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close this bookEmergency Management (United Nations Children's Fund, 390 p.)
close this folderWorkshop Session
View the documentSession 0: Opening Session
View the documentSession 1: Course Introduction*
View the documentSession 2: Perceptions of Emergencies
View the documentSession 3: Simulation*
View the documentSession 4: Principles of Emergency Management
View the documentSession 5: Early Warning & Pre-Disaster Planning
View the documentSession 6: Assessment
View the documentSession 7: Programme Planning
View the documentSession 8: Water & Sanitation
View the documentSession 9: Health
View the documentSession 10: Food and Nutrition
View the documentSession 11: Media Relations
View the documentSession 12: Supply and Logistics
View the documentSession 13: Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
View the documentSession 14: International Relief System
View the documentSession 15: Funding
View the documentSession 16: Key Operating Procedures
View the documentSession 17: Applications of Emergency Manual and Handbook
View the documentSession 18: Training of Trainers

Session 15: Funding

Learning Objectives

1. Be able to identify sources of funds available for emergencies and be familiar with procedures and communication channels for each one.

2. Understand the importance of the premise that needs assessment and planned interventions should precede identification of funding source.

3. Be aware of the importance of accurate and timely donor reporting on use of funds.

4. Understand the time factor in submitting proposals and budget preparation.

5. Understand opportunities of field office with local donor missions, the kind of information which is necessary to maximizing fundraising opportunities and communication requirements.

6. Be aware of linkages with media coverage and how to harness it for fundraising.

Learning Points

1. A solid proposal and a sound reputation for implementing and reporting are a basis for rapid and effective funding of emergency operations, regardless of the source of funds.

2. Funds can come from Emergency Relief Fund (ERF), regular programme, unsolicited supplementary contributions, appeals, committees. They can be tied, untied, cash or kind. Each source has its peculiar requirements and these should be spelled out and understood.

3. Where bilateral contributions are concerned, familiarity with donor preferences for relief vs. rehabilitation or water vs. health is always useful. On this point, an ongoing relation with the donor at the field level is important however reporting and transparency are implied and HQ must be kept informed at all times.

4. In-house sources of funds and procedures for obtaining/spending them:

- diversion of up to $25,000 by representative
- programme amendments
- Emergency Reserve Fund
- Replenishment vs. adoption of funds

5. When donations in kind are being considered, strict respect of the guidelines is highly recommended. Some key issues include:

- field office requests item and the specifications are appropriate
- donor pays freight and inland transport
- Copenhagen certifies for quality control

6. There is a procedural sequence in terms of funds being solicited, pledged, confirmed, received, committed and expended. If this sequence, which may be cumbersome, is interrupted or delayed, problems arise which cause even more delays. UNICEF will not authorize expenditure unless:

(a) the money has been credited to our account
(b) the field has provided project codes to reflect the programme for the expenditure.

7. Both the public and governments are affected by the media at their level of sympathy/charity or sense of obligation to a certain problem. For this reason fundraising efforts should complement/build on media initiatives -similarly, media coverage should be engineered to some extent to promote fundraising.

8. National Committees have a special role and flexibility which ought to be included in planning of fundraising efforts. They have influence at grass roots level with the public and also with business and governments.

Learning Methods

1. Lecture
2. Prepare a budget in groups for different scales of operation ($50,000, $200,000, $1,000.000)
3. Walk through format for reporting based on PRO 93 issued for reporting, and EXD 2895.

Required Reading

1. UNICEF Policies and Procedures Manual - Emergency Book E, Chapter 2

Supplementary Reading

1. PRO 93 and EXD 2895

Speakers' Preparation Aids

1. Transparency: The Resource Flow System for UNICEF Emergency Assistance
2. Gullmar Andersson: Fund-raising

Speaker’s Aid
9 June 1987

Gullmar Andersson

1. Emergency Manager Role

Attention to fund raising is an essential part of the job.

2. Source of emergency funds

A. In-house:

1. Diversion of up to $25,000 by representatives.

2. Reprogramming, i.e. amending current programming (with HQ and governments approval) and diverting supplies.

3. ERF (Emergency Reserve Fund): a total of $3 million per year, released on approval by Executive Director.

B. Appeals:

1. Specific purpose contributions made by Executive Director as is part of approval by Secretary-General Project, Board approval not required.

2. Noted projects (usual procedure).

3. Special Board allocations (rarely happens).

3. Some field attitudes

A. Too much bother: but remember, no money no programme - funds must be obtained.
B. Holding sane funds in reserve: donors do not like it - funds must be spent.

4. Operating points

A. Project documentation: essential to show objectives, actions to achieve item, and number of people affected - by telex if necessary (see Handbook).

B. Contacts (within country) : should be prepared by having established contacts with embassies and bilaterals, share project proposals with then (best chances of getting funds toward the end of their financial year).

C. PFO and GEHQ: send them projects but also keep them fully informed of donors local representatives who are premising.

D. Contacts (outside country): leave to PFO/GEHQ as far as possible.

5. Donor reports

A. It is very important to provide reports to donors suggestions from the floor to reduce the workload were:

1. Generic reports with specific utilization reports should be sent to donors (though apparently sane refuse to accept this system).

2. Provide donors with SITREPS containing fund receipts and expenditure information.

3. PFO should actively address donors to pursuade then to accept simplified reporting procedures for emergency projects.

B. Special Report Officer: advocates for all significant emergency operations.

6. Miscellaneous points

A. Definitions of "Emergency": donors use various definitions, often excluding rehabilitation.

B. Overheads costs: Vary enormously between projects/offices so a flat % not realistic, but should include additional overhead expenditure items in emergency projects. (Where does the 6% go?)


Day _______________
Session ____________

1. In your view, what were the key points learned in this session?

2. Comment on the application of these within UNICEF and your situation.

3. Suggest any additional critical points that should have been covered.

4. Do you have comments on the suggested reading?

Suggest any additional information sources for sessions of the day.
Case Studies:

5. Comment on the learning methodology (lectures, group work, films) used in the session.