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close this bookEmergency Management (United Nations Children's Fund, 390 p.)
close this folderWorkshop Session
View the documentSession 0: Opening Session
View the documentSession 1: Course Introduction*
View the documentSession 2: Perceptions of Emergencies
View the documentSession 3: Simulation*
View the documentSession 4: Principles of Emergency Management
View the documentSession 5: Early Warning & Pre-Disaster Planning
View the documentSession 6: Assessment
View the documentSession 7: Programme Planning
View the documentSession 8: Water & Sanitation
View the documentSession 9: Health
View the documentSession 10: Food and Nutrition
View the documentSession 11: Media Relations
View the documentSession 12: Supply and Logistics
View the documentSession 13: Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
View the documentSession 14: International Relief System
View the documentSession 15: Funding
View the documentSession 16: Key Operating Procedures
View the documentSession 17: Applications of Emergency Manual and Handbook
View the documentSession 18: Training of Trainers

Session 7: Programme Planning

Learning Objectives

- To be very familiar with the cycle and sequence of programme planning activities in an emergency operation

- To describe all the elements of setting up a field operation

- To be able to formulate, document and communicate specific proposals for UNICEF's intervention

- To identify ways and means for speeding up the planning process


Learning Points

1. Common problem in emergency operations: lack of time for comprehensive planning. What problems does this situation create and how to avoid or at least mitigate them.

2. The "fast track" to preparing plan of operation:

a) Identify gaps in the services provided (give examples using Fred Curry's "gap identification sheet") to avoid duplication and fill the gaps in those areas of UNICEF's mandate.

b) Plans of operation should be prepared by field people assisted if necessary by HQs personnel or outside consultants.

c) Be always aware of the available resources (funds, personnel, etc.) and funding alternatives.

d) Reprogramming existing programmes to meet emergency needs.

3. Steps of a plan of action (Table 8 of the Emergency Handbook)

4. Elements of setting up an operation (Table 9 of the Emergency Handbook

5. Common problems in planning emergency programmes

a) Poor definition of the problem from beneficiaries' perspective

b) Failure to be explicit how action relates to UNICEF policy

c) Failure to determine cultural/environmental factors and impact which results in an inappropriate response

d) Agencies often fall to look at different options

e) Using only one strategy or approach to meet a particular need

f) Over extension; more responsibility than they can handle

g) Failure to examine cause and effect relationship (the negative impact)

h) Failure to get appropriate technical expertise at the right time

i) Poor co-ordination (Cuny's observation: "UNICEF is the best in co-ordinating programmes with the Governments and probably one of the worst in co-ordinating with voluntary agencies!")

j) Failure to adequately document and communicate plan of action in a concise way so it can be distributed and adapted for donors as a fund-raising tool

k) Inability to budget quickly

l) Failure to plan for a monitoring component

Possible Learning Methods

- Presentation using the transparency on "Programme Planning"
- Group exercise in critiquing a plan of action (real or fictitious)

Required Reading

- UNICEF, "Assisting in Emergencies", Chapters 3, 5 and 6

Supplementary Reading

- UNICEF, Field Manual, Book E, Chapter 5

Speakers' Preparation Aids

- Transparency on "Programme Planning"
- Sample plan of action (1)
- Gap identification sheet (2)

***

Speaker’s Aid

TITLE: Proposals for UNICEF's Role in Emergency Drought Relief and Ongoing Nutritional Surveillance
AUTHOR: UNICEF

SESSION: PROGRAM PLANNING

***

PROPOSALS FOR UNICEF'S ROLE IN EMERGENCY DROUGHT RELIEF AND ONGOING NUTRITIONAL SURVEILLANCE

24 August, 1987

BACKGROUND

The recent drought emergency which has effected large parts of Somalia, involving many thousands of people, has highlighted the inadequacy of the present systems to product the onset, and cope with the existance of a disaster of such magnitude. Despite the obvious concern of the Government of Somalia, the UN and the Voluntary agencies, the mounting of an appropriate surveillance system of the drought affected areas, as well as delivery of any form of relief was considerably delayed. This delay has undoubtedly resulted in death and suffering to the victims of the drought/famine.

PROPOSED RESPONSE

With the above in mind, UNICEF proposes the establishment of a unit with the central objective of establishing a broad based surveillance system to be linked to an appropriate emergency response facility. The realization of such a comprehensive monitoring and responsive machine would require the upgrading of present health delivery facilities (specifically the Regional Hospitals, Maternal and Child Health clinics and the Primary Health Care units) within the drought-prone areas.

IMPLEMENTATION

It is obvious that efforts to improve the collection of data and the functioning of remote health care systems must be done in close collaboration with, and under the guidance of, the appropriate Ministries of the Government of Somalia.

It is hoped that the close and effective relationship which UNICEF presently shares with the Somali Red Crescent Society can be further expanded in order that these two agencies can develop strategy and implement programs on an ongoing basis.

The program would also, of course, require the close collaboration and support of MHO both at local and central levels. The need for support and assistance from the other UN agencies in Somalia would continue as it has in the past (in the response to the current drought and also in the long-term).

Recent discussions of these proposals with representatives from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Somalia, have been most encouraging with suggestions for ongoing programs of data collection and contribution of resources to involve both faculty members and medical students. This would, of course, be an excellent input to the program, with the pooling of experience and expertise of local academics as well as an introduction to the developing programs by the future medical personnel of the country.

The close and effective relationship which UNICEF presently shares with various voluntary agencies, well demonstrated by the three teams presently operating supplementary feeding programs in the Central Rangelands (OXFAM, SCF (U.K.) and Concern Ireland) would continue. It is envisaged that the assistance of NGO's would be sought for (other) specific programs as the need arises, such as the planned collaboration with MSF Netherlands. The experience and expertise available within the Voluntary Agencies is a valued resource which UNICEF greatly appreciates.

The productive relationship which UNICEF shares with various bilateral and multilateral agencies (such as US AID and EEC) would continue with funding as well as the provision of various resource personnel (as was the situation with the rapid deployment of nutritional surveillance teams from CDC Atlanta who collected data early in the drought situation.)

PLANNED ACTIVITIES

The Unit would see its role as meeting the following commitments:

1) A rapid assessment of the extent of the present drought, specifically by nutritional surveys in those areas in which some doubt exists as to the situation. These areas would include Gedo, Bakool and Lower Juba. These assessments would be based on a standardized, reproducable format. Depending on the outcome, some supplementary feeding programs may need to be established. Early dissemination of information to Government agencies, Voluntary agencies and UN bodies would be a priority. It is hoped that reliable and reproducable nutritional data will be available and processed from the above regions by the first week in September.

It is planned that local staff (recruited by the Somali Red Crescent Society) will be field trained in the techniques of nutritional survey with the view to their increasing role in data collection, tabulation and dissemination. These training programs are presently underway and should be expanded at the central and regional level.

2) Using the above data, as well as that presently being collected from the regions in the Central Rangelands (in association with the established Supplementary Feeding Programs) we would plan a repeat survey (in the same format) in three and six months to evaluate nutritional trends and the response to the established supplementary feeding programs. This information would serve as an invaluable data-base for future studies as well as a method of monitoring the nutritional status of the populations which, in conjunction with other information, could serve as input to systems to serve as an 'early warning' to future nutritional catastrophes. As well as the obvious function of identifying pockets of populations which may need nutritional support. The input from established PHC systems need be standardized and closely monitored.

3) The continuation of close ties with the implementing agencies involved by frequent dissemination of information and functional program support.

4) A. The Upgrading of the Maternal and Child Health Facilities in the areas considered 'at risk'. This would include systematized surveys of the state of the clinics at present with recommendations for improvement, early priority would be directed to the following:

a) repair of buildings where necessary

b) Provision of appropriate drugs and medications

c) provision of appropriate monitoring equipment for infant/childhood surveillance, antenatal screening, postnatal screening and family planning.

d) Provision of stationary, filing systems, etc.

e) provision of staff uniforms

f) review of the failure in the provision of supplementary feeding programs at the MCH level

g) where practical establishing a cold-chain

h) development of on-going in-service educational programs with regular visits to regions by educators

l) supply of interesting and appropriate health promotional material

B. The Upgrading of Regional Hospitals with particular attention to the following:

a) Provision of safe and reliable water supply to the hospital

b) where practical provision of diesel fuel for hospital generators for emergency power supply

c) provision of mattresses, minimal linen

d) review of provision of food for in-patients

e) review of drug and medicament supply with efforts to provide and strengthen present systems

f) provision of on-going in-service educational programs for staff with development of a small clinical library in each Regional hospital

5) Rapid dissemination of information collected to all agencies interested, this may take the form of 'news-sheet', monthly meetings or a combination. The unit would be open to interested parties to answer queries, MHO would be asked for frequent input into this process.

6) The need for development of an 'early warning system' specifically in relation to the nutritional status of the population, is apparent. A number of systems already in existance such as the FAO commodity prices listings and the meteorological data-base in which the EEC is involved could be utilized as inputs which could be processed with a view to predicting disaster at a time when appropriate intervention might limit the outcome.

BUDGET

Budgeting for the above proposals is being developed in conjunction with available funds.

TIMING

The time-frame for implementation of the individual proposals will depend on priorities. A full assessment of, and appropriate response to, the present emergency will precede implementation of more long-term programs.


AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN

FEB

RAPID NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

XXXX







ONGOING NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT


a) Muduk



XXXX



XXXX



b) Galgudud

XXXX


XXXX



XXXX



c) Bakool

XX

XX


XXXX



XXX


d) Hiran




XXXX



XXX


e) Gedo

XX

XX


XXXX



XXX


f) M/L Shabelle









g) Lower Juba

XXXX



XXXX




MCH/HOSPITAL REVIEW

XXXX







MCH/HOSPITAL INTERVENTION



XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

COLLECTION/DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

INVESTIGATE/DEVELOP EARLY WARNING SYSTEM



XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

BUDGET FOR UNICEF SOMALIA EMERGENCY PROJECT FOR 1987

Supply Assistance

Donor

US$

Essential Drugs/Medical Supplies

US

110,000

High Energy Biscuits

Switzerland

(D-I-K)

Seeds

US

25,000


Norway

6,000

Freight (offshore)

US

95,000

Logistics (In-country)

US

10,000

Technical Assistance

Project Coordinator

ERF

25,000

Nutritionist




- full time

EEC

15,000


- part time

Norway

8,000

Other support

Norway

6,000

Supplementary Feeding (Assist. NGO's)

Logistics/

Norway

20,000

Food distribution/storage

EEC

15,000

Local distribution (labor/cfw)

EEC

20,000

Repair/Equip fdg centers (MCH Hosp.)

EEC

25,000

Sugar (Local proc't)

EEC

22,000

Contingies (Distribution of Sugar)

EEC

12,000

Nutrition Surveillance (assistance MOH/R.C.)

Transport costs (fuels, spares & tires)

US

10,000


EEC

5,500

DSA for teams (MOH/R.C.)

EEC

9,500

Training/capacity building (MOH/R.C.)

Norway

40,000

Office & field equipment

Norway

10,000

Vehicles for teams

ERF

20,000


Norway

20,000

Maintenance

ERF

5,000

Total Budget


534,000

OVERVIEW OF FUNDING

USAID

250,000

EEC

124,000

Norway

110,000

UNICEF ERF

50,000

Total US$

534,000

***

Speaker’s Aid

TITLE: Gap Identification (Emergency Operations)
AUTHOR: Disaster Management Center

SESSION: PROGRAM PLANNING

***

Gap Identification (Emergency Ops)

Plan

Agency Responsible

Person Responsible

Alt

Comment

ACTIONS






PHASE I (1st 24-48 hours)






Coordination






Disaster Assessment






Initial Emergency Needs (Victim)






Damage Assessment and Blockage ID






Survey of Available Facilities






Epidemiological Surveillance






Search and Rescue






Coordination






Assignments






Supplies






Records






Security






Police






Military






Emergency Operations






Lifelines







Hospitals







Electricity







Transport







Roads







Water







Sanitation







Others






Emergency Relief







First Aid







Food for Relief Workers







Food for Victims







Material Aid







Fuel







Shelter Operations






Information Dissemination






Coordination






Verification






PHASE II






Coordination






Detailed Assessment






Interim Victim Needs






Detailed Damage Survey






Priority Repairs ID






Epidemiological Reports






Vital Statistics






Est. of Economic Loss/Damage






Inventory of Resources






Relief Program






Interim Aid







Food







Material







Shelter







Tools







Economic Assistance







Job Programmers/Work Schemes






Salvage Ops






Equipment Recovery






Materials Recovery






Other Ops






DAILY EVALUATION FORM

Day _______________
Session ____________

1. In your view, what were the key points learned in this session?

2. Comment on the application of these within UNICEF and your situation.

3. Suggest any additional critical points that should have been covered.

4. Do you have comments on the suggested reading?

Suggest any additional information sources for sessions of the day.
Texts:
Persons:
Case Studies:
Film:
Other:

5. Comment on the learning methodology (lectures, group work, films) used in the session.