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close this bookEmergency Management (United Nations Children's Fund, 390 p.)
close this folderWorkshop Session
View the documentSession 0: Opening Session
View the documentSession 1: Course Introduction*
View the documentSession 2: Perceptions of Emergencies
View the documentSession 3: Simulation*
View the documentSession 4: Principles of Emergency Management
View the documentSession 5: Early Warning & Pre-Disaster Planning
View the documentSession 6: Assessment
View the documentSession 7: Programme Planning
View the documentSession 8: Water & Sanitation
View the documentSession 9: Health
View the documentSession 10: Food and Nutrition
View the documentSession 11: Media Relations
View the documentSession 12: Supply and Logistics
View the documentSession 13: Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
View the documentSession 14: International Relief System
View the documentSession 15: Funding
View the documentSession 16: Key Operating Procedures
View the documentSession 17: Applications of Emergency Manual and Handbook
View the documentSession 18: Training of Trainers

Session 9: Health

Learning Objectives

- be aware of health needs, particularly of children and mothers that arise in different emergency situations

- identify priority needs that must be addressed and kinds of UNICEF responses which might be appropriate

- understand the role of other agencies (especially WHO), governmental and international, and the fields of their intervention in health in emergency situations

- link any health intervention in emergencies to primary health care programmes in the country

Learning Points

1. possible problems/needs:

a) inadequacy of basic health services
b) inadequate availability of drugs
c) outbreak of specific communicable disease
d) casualties requiring treatment

2. causes of health services disruption and shortages of supplies: destruction, loss of staff, logistics, funds, etc.

3. priorities:

a) to save lives
b) preserve health of survivors
c) prevent/mitigate outbreaks of disease

4. Response must emphasize:

a) preventive and control measures
b) assure necessary food, water, hygiene and environmental - sanitation
c) re-establish and strengthen pre-existing services and Primary Health Care
d) institute epidemiological surveillance

5. Specific objectives and possible programmes for UNICEF's interventions

6. Epidemiology of disasters - man-made and natural - in terms of needs

7. Actions for given needs and possible UNICEF inputs (immunization/ORS)

8. Pitfalls/lessons learned in health operations -set-packing/D-I-K, etc.

9. Focus on displaced/refugee needs - psycho-social

10. Preventive preparedness measure in health as part of long-term programme

11. Similarities and differences between emergency and long-term actions/interventions

12. Institutional capacity building of governments and training

13. Relief and rehabilitation

Possible Learning Methods

- Lecturette

- Presentation and discussion of a case study

- Group Exercises

1) Disasters do not generate "new" diseases but may increase transmission of diseases. Give examples and explain the causes of the increase of common diseases.

2) How feasible is it to link intervention in the health sector with other interventions in nutrition and water supply. Give other examples from your own experience.

Required Reading

- UNICEF Field Manual, Book E, Chapter 6. Section 3
- UNICEF, "Assisting in Emergencies", Chapter 9

Supplementary Reading

- UNICEF, "Assisting in Emergencies". Annex 8-15
- WHO, Emergency Health Kit

Speakers' Preparation Aids

- UNICEF Field Manual, Book E, Chapter 6, Section 3
- Steps in the Development of Health Programmes for Displaced Populations
- Transparencies: Epidemiology of Natural Disasters


Speaker’s Aid

TITLE: Steps in the Development of Health Programmes for Displaced Populations
AUTHOR: Disaster Management Center/John Seaman








* map
* census
* Anthropometric survey

* size and location of population
* number of children
* prevalence of PEM
* requirement for supplementary feeding
* number and location of feeding centres

* vitamin A distribution
* measles immunization
* louse control
* simple improvements in sanitation
* simple outpatient/day care services
* home visiting program
* supplementary feeding program


* mortality
* outpatient morbidity data
* repeat anthropometric survey
* feeding centre

* monitoring changes in disease
* estimating coverage of supplementary feeding
* changes in prevalence

* development of community health programs
* development of MCH/ antenatal services
* pertussis, polio and other immunizations


* surveys of specific diseases e.g. tuberculosis
* anthropometric surveys
* continued collection of morbidity/mortality data

* planning control programs
* nutrition and diseases surveillance

* development of PHC program
* reduction of trained staff to appropriate affordable levels
* possible introduction of services for local population


Day _______________
Session ____________

1. In your view, what were the key points learned in this session?

2. Comment on the application of these within UNICEF and your situation.

3. Suggest any additional critical points that should have been covered.

4. Do you have comments on the suggested reading?

Suggest any additional information sources for sessions of the day.
Case Studies:

5. Comment on the learning methodology (lectures, group work, films) used in the session.