drilled sinking methods. For more details, see the manual sections on Hand-Duq Wells and Drilled Wells.

1. Hand-dug wells are sunk by digging a hole as deep as is necessary to reach water. Once the water bearing layer is reached, it should be penetrated as far as possible. This process is always basically the same, with only minor variations because of the particular tools and equipment available and the variety of ground conditions (see Fig. 1-3).


• This procedure is a very flexible one. It can be easily adapted with a minimum of equipment to a variety of soil conditions, as long as cement is available.

• Because the resulting well is wide-mouthed, it is easily adaptable to simple water-lifting techniques, if pumps are not available or appropriate.

• It provides a reservoir which is useful for accumulating water from ground formations which yield water slowly.



• A hand-dug well takes longer to construct than a drilled well.

• It is usually more expensive than a hand-drilled well.

• It cannot easily be made into a permanent water source without the use of cement.

• Hand-digging cannot easily penetrate hard ground and rock.

• It may be difficult to penetrate deeply enough into the aquifer so that the well will not dry up in the dry season.

2. Drilled wells are sunk by using a special tool, called a bit, which acts to loosen whatever soil or rock is at the bottom of the hole. It is connected to a shaft or line which extends to the ground surface and above. The part of the shaft or line extending above the ground can then be moved to operate the bit (see Fig. 1-4).



• It is fast.

• Where cement is not available, wells can be sunk with locally made drilling equipment and lined with local materials.

• While not easy, it is possible to penetrate hard ground and rock formations that would be very difficult to dig through.

• Drilling usually requires fewer people than hand-digging.

• It is especially suitable for use in loose sand with a shallow water table.


• There are a number of different hand-drilling techniques that are suitable for a wide range of ground conditions. However, each requires special equipment.

• Pumps almost always have to be used because buckets are too large to be lowered into the well.

• Limited depth can be reached with hand-powered drilling equipment.

Suitability of Well Construction Methods to Different Geological Conditions