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close this bookEmergency Management (United Nations Children's Fund, 390 p.)
close this folderWorkshop Session
View the documentSession 0: Opening Session
View the documentSession 1: Course Introduction*
View the documentSession 2: Perceptions of Emergencies
View the documentSession 3: Simulation*
View the documentSession 4: Principles of Emergency Management
View the documentSession 5: Early Warning & Pre-Disaster Planning
View the documentSession 6: Assessment
View the documentSession 7: Programme Planning
View the documentSession 8: Water & Sanitation
View the documentSession 9: Health
View the documentSession 10: Food and Nutrition
View the documentSession 11: Media Relations
View the documentSession 12: Supply and Logistics
View the documentSession 13: Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
View the documentSession 14: International Relief System
View the documentSession 15: Funding
View the documentSession 16: Key Operating Procedures
View the documentSession 17: Applications of Emergency Manual and Handbook
View the documentSession 18: Training of Trainers

Session 3: Simulation*

* This is Just an overview of the simulation exercise. The Trainers Guide and Participants Materials are attached in the Annex.

Learning Objectives

1. Provide an overview of an emergency operation, with an emphasis on a UNICEF perspective.

2. Raise issues that can drive subsequent activities in the training programme.

3. Provide a common experience for all the participants, to facilitate subsequent activities within the training programme.

4. Provide a neutral and controllable example that can be built upon elsewhere in the training programme. (The neutral example can be used to facilitate discussions that might be more difficult if actual countries or situations were used for reference. The controllability of the simulation permits presentations of situations that are directly tied into other agreed upon training objectives.)

Learning Points

1. What are the implications of a decision on emergency intervention for:

- Saving lives
- Utilization of funds, staff and other resources
- Effectiveness of service delivery

2. What opportunities are provided by an emergency situation

- Identify how existing programmes can be accelerated or expanded, and prepare plans for these actions.

- Identify fund-raising opportunities and put together a plan for taking advantage of them.

3. What kinds of the organizational and interpersonal relationships are associated with an emergency operation.

4. What are the key competing interests (needs of children vs. those of the whole population; short run vs. long run interests; potentials and problems caused by donations in kind; UNICEF playing a lead agency vs. UNICEF acting as a facilitator; speed vs. efficiency; funding vs. mandate).

Possible Learning Methods

The activities within the simulation fall into four related phases: orientation, routine operations, emergency operations and debriefing.

Phase I - Orientation

The orientation phase provides both instructions needed for participation in the simulation and key factors relating to the country of operation.

A key component in the orientation is the identification of the objectives that have been established for this activity. These objectives are the basis both for learning and for discussions taking part during the debriefing.

Phase II - Routine operations

UNICEF is already present when the simulation begins. It has a development programme through which it addresses its target population, providing: growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breast-feeding and any other services within its mandate and required by the existing conditions.

Participants begin by briefly managing an aspect of the on-going UNICEF operation. UNICEF has a regular operation within the country and it has been dealing with an existing, slo-onset emergency. This activity causes participants to become involved in logistics, understanding organizational relationships, donor relations, staff security, media relations and (broadly defined) planning activities.

This introduction forces the participants to establish a base within UNICEF and the country of operation. It sets targets that the participants will, all other things being equal, be expected to work within as the simulation progresses.

Early warning signs of a forthcoming emergency will be present.

Phase III - Emergency operations

A rapid on-set emergency will take place. The existing slow on-set emergency may also get worse (independently, or as a result of conditions caused by the rapid on-set emergency). Participants will have to take actions needed for its resolution. They will have to identify strengths and weaknesses, reallocate existing resources, assist in obtaining additional resources, differentiate between relief and development activities, etc.

It is unlikely that it will be possible to resolve the existing issues within the time permitted for the simulation. It is essential, however, that participants identify the issues, the relevant options and their implications so that they can be discussed in subsequent segments of the training programme.

Phase IV - Debriefing

The participants will be required to analyze the activities that have taken place, identifying options, their Implications and the results of the actions that were taken. They will be required to identify those issues in which judgement played a particularly strong role - where it was not possible to easily differentiate between right and wrong choices.


One full day


People who have dealt with at least some aspects of relief or development operations.

Number of Participants:

Approximately 25. The simulation should operate satisfactorily with between 20 and 30 participants.


BSI will provide professional staffing for the simulation. Administrative support will be provided by UNICEF.

Required Reading

Materials received by the participants

Prior to the Simulation1
Participants Guide
Country Guide

1 These materials will be distributed at the training programme, but prior to the start of the simulation per se.

During the Simulation
Detailed role kits
Material describing the changing situation

After the Simulation
Summary of the debriefing comments


Day _______________
Session ____________

1. In your view, what were the key points learned in this session?

2. Comment on the application of these within UNICEF and your situation.

3. Suggest any additional critical points that should have been covered.

4. Do you have comments on the suggested reading?

Suggest any additional information sources for sessions of the day.
Case Studies:

5. Comment on the learning methodology (lectures, group work, films) used in the session.