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close this bookGlobal Economic Trends and Social Development (United Nations Research Institute for Social Development , 2000, 64 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcronyms
Open this folder and view contentsSummary/Résumé/Resumen
View the documentI. Introduction
View the documentII. The Financial Crises and the Global Economy in 1995 and 2000
View the documentIII. Economic Development in the South in the 1990s: A Long-term Perspective
Open this folder and view contentsIV. Economic Growth, Unemployment, Poverty and Income Inequality
View the documentV. Changing Historical Conjuncture and the Development Policy Debate
View the documentVI. World Economic Integration under Liberalization and Globalization
View the documentVII. The Asian Economic Model and the Crisis
View the documentVIII. The Washington Consensus
View the documentIX. Meeting the Copenhagen Targets in the New Millennium
View the documentX. Conclusion
View the documentBibliography
View the documentTables

Tables

Table 1: Trends in GDP growth: Selected developing regions and indistrialized countries, 1965 - 1996 (average annual percentage growth)

Region/country

1965-1980

1980-1989

1990-1996

Low income economies (excluding China and India)

4.8

2.9

1.4


· China

6.8

10.2

12.9


· India

3.6

5.8

3.8

Middle income economies

6.3

2.2

0.2

Latin America

6.0

1.7

3.6

Sub-Saharan Africa

4.2

1.7

0.9

South Asia

3.6

5.7

3.9

East Asia and Pacific

7.3

7.9

9.4

All low and middle income economies

5.9

3.1

1.9

High income economies

3.8

3.2

1.7


· United States

2.7

3.0

2.5


· Japan

6.6

4.1

1.2


· Germany

3.3

2.2

1.1

World

4.1

3.1

1.8

Source: World Bank, World Development Report, various issues, Oxford University Press, New York.
Note: The World Bank defines income groups according to GNP per capita in 1994 as follows; low income $725 or less; middle income $8.955 or less; high income $8,956 or more.

Table 2: Growth of output and output per capita for advanced economies, developing countries and countries in transitions (10 - year averages)

1981-1990

1991-2000

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

World

3.4

3.1

1.8

2.7

2.7

4.0

3.7

4.3

4.2

2.5

2.3

Advanced economies

3.1

2.3

1.2

1.9

1.2

3.2

2.6

3.2

3.2

2.2

2.0

United States

2.9

2.6

-0.9

2.7

2.3

3.5

2.3

3.4

3.9

3.9

3.3

European Union

2.4

1.9

1.7

1.1

-0.5

3.0

2.4

1.8

2.7

2.8

1.8

Japan

4.0

1.0

3.8

1.0

0.3

0.6

1.5

5.0

1.4

-2.8

-1.4

Developing countries

4.2

5.4

4.9

6.7

6.5

6.8

6.1

6.5

5.7

3.3

3.1

Regional groups


· Africa

2.5

2.8

1.8

0.2

0.7

2.2

3.1

5.8

3.1

3.4

3.2


· Asia

6.9

7.3

6.6

9.5

9.3

9.6

9.1

8.2

6.6

3.8

4.7


· Middle East and Europe

3.0

3.5

2.7

7.0

4.0

0.6

3.7

4.7

4.4

2.9

2.0


· Western hemisphere

1.6

3.2

3.9

3.3

3.9

5.2

1.3

3.6

5.2

2.3

-0.5


· Countries in transition

2.1

-3.2

-7.4

-11.7

-6.4

-7.5

-1.1

-0.3

2.2

-0.2

-0.9

Output per capita


· Advanced economies

2.4

1.7

0.4

1.2

0.6

2.5

1.9

2.5

2.6

1.7

1.5


· Developing countries

1.9

3.6

2.9

4.1

4.5

4.9

4.3

4.8

4.1

1.6

1.5


· Countries in transition

1.4

-3.2

-7.6

-11.9

-6.5

-7.5

-1.1

-0.1

2.2

-0.3

-1.0

Source: IMF (1999).

Table 3: GDP growth rates in Asian and Latin American countries, 1955 - 1998 (annual percentage)

1955-1960

1960-1970

1970-1980

1980-1990

1990-1995

1996

1997

1998

Asia


· China

-

5.2

5.8

9.5

12.4

9.6

8.8

7.8


· India

-

3.4

3.6

5.8

4.5

7.5

5.6

5.8


· Indonesia

-

3.9

7.6

6.1

7.0

8

4.6

-13.7


· Korea, Republic of

4.5

8.6

9.5

9.4

7.4

7.1

5.5

-5.8


· Malaysia

4.0

6.5

7.8

5.2

8.7

8.6

7.8

-6.7


· Pakistan

3.4

6.7

4.7

6.3

4.7

5.2

1.3

-3.3


· Philippines

4.4

5.1

6.3

0.9

2.2

5.7

5.1

-0.5


· Sri Lanka

4.6

4.1

4.0

4.5

3.8

6.4

5.0


· Taiwan, POC

-

-

-

6.4

5.7

6.9

4.9


· Thailand

6.8

8.4

7.2

7.6

8.3

5.5

-0.4

-9.4

Median

4.4

5.2

6.3

6.1

6.7

6.2

5.5

-1.9

Latin America


· Argentina

3.1

4.2

2.2

-0.4

6.0

4.8

8.6

3.9


· Bolivia

-

5.2

4.8

-0.1

3.8

4.7

4.2

4.7


· Brazil

5.5

5.4

8.4

2.7

2.7

2.8

3.2

0.1


· Chile

4.0

4.5

2.8

4.1

7.4

7.4

7.1

3.4


· Colombia

3.8

5.1

5.9

3.7

4.5

2.1

3.1

0.6


· Ecuador

4.5

-

8.8

2.0


· Mexico

5.9

7.2

5.2

1.0

1.5

5.2

7.0

4.6


· Peru

4.1

4.9

3.0

-0.3

5.5

2.5

7.2

0.7


· Venezuela

6.3

6.0

5.0

1.0

3.2

-0.4

5.1

-0.7

Median

4.3

5.1

5.1

1.5

4.1

2.8

5.1

2.0

Source: Singh (1997) - updated with data from the World Bank (World Development Report), various years; IMF (1999).

Table 4: World output, 1990 -1998 (percentage change over previous year)

Region/country

1990-1995a

1996

1997

1998b

World

1.9

3.3

3.3

2.0

Industrialized countries

1.7

2.9

2.9

2.2


· United States

2.3

3.4

3.9

3.9


· Japan

1.4

5.0

1.4

-2.8

European Union

1.3

1.6

2.5

2.7


· Euro area

1.4

1.4

2.3

2.8


· Germany

1.7

0.8

1.8

2.3


· France

1.1

1.1

2.0

3.2


· Italy

1.1

0.9

1.5

1.4


· United Kingdom

1.2

2.6

3.5

2.1

Transition economies

-8.2

-1.5

1.4

-1.3

Developing countries

4.9

5.8

5.4

1.8

Latin America

3.3

3.6

5.4

2.1

Africa

1.1

3.9

2.7

2.9

Asia

6.4

7.1

5.8

1.6


· China

12.4

9.6

8.8

7.8


· Other countries

5.1

6.4

5.0

-0.3

Memo item: developing countries, excluding China

4.0

5.2

4.8

0.8

Source: UNCTAD (1999).
Notes: a Annual average.
b. Estimated.

Table 5: Growth in developing countries, by region, 1990 - 1998 (percentage change over previous year)

Region/country

1990 -1995a

1996

1997

1998b

Latin America

3.3

3.6

5.4

2.1


· Argentina

6.0

4.4

8.0

4.2


· Bolivia

3.8

4.4

4.2

4.5


· Brazil

2.7

2.9

3.8

0.2


· Chile

7.4

6.8

6.4

3.3


· Colombia

4.5

2.1

3.5

0.2


· Mexico

1.5

5.5

7.1

4.8


· Paraguay

3.2

1.1

2.4

-1.0


· Peru

5.5

2.2

7.8

0.8


· Uruguay

3.6

5.0

5.0

2.5


· Venezuela

3.2

-0.9

5.5

-0.7

Africa

1.1

3.9

2.7

2.9


· Algeria

0.4

5.5

1.1

3.4


· Cameroon

-1.4

4.0

5.1

5.0


· Cote d’lvoire

1.1

5.2

6.5

5.5


· Egypt

1.4

3.2

5.3

5.5


· Ghana

4.3

5.0

4.3

3.8


· Nigeria

2.7

3.8

3.8

2.4


· South Africa

0.8

2.5

1.7

0.1


· Uganda

7.5

6.0

5.5

4.0


· Zimbabwe

0.8

6.6

3.2

1.0

Asia

6.4

7.1

5.8

1.6


· Newly industrialized economies

6.9

6.3

6.0

1.8


· Hong Kong, China

5.5

4.5

5.3

-5.1


· Korea, Republic of

7.4

7.1

5.5

-5.5


· Singapore

8.5

6.9

7.8

1.5


· Taiwan, POC

6.4

5.7

6.8

4.8


· ASEAN-4

7.0

6.9

3.7

-9.0


· Indonesia

7.1

7.8

4.9

-13.7


· Malaysia

8.7

8.6

7.7

-6.2


· Philippines

2.2

5.8

5.2

-0.5


· Thailand

8.3

5.5

-0.4

-8.0


· ASEAN-4 (plus Republic of Korea)

7.2

7.0

4.6

-7.3


· South Asia

4.5

7.3

4.7

5.7


· Bangladesh

4.1

5.4

5.9

5.7


· India

4.5

7.8

5.0

5.8


· Nepal

5.0

5.3

4.0

1.9


· Pakistan

4.7

5.2

1.3

5.4


· Sri Lanka

4.5

3.8

6.4

5.3


· West Asia

2.5

5.6

4.8

2.0


· China

12.4

9.6

8.8

7.8

Source: UNCTAD (1999).
Notes: a. Annual average.
b. Estimated.

Table 6: Rates of inflation in Asian and Latin American countries, 1960 - 1994 (average annual percentage growth of consumer price index)

1960-1970

1970-1980

1980-1990

1990-1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Asia


· China

-

-

5.8

10.8

16.7

8.4

2.8

0.8


· India

7.1

8.5

7.9

10.1

10.2

9.0

7.2

3.0


· Indonesia

-

20.5

8.4

7.4

9.4

7.9

6.6

60.7


· Korea, Republic of

17.4

19.8

5.1

6.3

-

-

-

-


· Malaysia

-0.3

7.5

1.6

3.7

3.4

3.5

2.7

5.3


· Pakistan

3.3

13.5

6.7

10.8

12.4

10.3

2.5

7.8


· Philippines

5.8

13.2

14.9

9.6

8.1

8.4

6.0

9.7


· Sri Lanka

1.8

12.6

11.0

9.5

7.7

15.&

9.6

5.0


· Taiwan, POC

3.5

12.2

-

-

-

-

-

-


· Thailand

1.8

9.9

3.3

4.4

5.8

5.9

5.6

8.1

Median

3.4

12.6

6.7

9.5

8.1

8.4

6.3

7.9

Latin America


· Argentina

21.7

130.8

395.1

27.6

3.4

0.2

0.8

0.9


· Bolivia

3.5

22.3

318.2

10.9

10.2

12.4

4.7

6.5


· Brazil

46.1

36.7

284.4

1231.5

59.6

11.1

7.9

3.5


· Chile

33.2

185.6

20.5

15.3

8.2

7.4

6.1

5.1


· Colombia

11.9

22.0

24.8

23.8

20.9

20.8

18.5

18.7


· Ecuador

-

14.4

36.7

41.0

22.7

24.4

30.6

36.1


· Mexico

3.6

19.3

70.4

13.1

35.0

34.4

20.6

16.7


· Peru

10.4

30.7

233.7

83.0

11.1

11.5

8.5

7.3


· Venezuela

1.3

12.1

19.3

34.2

59.9

94.9

50.0

35.8

Median

11.1

22.3

70.4

27.6

20.9

12.4

8.5

7.3

Source: Singh (1997) - updated with data from the IMF’s World Economic Outlook (various years).

Table 7: Living standards in East Asia, selected years, 1970 - 1996


Number of people in poverty (millions)

Headcount Index (per cent)

Life expectancy (at birth)

Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)

Net primary school enrolment (per cent)

Country

1975

1995

1975

1995

1970

1996

1970

1996

1970

1995

China

568.9a

269.3

60b

22

62

70

69

33

76

99

Indonesia

87.2

21.9

64

11

48

65

118

49

76

97

Korea, Republic of

-

-

-

-

61

72

46

9

>99

100

Malaysia

2.1

<0.2

17

<1

62

72

45

11

84

91

Philippines

15.4

17.6

36

26

57

66

71

37

>99

100

Thailand

3.4

<0.5

8

<1

58

69

73

34

79

88

Source: World Bank (1998b).
Notes: a. Data are for 1978 and apply only to rural China.
b All estimates of poverty are based on $1 per person per day poverty line at 1985 PPP prices.

Table 8: Income poverty in developing countries, 1993 (poverty line at $1 a day a person, 1985 PPP

Region or country group

People below the poverty line (per cent)

Number of poor people (millions)

Arab states

4

11

East Asia and South-East Asia

26

446

East Asia and South-East Asia (excluding China)

14

94

Latin America and the Caribbean”

24

110

South Asia

43

515

Sub-Saharan Africa

39

219

Developing countries

32

1301

Source: UNDP(1997). Note: a. poverty line at $2 a day.

Table 9: Human poverty in developing countries (millions, unless otherwise indicated)

Region or country group

Illiterate adults

People lacking access to health services

People lacking access to sate water

Malnourished children under 5

Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births)

People not expected to survive to age 40

1995

1990 - 1995

1990 - 1996

1990 - 1996

1990

1990s

All developing countries

842

766

1,213

158

471

507

Least developed countries

143

241

218

34

1,030

123

Arab states

59

29

54

5

380

26

East Asia

167

144

398

17

95

81

Latin America and the Caribbean

42

55

109

5

190

36

South Asia

407

264

230

82

554

184

South-East Asia and the Pacific

38

69

162

20

447

52

Pacific

38

69

162

20

447

52

Sub-Saharan Africa

122

205

249

28

971

124

Source: UNDP(1997).

Table 10: Indicators of the gender gap

Sub-Saharan Africa

South Asia

East Asia

East Asia (excluding China)

Latin America and the Caribbean

All developing countries

Eastern Europe and CIS

Industrialized countries

World

Life expectancy (years)

Female

51.5

61.2

71.3

74.9

72.1

63.5

72.9

77.8

65.4

Male

48.5

60.7

66.9

68.0

65.9

60.6

63.2

70.2

61.8

Adult literacy rate

Female

44.4

34.3

72

95.1

84.9

60.3

98.1

98.5

70.8

Male

64.3

61.6

90

98.2

87.3

78.4

98.1

98.5

83.5

Combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio

Female

38.4

43.2

55.9

76.4

68.6

51.6

76.5

83.9

57.1

Male

46.6

59.6

61.9

82.2

69.0

60.3

73.3

81.5

63.9

Earned income share

Female

35.5

25.3

37.7

28.1

26.9

31.7

40.2

37.7

33.3

Male

64.6

74.8

62.3

72

73.1

68.4

59.9

62.4

66.9

Gender-related development index*

0.374

0.412

0.626

0.823

0.729

0.555

0.749

0.856

0.637

Source: UNDP (1999).

Note: * The gender-related development index (GDI) captures inequalities between women and men by adding three equally weighted indices - differences in life expectancy, educational attainment and income.


Table 11: Latin America - Economic activity, employment, wages and poverty, 1980 - 1995 (annual rates of growth and index)

Indicator

1980

1985

1990

1995

Economic activity

GNP

-

0.6

1.9

2.9

GNP per capita

-

-1.6

-0.1

1

Inflation

-

134.8

487.5

279.4

Population and employment

Population

-

2.1

1.9

1.8

EAP total

-

3.5

3.1

2.6

EAP urban (%)

66.9

70

72.8

75.3

Non-agricultural employment

3.5

4.4

3

Rate of open unemployment

6.7

10.1

8

7.8

Informality (%)

40.2

47

52.1

55.7

Public employment (%)

15.7

16.6

15.5

13.6

Wages

Real wages in manufacturing

100

93.1

86.8

96.3

Minimum real wages

100

86.4

68.9

70.1

Poverty

Percentage of poor households

35

37

39

-

Urbanization of poverty

-

91.3

82.9

NA

Source: Tokman (1997).

Table 12: Labour market indicators for selected Asian economies

Unemployment rate

Annual employment growth rate

Annual labour force growth rate

Annual GDP growth rate

Annual growth rate of real wages in manufacturing

1987

1993

1996

1987-1996

1993 -1996

1987-1996

1993 -1996

1993-1997

1997

1990-1996

China

2.0

2.6

3.0

2.2

1.7

1.5

1.1

10.4

8.8

5.5

Indonesia

2.6

2.7

4.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.7

7.1

4.6

-

Korea, Republic of

3.1

2.8

2.6

2.6

2.3

2.5

2.2

7.5

5.5

7.1

Malaysia

7.3

3.0

2.5

3.8

4.4

3.3

4.2

8.7

7.5

4.6

Philippines

9.1

8.9

7.4

3.1

3.9

2.9

3.4

5.0

5.1

-2.0

Thailand

5.9

1.5

1.1

1.7

0.1

1.2

-0.1

5.6

-0.4

3.3

Source: ILO (1998).

Table 13: Impact of the East Asian crisis on households (using national poverty linesa)

Poverty incidence

Indonesia

Thailand

Republic of Korea (urban)

1997b

11.0

11.4

8.6

1998

19.9

12.9

19.2

Change in average standards of living 1997/1998 (percent)

-24.4

-13.6

-21.6

Source: World Bank (1999b).
Notes:
a Poverty lines of around $1/day in Indonesia, $2/day in Thailand and $4/day in the Republic of Korea.
b. Poverty incidence for Thailand as of 1996.

Table 14: Share of different regions in world manufacturing output since 1970 (percentage)

Country/region

1970

1980

1990

1995

Industrialized countriesa

88.0

82.2

84.2

80.3

Developing countries

12.0

17.2

15.8

19.7


· Latin America

2.4

4.9

2.0

2.6


· North Africa and West Asia

0.9

1.6

1.8

1.9


· South Asia

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.5


· East Asiab

4.2

6.8

7.4

11.1


· Sub-Saharan Africa0

0.6

0.5

0.3

0.3

Source: Kozul-Wright (1997).
Notes: a. Including the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe and also South Africa.
b. Including China.
c. Excluding South Africa.

Table 15: Actual and projected regional per capita growth rates to reduce poverty by half by the year 2015


Per capita growth rate needed to reduce poverty by half

Real consumption per capita growth rate (%)



Actual

Projected

Regions

($1/day)

($2/day)

(1991-1995)

(1997-2000)

East Asia

1.2

1.9

6.9

2.0

Europe and Central Asia

0.8

1.2

0.7

0.4

Latin America and the Caribbean

1.8

2.7

2.0

0.3

Middle East and North Africa

0.3

1.2

1.1

-1.4

South Asia

1.3

4.5

1.9

3.7

Sub-Saharan Africa

1.3

4.5

1.9

3.7

Source: World Bank (1999b).

Table 16: Standardized unemployment rate, 1964 - 1999 (average annual percentage


1964-1973

1974-1979

1980-1989

1990-1999

United States

4.5

6.7

7.3

5.8

Japan

1.2

1.9

2.5

3.0

Germany

1.1

3.2

7.0

9.0

United Kingdom

3.0

5.0

9.0

7.3

Total of G-7

countries

3.1

5.0

6.9

7.1

Total EU 15

2.7

4.7

9.0

10.3

Total OECD

3.0

4.9

7.2

7.4

Source; Compiled from OECD (1995) and IMF (1999).

Table 17: Indicators of the growth of international economic activity, 1964 - 1994 (average annual percentage changes)

Period

World export volume

World FDI flows

International bank loans

World real GDP

1964-1973

9.2

-

34.0

4.6

1973-1980

4.6

14.8

26.7

3.6

1980-1985

2.4

4.9

12.0

2.6

1985-1994

6.7

14.3

12.0

3.2

Source: Rodrik (1999a).

Table 18: Weighted average tariffs by region and sector (per cent)

Product category

Primary products

Manufactured products

All product categories

Latin America and the Caribbean


·1980 -1983 (4 - country average)

16.8

23.6

21.3


·1984 -1987 (11 - country average)

21.1

25.1

23.9


·1988 -1990 (9 - country average)

17.3

22.7

20.9


·1991 -1993 (9 - country average)

9.8

12.5

11.6

East Asia


·1980 -1983 (5 - country average)

10.5

21.6

18.2


·1984 -1987 (7 - country average)

10.0

18.1

15.8


·1988 -1990 (7 - country average)

11.1

18.0

15.7


·1991 -1993 (7 - country average)

9.9

17.1

14.7

Sub-Saharan Africa


·1980 -1983 (13 - country average)

24.4

32.8

30.2


·1984 -1987 (13 - country average)

20.1

23.5

22.6


·1988-1990 (10 - country average)

18.9

22.5

21.3

Source: Rodrik (1999a).

Table 19: Weighted average incidence of non-tariff measures by region and sector (per cent)

Product category

Primary products

Manufactured products

All product categories

Latin America and the Caribbean


·1984 -1987 (4 - country average)

42.8

28.4

32.9


·1988-1990 (9 - country average)

48.6

20.9

30.3


·1991 -1993 (9 - country average)

16.1

1.8

6.6

East Asia


·1984 -1987 (7 - country average)

31.1

23.1

25.6


·1988-1990 (7 - country average)

18.8

8.3

11.8


·1991-1993 (7 - country average)

11.2

5.5

7.4

Sub-Saharan Africa


·1984 -1987 (13 - country average)

48.4

42.7

45.5


·1988 -1990 (10 - country average)

47.4

45.4

46.1

Source: Rodrik (1999a).

Geneva 2000 Occasional Papers

OPG 1

Civil Society, NGDOs and Social Development:

Changing the Rules of the Game

Alan Fowler, January 2000

OPG 2

Business Responsibility for Sustainable Development

Peter Utting, January 2000

OPG 3

Public Sector Restructuring: The Institutional and

Social Effects of Fiscal, Managerial and Capacity-

Building Reforms

Yusuf Bangura, February 2000

OPG 4

Women in Contemporary Democratization

Shahra Razavi, February 2000

OPG 5

Globalization and Social Policy: The Threat to

Equitable Welfare

Bob Deacon, March 2000

OPG 6

Promoting Sustainable Human Development in

Cities of the South: A Southeast Asian Perspective

Adrian Atkinson, May 2000

OPG 7

The Political Economy of Pension Reform: Latin

America in Comparative Perspective

Evelyne Huber and John D. Stephens, May 2000

OPG 8

Reproductive and Sexual Rights: Charting the

Course of Transnational Women’s NGOs

Rosalind P. Petchesky, June 2000

OPG 9

Global Economic Trends and Social Development

Ajit Singh, June 2000

GE.00-01720-June 2000-3,500 UNRISD/OPG9/00/7

The United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) is an autonomous agency engaging in multidisciplinary research on the social dimensions of contemporary problems affecting development. Its work is guided by the conviction that, for effective development policies to be formulated, an understanding of the social and political context is crucial. The Institute attempts to provide governments, development agencies, grassroots organizations and scholars with a better understanding of how development policies and processes of economic, social and environmental change affect different social groups. Working through an extensive network of national research centers, UNRISD aims to promote original research and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. Current research programmes include: Civil Society and Social Movements; Democracy and Human Rights; Identities, Conflict and Cohesion; Social Policy and Development; and Technology and Society. A list of the Institute’s free and priced publications can be obtained by contacting the Reference Center.

Geneva 2000: The Next Step in Social Development, 26-30 June 2000, combines the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the Implementation of the World Summit for Social Development, and the Geneva 2000 Forum. Under the title “World Summit for Social Development and Beyond: Achieving Social Development for All in a Globalizing World”, the Special Session of the General Assembly is being held to review efforts to implement commitments made at the Social Summit in Copenhagen in 1995. The Geneva 2000 Forum is intended to be a platform for a wide range of actors to share experiences on innovative social and economic development policies and activities.

In preparation for Geneva 2000, UNRISD is undertaking a wide-ranging inquiry into five areas of policy and institutional reform that are central to creating an enabling environment for social progress. These include initiatives related to financing social development; democratization and public sector reform; mainstreaming gender in public policy; strengthening the role of civil society; and promoting “people-centered” sustainable development. Selected papers from each thematic area are published in this series of Occasional Papers, and all papers are being synthesized in a special UNRISD report for Geneva 2000.

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